Food

Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)

FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) presents the agency's preferred laboratory procedures for microbiological analyses of foods and cosmetics. AOAC International published previous editions of this manual in a loose-leaf notebook format, and, more recently, on CD-ROM. This online BAM is now available to the public. Some changes have been made to methods since the previous version. A listing of chapters updated since the last hard-copy version (Edition 8, Revision A /1998) can be found in About the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. The members of the BAM Council are listed below. In addition recent changes for most Chapters are documented in a brief Revision History at the beginning of the Method. There is also e-mail contact information for each Chapter.  Chapter numbers have been retained from the previous version. However, for this Table of Contents, chapters have been grouped by category. Please send comments to Karen Jinneman.

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Table of Contents of Current Guidelines, Procedures, & Methods

Archived Methods

BAM Council

Introduction


Table of Contents

Chapter No. Title Authors
General Guidelines/Procedures
1 Food Sampling and Preparation of Sample Homogenate W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
T. S. HAMMACK
2 Microscopic Examination of Foods, and Care and Use of the Microscope J.R. BRYCE
P.L. POELMA (ret.)
3 Aerobic Plate Count L.J. MATURIN (ret.)
J.T. PEELER (ret.)
25 Investigation of Food Implicated in Illness G.J. JACKSON (ret.)
J.M. MADDEN (ret.)
W.E. HILL (ret.)
K.C. KLONTZ
Methods for Specific Pathogens
4 Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria
Updated 07/2017
P. FENG
S. D. WEAGANT (ret.)
M.A. GRANT (dec.)
W. BURKHARDT
 
4A Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
Updated 10/2017
P. FENG
S.D. WEAGANT (ret.)
K. JINNEMAN
 
5 Salmonella
Updated 03/2018
W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
H. WANG
A. JACOBSON
T.S. HAMMACK
6 Shigella
Updated 02/2013
W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
A. JACOBSON
7 Campylobacter J.M. HUNT (ret.)
C. ABEYTA,
T. TRAN (ret.)
8 Yersinia enterocolitica
Updated 10/2017
S.D. WEAGANT (ret.)
P. FENG,
J.T. STANFIELD (ret.)
9 Vibrio ANGELO DEPAOLA JR.
C.A. KAYSNER (ret.)
28 Detection of Enterotoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Foods by the Polymerase Chain Reaction W.H. KOCH (ret.),
W.L. PAYNE (ret.),
T.A. CEBULA (dec.)
10 Listeria monocytogenes
Updated 03/2017
A.D. HITCHINS (ret.)
KAREN JINNEMAN
YI CHEN
12 Staphylococcus aureus
Updated 03/2016
R.W. BENNETT
G.A. LANCETTE (ret.)
14 Bacillus cereus S. M. TALLENT
E.J. RHODEHAMEL (ret.)
S.M. HARMON (ret.)
N. BELAY (ret.)
D.B. SHAH (ret.)
R. W. BENNETT
16 Clostridium perfringens E.J. RHODEHAMEL (ret.)
S.M. HARMON (ret.)
Contact: R.W. BENNETT
17 Clostridium botulinum H.M. SOLOMON (ret.)
T. LILLY, Jr.(ret.)
18 Yeasts, Molds, and Mycotoxins V. TOURNAS,
M.E. STACK (ret.)
P.B. MISLIVEC (dec.)
H.A. KOCH,
R. BANDLER
19 Parasitic Animals in Foods J.W. BIER (ret.)
G.J. JACKSON (ret.)
A.M. ADAMS,
R.A. RUDE (ret.)
19A Detection of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium from Fresh Produce: Isolation and Identification by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Microscopic Analysis. P.A. ORLANDI
C. FRAZAR
L. CARTER
D.T. CHU (ret.)
19B Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Fresh Produce using Real-time PCR
New 06/2017; Updated 10/2017
H.R. MURPHY
S. ALMERIA
A.J. da SILVA
26A Detection and Quantitation of Hepatitis A Virus in Shellfish by the Polymerase Chain Reaction B.B. GOSWAMI (ret.)
26B Detection of Hepatitis A in Foods
New 01/2014
J.W. WILLIAMS-WOODS
G. HARTMAN
W. BURKHARDT
29 Cronobacter Y. CHEN,
K. LAMPEL,
T. HAMMACK
Methods for Microbial Toxins
13B Staphylococcal Enterotoxins Detection Methods
New 06/2017
S. TALLENT
R.W. BENNETT
J.M. HAIT
15 Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Enterotoxin R.W. BENNETT
Additional Methods
20A Inhibitory Substances in Milk L.J. MATURIN (ret.)
20B Rapid HPLC Determination of Sulfamethazine in Milk J.D. WEBER (ret.)
M.D. SMEDLEY
21A Examination of Canned Foods W.L. LANDRY,
A.H. SCHWAB,
G.A. LANCETTE (ret.)
21B Modification of Headspace Gas Analysis Methodology, Using the SP4270 Integrator W.L. LANDRY
M.J. URIBE
22A Examination of Metal Containers for Integrity R.C. LIN (ret.)
P.H. KING (ret)
M.R. JOHNSTON (ret.)
22B Examination of Glass Containers for Integrity R.C. LIN (ret.)
P.H. KING (ret.)
M.R. JOHNSTON (ret.)
22C Examination of Flexible and Semirigid Food Containers for Integrity G.W. ARNDT. JR. (NFPA)
22D Examination of Containers for Integrity: Glossary and References R.C. LIN,
P.H. KING
M.R. JOHNSTON
23 Microbiological Methods for Cosmetics
Updated 07/2017
J. HUANG
A.D. HITCHINS (ret.)
T.T. TRAN (ret.)
J.E. McCARRON (ret.)
27 Screening Method for Phosphatase (Residual) in Cheese G.C. ZIOBRO
Appendixes
Appendix 2 Most Probable Number Determination from Serial Dilutions R. BLODGETT (ret.)
Appendix 3 Guidelines for the Validation of Analytical Methods for the Detection of Microbial Pathogens in Foods and Feeds, 2nd Edition (PDF, 1.32Mb, May 2015), FDA Foods and Veterinary Medicine Science and Research Steering Committee, US Food and Drug Administration, Office of Foods  Updated 09/2015  
Appendix 4 Food and Feed Items that are of current Interest to the FDA for Microbiological Methods Validation T. HAMMACK

