Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV) is a rare, potentially blinding postoperative complication that has been observed in dozens of patients who have received intraocular injections of vancomycin (anti-infective) formulations toward the end of otherwise uncomplicated cataract surgeries.1 We report below a case of HORV following injections of a compounded triamcinolone (steroid), moxifloxacin (anti-infective), and vancomycin formulation.
FDA received an adverse event report on August 14, 2017, from a physician concerning a patient who was diagnosed postoperatively with bilateral HORV after being administered injections of a compounded triamcinolone, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin (TMV) formulation in each eye at the conclusion of cataract surgery procedures that were done two weeks apart. The TMV formulation was compounded by Imprimis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., located in Ledgewood, New Jersey.
Many ophthalmologists use intraocular vancomycin during cataract surgery with the intent of preventing postoperative endophthalmitis.2 FDA is unaware of any adequately controlled studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of intraocular vancomycin in preventing endophthalmitis. There is no FDA-approved vancomycin formulation for intraocular injection. The formulation is usually prepared at the surgical site or obtained in advance of surgery from a compounding pharmacy.
The use of intraocular vancomycin has recently been associated with the newly described condition HORV.1,3 Characteristics of HORV include a delayed onset (up to three weeks) of sudden painless decreased vision, intraocular inflammation, intraretinal hemorrhage (bleeding within the retina), retinal vasculitis (inflammation within retinal vessels), vascular occlusion (blockage of retinal vessels), and retinal ischemia (lack of sufficient blood supply to the retina). If vancomycin is administered to both eyes, legal blindness is a likely consequence of HORV.1,3
No cases of HORV were reported in a retrospective analysis of medical records of 922 patients (1541 eyes) who underwent cataract surgeries with intravitreal injections of compounded TMV formulations from November 2013 to December 2015.4 However, this chart review of non-controlled data is limited in its ability to identify rare events and may not necessarily be generalizable to a larger population who may undergo cataract surgery. The adverse event being reported here serves as a reminder that intraocular administration of vancomycin, including when the vancomycin is one of multiple active ingredients in a compounded drug, can result in HORV.
HORV Warning on FDA-Approved Vancomycin Injection, USP
FDA approved on September 28, 2017, a supplemental new drug application that adds a subsection about HORV to the WARNINGS section in the labeling of Vancomycin Injection, USP. The warning states:
Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, including permanent loss of vision, occurred in patients receiving intracameral or intravitreal administration of vancomycin during or after cataract surgery. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administered by the intracameral or the intravitreal route have not been established by adequate and well-controlled trials. Vancomycin is not indicated for prophylaxis of endophthalmitis.
The prophylactic use of intraocular vancomycin, alone or in a compounded drug combining multiple active ingredients, during cataract surgery is generally not recommended because of the risk of HORV.5
FDA encourages health care professionals to report adverse events or quality problems experienced with the use of compounded drug products to FDA’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program:
- Complete and submit the report online at www.fda.gov/medwatch/report.htm; or
- Download and complete the form, then submit it via fax at 1-800-FDA-0178.
In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention discourage the use of vancomycin for routine surgical prophylaxis other than in a patient who has a life-threatening allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics because of the potential emergence of vancomycin resistance. Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR. 1995; 44(RR12), 1-13.