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  1. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System

Meetings and Publications

Since its inception, NARMS has continued to expand and improve. Regular inter-agency meetings have been held, and periodic reviews from outside experts have been solicited to help identify ways to enhance One Health antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

September 20-22, 2022 - The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) will hold a virtual public meeting titled "2022 Public Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System." The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the progress the National Antimicrobial Resistance System (NARMS) has made towards meeting the objectives outlined in the NARMS Strategic Plan: 2021-2025.

October 13-14, 2020 – The FDA conducted a virtual public meeting entitled, “2020 Public Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.” The purpose of the NARMS Public Meeting 2020 was to share the NARMS Strategic Plan: 2021-2025 with stakeholders and to encourage discussion. A central theme of the new NARMS Strategic Plan was One Health, which is a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach to health—working at the local, regional, national, and global levels—with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment. In accord with the principles of One Health, NARMS is expanding its testing to include environmental water samples through a collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and animal pathogens through collaborations with FDA’s Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN) and USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

October 24-25, 2017 - The Food and Drug Administration, together with the NARMS partner agencies, conducted a public meeting entitled “2017 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.” The purpose of this meeting was to summarize NARMS progress since its last public meeting, to present recommendations made by the recent FDA Science Board review of NARMS in 2017, and to explore new directions for NARMS within a One Health paradigm. Items discussed during this meeting include an update on the development of new analytical and reporting tools, the latest advances in the use of DNA sequencing technologies, and new surveillance results.

June 26, 2017 – An external subcommittee was invited to review the NARMS program in 2017 and the results of their review were presented to the FDA Science Board Committee on June 26, 2017. The charge to the review committee was to provide recommendations regarding sampling strategies within a One Health paradigm, reporting antimicrobial sales and resistance data, and suitable ways to report whole genome sequence data and trends in the resistome. The recommendations were also presented at the 2017 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance System.


To disseminate NARMS research to the academic and public health communities, research is published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. An abridged bibliography follows.

Cao, G., S. Zhao, D. Kuang, C-H. Hsu, L. Yin, Y. Luo, Z. Chen, X. Xu, E. Strain, P. McDermott, M. Allard, E. Brown, J. Meng, J. Zheng. 2023.  Geography Shapes the Genomics and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Isolated from Humans. Scientific Reports |(2023) 13:1331. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-24150-4

Ottesen, A., B. Kocurek, P. Ramachandran, E. Reed, S. Commichaux, G. Engelbach, M. Mammel, S. Saint Fleurant, S. Zhao, C. Kabera, A. Merrill, N. Bonin, H. Worley, N. Noyes, C. Boucher, P. McDermott, and E. Strain. 2022. Advancing antimicrobial resistance monitoring in surface waters with metagenomic and quasimetagenomic methods. PLOSWater. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pwat.0000067

Stevens, L. E., . H. A. Carleton, J. Beal, G. E. Tillman, R. L. Lindsey, A.C. Lauer, A. Pightling, K. G. Jarvis, A. Ottesen, P. Ramachandran, L. Hintz, L. S. Katz, J. P. Folster, J. M. Whichard, E. Trees, R.E. Timme, P. McDermott, B. Wolpert, M. Bazaco, S. Zhao, S. Lindley, B. B. Bruce, P. M. Griffin, E. Brown, M. Allard, S. Tallent, K. Irvin, M. Hoffmann, M. Wise, R. Tauxe, P. Gerner-Smidt, M. Simmons, B. Kissler, S. Defibaugh-Chavez,, W. Klimke, R. Agarwala, J. Lindsay, K. Cook, S. R. Austerman, D. Goldman, S. McGarry, K. R. Hale, U. Dessai, S. M. Musser, and C. Braden. 2022. The Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing by the Federal Interagency Collaboration for Genomics for Food and Feed Safety in the United States. Journal of Food Protection. 2022. 85 (5): 755–772. https://doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-437

Young SR, Domesle KJ, McDonald RC, Lozinak KA, Laksanalamai P, Harrell E, Thakur S, Kabera C, Strain EA, McDermott PF, Ge B. 2022. Toward the adoption of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for Salmonella screening at the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System’s retail meat sites. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 19:758-766.

Domesle KJ, Young SR, McDonald RC, Ge B. 2022. Versatility of a Salmonella loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay using multiple platforms and master mixes in animal food matrices. Journal of AOAC International. 105:1503-15.

