Welcome back to the D.I.S.C.O., FDA’s Drug Information Soundcast in Clinical Oncology, Burst Edition, brought to you by FDA’s Division of Drug Information in partnership with FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. Today we’ll provide a quick update on another recent FDA cancer drug approval.
On July 26, 2021, the FDA approved pembrolizumab (brand name Keytruda) for high-risk, early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer in combination with chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment, and then continued as a single agent as adjuvant treatment after surgery.
FDA also granted regular approval to pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy for patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA approved test. FDA granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab for this indication in November 2020.
The following trial was the basis of the neoadjuvant and adjuvant approval, as well as the confirmatory trial for the accelerated approval.
The efficacy of pembrolizumab in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and continued adjuvant treatment with pembrolizumab as a single agent was investigated in KEYNOTE-522, a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 1174 patients with newly diagnosed previously untreated high-risk early-stage triple-negative breast cancer. Patients were enrolled regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression.
Patients were randomized (2:1) to pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy or placebo in combination with chemotherapy. The main efficacy outcome measures were pathological complete response rate and event free survival. The pathological complete response rate was 63% for patients who received pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy compared with 56% for patients who received chemotherapy alone. The number of patients who experienced an event free survival event was 16% and 24%, respectively.
The most common adverse reactions reported in ≥ 20% of patients in trials of pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, cough, dyspnea, pyrexia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, mucosal inflammation, stomatitis, headache, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, and insomnia.
The review used the Real-Time Oncology Review pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, and the Assessment Aid, a voluntary submission from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application approximately 5 months ahead of the FDA goal date.
Full prescribing information for these approvals can be found on the web at www.fda.gov/drugsatFDA.
Health care professionals should report serious adverse events to FDA’s MedWatch Reporting Program at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
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