The food supply in the United States is among the safest in the world. However, when certain disease-causing bacteria or pathogens contaminate food, they can cause foodborne illness, often called "food poisoning." The Federal government estimates that there are about 48 million cases of foodborne illness annually — the equivalent of sickening 1 in 6 Americans each year. And each year, these illnesses result in an estimated 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Although everyone is susceptible, some people are at greater risk for developing foodborne illness.
- Pregnant Women, Their Unborn Babies and Children
- Older Adults and People with Cancer, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Organ Transplants, and Autoimmune Diseases
- Foods to Avoid
- Foodborne Illness: Know the Symptoms
- Foodborne Illness Videos
If you – or someone you care for – are in one of these high-risk groups, it's especially important to practice safe food handling. Vulnerable people are not only at increased risk of contracting a foodborne illness but are also more likely to have a lengthier illness, undergo hospitalization, or even die.
Pregnant Women, Their Unborn Babies, and Children
Changes during pregnancy alter the mother's immune system, making pregnant women more susceptible to foodborne illness. Harmful bacteria can also cross the placenta and infect an unborn baby whose immune system is under-developed and not able to fight infection. Foodborne illness during pregnancy is serious and can lead to miscarriage, premature delivery, stillbirth, sickness or the death of a newborn baby.
Unborn babies are just beginning to develop immune systems and have little power to resist foodborne disease.
Children younger than 5 years have a high risk of foodborne illness and related health problems because their immune systems are still developing, and they cannot fight off infections as well as older children and adults.
See the Food Safety Booklet for Pregnant Women, Their Unborn Babies, and Children Under Five informational booklet.
For additional information, see
- Food Safety for Moms-to-Be
- Preventing Listeriosis In Pregnant Hispanic Women in the U.S.
- Food Safety for Infants & Toddlers
- Food Safety for Kids & Teens
Older Adults and People with Cancer, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Organ Transplants, and Autoimmune Diseases
The immune system is the body's natural reaction or response to "foreign invasion." In healthy people, a properly functioning immune system fights off harmful bacteria and other pathogens that cause infection. As people age, their immune system and other organs become sluggish in recognizing and ridding the body of harmful bacteria and other pathogens that cause infections, such as foodborne illness. Also, the immune systems of transplant patients and people with certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases are often weakened from the disease process and/or the side effects of some treatments, making them susceptible to many types of infections — like those that can be brought on by harmful bacteria that cause foodborne illness. In addition, diabetes may lead to a slowing of the rate at which food passes through the stomach and intestines, allowing harmful foodborne pathogens an opportunity to multiply.
See the Food Safety for Older Adults and People with Cancer, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Organ Transplants, and Autoimmune Diseases informational booklet.
Foods to Avoid
If you are at greater risk of foodborne illness, you are advised not to eat:
- Raw or undercooked meat or poultry.
- Raw fish, partially cooked seafood (such as shrimp and crab), and refrigerated smoked seafood.
- Raw shellfish (including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and their juices.
- Unpasteurized (raw) milk and products made with raw milk, like yogurt and cheese.
- Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk, such as Feta, Brie, Camembert, blue-veined, and Mexican-style cheeses (such as such as Queso Fresco, Panela, Asadero, and Queso Blanco).
- Raw or undercooked eggs or foods containing raw or undercooked eggs, including certain homemade salad dressings (such as Caesar salad dressing), homemade cookie dough and cake batters, and homemade eggnog.
NOTE: Most pre-made foods from grocery stores, such as Caesar dressing, pre-made cookie dough, or packaged eggnog are made with pasteurized eggs.
- Unwashed fresh vegetables, including lettuce/salads.
- Unpasteurized fruit or vegetable juices (these juices will carry a warning label).
- Hot dogs, luncheon meats (cold cuts), fermented and dry sausage, and other deli-style meats, poultry products, and smoked fish — unless they are reheated until steaming hot.
- Salads (without added preservatives) prepared on site in a deli-type establishment, such as ham salad, chicken salad, or seafood salad.
- Unpasteurized, refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads.
- Raw sprouts (alfalfa, bean, or any other sprout).
Foodborne Illness: Know the Symptoms
Symptoms of foodborne illness usually appear 12 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food but may occur between 30 minutes and 4 weeks later. Symptoms include:
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), and abdominal pain
- Fever, headache, and body ache