Tate H, Hsu CH, Chen JC, Han J, Foley SL, Folster JP, Francois Watkins LK, Reynolds J, Tillman GE, Nyirabahizi E, Zhao S. Genomic Diversity, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence Gene Profiles of Salmonella Serovar Kentucky Isolated from Humans, Food, and Animal Ceca Content Sources in the United States. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2022 Aug;19(8):509-521. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2022.0005. 

Tate H, Ayers S, Nyirabahizi E, Li C, Borenstein S, Young S, Rice-Trujillo C, Saint Fleurant S, Bodeis-Jones S, Li X, Tobin-D'Angelo M, Volkova V, Hardy R, Mingle L, M'ikanatha NM, Ruesch L, Whitehouse CA, Tyson GH, Strain E, McDermott PF. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Select Bacteria From Retail Seafood-United States, 2019. Front Microbiol. 2022 Jun 23;13:928509. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.928509. 

Domesle KJ, Young SR, Ge B. 2021. Rapid screening for Salmonella in raw pet food by loop- mediated isothermal amplification. Journal of Food Protection. 84:399-407.

Domesle KJ, Young SR, Yang Q, Ge B. 2020. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for screening Salmonella in animal food and confirming Salmonella from culture isolation. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 159:e61239.

Epiphanie Nyirabahizi & Tyson, Gregory & Dessai, Uday & Zhao, Shaohua & Kabera, Claudine & Crarey, Emily & Womack, Niketta & Crews, Mary & Strain, Errol & Tate, Heather. (2020). Evaluation of Escherichia coli as an indicator for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella recovered from the same food or animal ceca samples. Food Control. 115. 107280. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107280.

Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Michael S. Williams, Gurinder S. Sain, Heather Tate, Errol Strain. The Western United States has Greater Antibiotic Resistance Among Salmonella Recovered from Intestinal Cecal Samples of Food Animals. J Food Prot. 2020 Dec 15. doi: 10.4315/JFP-20-409. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33320944.

Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Tyson GH, Tate H, Kabera C et al. The Northeast United States has Greater Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance among Salmonella from Retail Meat. J Food Prot. 2020; doi: 10.4315/JFP-19-549.

Ge B, Domesle KJ, Gaines SA, Lam C, Bodeis Jones SM, Yang Q, Ayers SL, McDermott PF.  2020. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from U.S. animal food, 2005-2011. Microorganisms. 8:1048.

Harrison, L., G. Tyson, E. Strain, R. Lindsey, N. Strockbine, O. Ceric, G. Fortenberry, B. Harris, S. Shaw, G. Tillman, S. Zhao, and Uday Dessai. 2022. Use of Large-Scale Genomics to Identify the Role of Animals and Foods as Potential Sources of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli that Cause Human Illnesses. Foods 2022, 11, 1975. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131975.

Harrison, L., S. Mukherjee, C. H. Hsu, S. Young, E. Strain, Q. Zhang, G. E. Tillman, C. Morales, J. Haro and S. Zhao. 2021. Genome MLST for Source Attribution of Campylobacter coli. Frontiers in Microbiology. July 2021. Vol.12, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.703890

Hsu, C.H., L. Harrison, S. Mukherjee, E. Strain, P. McDermott, Q. Zhang, S. Zhao. 2020. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing for Food Animal Source Attribution of Human Campylobacter jejuni. 2020. Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 532;  doi:10.3390/pathogens9070532

Li C, Tyson GH, Hsu C, Harrison L, Strain E, Tran TT, Tillman GE, Dessai U, McDermott PF, Zhao S. Long-Read Sequencing Reveals Evolution and Acquisition of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Salmonella enterica. Front Microbiol. 2021; 12: 777817.

McDermott PF, Davis JJ. Predicting antimicrobial susceptibility from the bacterial genome: A new paradigm for one health resistance monitoring. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Mar;44(2):223-237. doi: 10.1111/jvp.12913. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Michael S. Williams, Eric D. Ebel, Gurinder Saini, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi. Comparative History of Campylobacter Contamination in Chicken and Campylobacteriosis Cases in the United States: 1994-2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109075

Nyirabahizi, E., G. Gregory, U. Dessai, S. Zhao, C. Kabera, E. Crarey, N. Womack, M. Crew, E. Strain, and H. Tate. 2020. Evaluation of Escherichia coli as an indicator for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella recovered from the same food or animal ceca samples. Food Control.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107280.  

Ottesen A, Ramachandran P, Chen Y, Brown E, Reed E, Strain E. Quasimetagenomic source tracking of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 29;20(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4747-z. PMID: 31996135 

Fu Y, M'ikanatha NM, Whitehouse CA, Tate H, Ottesen A, Lorch JM, Blehert DS, Berlowski-Zier B, Dudley EG. Low occurrence of multi-antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance in Salmonella enterica from wild birds in the United States. Environ Microbiol. 2022 Mar;24(3):1380-1394. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.15865. Epub 2021 Dec 12. 

