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  1. Drug Safety and Availability

Questions and Answers: NDMA impurities in ranitidine (commonly known as Zantac)

Answers to questions about NDMA impurities found in ranitidine and FDA’s actions to address the issue

Updates on NDMA in ranitidine

What patients should know about NDMA impurities in ranitidine 

  • Not all ranitidine medicines marketed in the U.S. are being recalled.
  • FDA does not have scientific evidence to recommend whether individuals should continue or stop taking ranitidine medicines at this time. The agency is conducting further tests to determine the risk to consumers.
  • Consumers taking OTC ranitidine may consider using other OTC products approved for their condition.
    • Our preliminary tests of alternatives such as Pepcid (famotidine), Tagamet (cimetidine), Nexium (esomeprazole), Prevacid (lansoprazole) and Prilosec (omeprazole) show no NDMA in the medicines.
  • Patients taking prescription ranitidine who wish to stop should talk to their health care professional about other treatment options. Multiple drugs are approved for the same or similar uses as ranitidine.

Not all ranitidine medicines on the U.S. market have been recalled. Information about rantidine recalls is available on FDA’s ranitidine web page.

The announcements from companies that have recalled ranitidine are available on FDA’s drug recalls website. These announcements provide information to help consumers identify the recalled medicine (e.g., National Drug Code numbers, lot numbers, dosage).

Consumers taking OTC ranitidine may consider using other OTC products approved for their condition. Patients taking prescription ranitidine who wish to stop should talk to their health care professional about other treatment options. Multiple drugs are approved for the same or similar uses as ranitidine.

To date, two manufacturers have voluntarily recalled ranitidine. Sandoz recalled ranitidine due to confirmed unacceptable levels of NDMA. Apotex recalled ranitidine out of an abundance of caution.

FDA is committed to ensuring that the medicines Americans take are safe and effective. When we identify lapses in the quality of drugs that pose potential risks for patients, FDA makes every effort to understand the issues and provide our best recommendation to the public as quickly and accurately as possible. We will continue to investigate and work to ensure these types of impurities do not exceed acceptable limits, so that patients can continue taking their medicines without concern.

Some pharmacies have decided to remove ranitidine from their shelves out of an abundance of caution. This does not necessarily mean the medicines were recalled.

FDA does not have scientific evidence to recommend whether individuals should continue or stop taking ranitidine medicines at this time. The agency is conducting further tests to determine the risk to consumers. There are multiple drugs that are approved for the same or similar uses as ranitidine. Patients taking prescription ranitidine who wish to discontinue use should talk to their health care professional about other treatment options. People taking OTC ranitidine may consider using other OTC products approved for their condition.

If you are taking one of the recalled medicines, you should follow the recall instructions provided by the company. This information is on FDA’s website.

To date, FDA’s testing has not found NDMA in Pepcid (famotidine), Tagamet (cimetidine), Nexium (esomeprazole), Prevacid (lansoprazole) and Prilosec (omeprazole). In addition, assessment of their manufacturing processes indicates these medicines should not contain NDMA. FDA continues to test and assess other H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that could be used as alternatives to ranitidine.

FDA has tested some samples of liquid ranitidine and will provide more information about the results of this testing when it is available.

FDA does not have enough scientific evidence yet to determine how long NDMA has been present in ranitidine. The agency is continuing to investigate and will communicate more information as it is available.

FDA has ongoing review, surveillance, compliance and pharmaceutical quality efforts across every product area, and we will continue to work with drug manufacturers to ensure safe, effective, and high-quality drugs for the American public.

Certain drug manufacturing processes pose a risk for forming genotoxic impurities. For decades, FDA has provided guidance and recommendations for controlling impurities in drug substances and manufacturers have had an ongoing responsibility to test for impurities based on an understanding of their manufacturing process. In 2018, FDA issued a guidance to provide information to manufacturers regarding their responsibilities to assess the risk of impurities and implement appropriate controls for the manufacturing process. The agency identified some of the root causes of the nitrosamine impurity problem in angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).

We are working to determine the reason for the NDMA impurity in ranitidine.