Archived Methods

DISCLAIMER: The following Methods and Appendices have been archived. They are included for reference purposes only.   For additional information, contact BAM Council Chair:  Karen Jinneman


BAM Council

Updated October 2016
Member Affiliation Term
Karen Jinneman, Chair ORA 2016-2019
William Burkhardt CFSAN 2016-2019
Maureen Davidson CVM 2016-2019
Peter Feng CFSAN 2016-2019
Beilei Ge CVM 2016-2019
Greg Gharst ORA 2016-2019
Thomas Hammack CFSAN 2016-2019
Sunee Himathongkham OFVM 2016-2019
Julie Kase CFSAN 2016-2019
Pat Regan ORA 2016-2019

Introduction

To test for an organism or microbial toxin not covered by the BAM, or to analyze a sample that may require special handling or processing, the user is referred to the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International; Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, Recommended Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, and Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods of the American Public Health Association; also, Standard Methods for Water Analysis of the Environmental Protection Agency. FDA works closely with AOAC International, APHA, EPA, the International Dairy Federation (IDF/FIL), and, by way of participation in Codex Alimentarius, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, not all methods appearing in the BAM have been collaboratively evaluated by one or more of these organizations.

Text for the BAM was peer-reviewed by scientists outside and within FDA.

Introduction to the 8th edition, Revision A (1998)

Innovations in methods for the microbiological analysis of food continue to appear at a rapid pace. Edition 8 (1995) of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM-8) contained numerous refinements of procedures and updates of references from the 1992 edition. The list of commercially available test kits and the discussion of rapid methods in Appendix 1 were thoroughly revised. Three chapters were added: the use of reverse transcription (RT) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect and quantify contamination of shellfish with hepatitis A virus (Chapter 26); new procedures for the alkaline phosphatase test to determine whether dairy foods were prepared with pasteurized milk (Chapter 27); and the use of PCR to detect toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in foods (Chapter 28). For this printing (BAM - 8A), the following has been revised or added: Campylobacter (Chapter 7), Yeast and Molds (Chapter 18), Cyclospora [Chapter 19 (Parasites)] and Staphylococcus enterotoxins (Chapter13). In addition, there are updated tables in Appendix 1 on Rapid Methods and revised and corrected tables in Appendix 2 on MPN. Appendix 3 reflects changes in media and corrects errors in the 8th Edition. A table summarizing changes from BAM-8 to BAM-8A is included.

The methods described in Chapters 1 to 28 are those preferred by FDA for the microbiological analysis of foods, drinks, and cosmetics as well as for their containers, contact materials, and the production environment. This is not necessarily the case for the rapid methods listed in Appendix 1: this appendix is a listing of different kits that are commercially available. These methods have not necessarily been evaluated by FDA, and listing of a method in this appendix does not constitute a recommendation.

To test for an organism or microbial toxin not covered by the BAM, or to analyze a sample that may require special handling or processing, the user is referred to the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International; Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, Recommended Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, and Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods of the American Public Health Association; also, Standard Methods for Water Analysis of the Environmental Protection Agency. FDA works closely with AOAC International, APHA, EPA, the International Dairy Federation (IDF/FIL), and, by way of participation in Codex Alimentarius, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, not all methods appearing in the BAM have been collaboratively evaluated by one or more of these organizations.

Text for the BAM was peer-reviewed by scientists outside and within FDA. Outside reviewers included P. Entis, J. Smith, M. Doyle, N. Stern, R. Twedt, S. Tatini, R. Labbe, M. Eklund, M. Cousin, L. Eveland, R. Richter, J. Kabara, M. Curiale, and the staff of the National Food Processors Association. Reviews by FDA's field microbiologists, who made valuable suggestions concerning content and practicality, were coordinated by Meredith A. Grahn and her staff.

The 8th Edition of the BAM was prepared in the Technical Editing Branch, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA by Lois A. Tomlinson with production assistance by Dorothy H. Hughley. This version (Revision A) of the 8th Edition, was prepared and produced by Dr. Robert I. Merker, Office of Special Research Skills, CFSAN, FDA.


Hypertext Source: Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition, Revision A, 1998.

 

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