Yin X, Fu Y, Tate H, Pinto C, Dudley EG, M'ikanatha NM. Genomic analysis of Salmonella Typhimurium from humans and food sources accurately predicts phenotypic multi-drug resistance. Food Microbiol. 2022 May;103:103957. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2021.103957. Epub 2021 Nov 26. 

Tate, H., C. Li, E. Nyirabahizi, G. H. Tyson, S. Zhao, C. Rice-Trujillo, S. Bodeis- Jones, S. Ayers, N. M. Mikanatha, S. Hanna, L. Ruesch, M. E. Cavanaugh, P. Laksanalamai, L. Mingle, S. R. Matzinger, P. F. McDermott. 2021. Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Bacteria Isolated from Retail Veal in the United States. Journal of Food Protection. 2021 Oct 1;84(10):1749-1759. https://doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-005. 

Tyson GH, Ceric O, Guag J, Nemser S, Borenstein S, Slavic D, Lippert S, McDowell R, Krishnamurthy A, Korosec S, Friday C, Pople N, Saab ME, Fairbrother JH, Janelle I, McMillan D, Bommineni YR, Simon D, Mohan S, Sanchez S, Phillips A, Bartlett P, Naikare H, Watson C, Sahin O, Stinman C, Wang L, Maddox C, DeShambo V, Hendrix K, Lubelski D, Burklund A, Lubbers B, Reed D, Jenkins T, Erol E, Patel M, Locke S, Fortner J, Peak L, Balasuriya U, Mani R, Kettler N, Olsen K, Zhang S, Shen Z, Landinez MP, Thornton JK, Thachil A, Byrd M, Jacob M, Krogh D, Webb B, Schaan L, Patil A, Dasgupta S, Mann S, Goodman LB, Franklin-Guild RJ, Anderson RR, Mitchell PK, Cronk BD, Aprea M, Cui J, Jurkovic D, Prarat M, Zhang Y, Shiplett K, Campos DD, Rubio JVB, Ramanchandran A, Talent S, Tewari D, Thirumalapura N, Kelly D, Barnhart D, Hall L, Rankin S, Dietrich J, Cole S, Scaria J, Antony L, Lawhon SD, Wu J, McCoy C, Dietz K, Wolking R, Alexander T, Burbick C, Reimschuessel R. Genomics accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius collected as part of Vet-LIRN resistance monitoring. Vet Microbiol. 2021 Mar;254:109006. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109006. Epub 2021 Feb 4. PMID: 33581494

Yin X, M'ikanatha NM, Nyirabahizi E, McDermott PF, Tate H. Antimicrobial resistance in non-Typhoidal Salmonella from retail poultry meat by antibiotic usage-related production claims - United States, 2008-2017. Int J Food Microbiol. 2021 Mar 16;342:109044. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109044. Epub 2021 Jan 5. 

Tyson, G.,  C. Li, L. Harrison, G. Martin, C.H. Hsu, H. Tate, T.T. Tran, E. Strain, and S. Zhao. 2021. A Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Infantis Clone Is Spreading and Recombining in the United States. Microb Drug Resist. 2021. Jun;27(6):792-799. https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2020.0389.

Tyson, G., C. Li, C. H. Hsu, S. Ayers, S. Borenstein, S. Mukherjee, T.T. Tran, P. McDermott, and S. Zhao. 2020. The mcr-9 Gene of Salmonella and E. coli is Not Associated with Colistin Resistance in the United States. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 64 (8): e00573-20.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00573-20.

Xin Yin, Nkuchia M. M’ikanatha, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, McDermott Patrick, Heather Tate. Antimicrobial resistance in non-Typhoidal Salmonella from retail poultry meat by antibiotic usage-related production claims –United States, 2008-2017. International journal of food microbiology, 342, 109044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109044

Zhao, S.,  C. Li, C. H.Hsu, G. H. Tyson, E. Strain, H. Tate, T.T. Tran, J. Abbott, and P. F. McDermott. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Four Hundred Fifty Salmonella Strains Isolated from Diseased Animals. Genes 2020, 11, 1025. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11091025

Kim, H.S., R. Rodriguez, S. Morris, S. Zhao, and J. Donato. 2020. Identification of a Novel Plasmid-Borne Gentamicin Resistance Gene in Non-typhoidal Salmonella Isolated From Retail Turkey. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. November 2020.  64:e00867-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC .00867-20.


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