Biological hazards can come from a variety of contaminants including bacterial and viral pathogens. Fungal contamination is discussed under mycotoxins, which are the chemical contaminants produced by these organisms. Under the Animal Food Contaminants program, biological hazards that are routinely monitored include Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. These pathogens may present a hazard to animal health when animals consume contaminated food, and to human health by consumption of animal products, or by direct exposure to the contaminated animal food capable of causing disease in humans.
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Salmonella are the bacteria responsible for salmonellosis in humans and animals. Salmonella can infect animals through consumption of food for animals, and humans can be infected by handling contaminated animal food or infected animals and their feces.
Animal food can become contaminated with Salmonella through the inclusion of Salmonella-contaminated raw materials (ingredient-related), Salmonella-contaminated manufacturing environment (facility-related) and when the manufacturing process is inadequate to kill the Salmonella (process-related). Meat and poultry ingredients, including rendered ingredients, have been sources of Salmonella contamination.
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes)
L. monocytogenes is a bacterium responsible for listeriosis in humans and animals. L. monocytogenes is a hardy pathogen, tolerant of many conditions typically used to stop or slow bacterial growth. It can tolerate acidic and salty conditions, can grow in high and low temperatures and in relatively low moisture environments. It can persist in processing facilities for years. L. monocytogenes can be introduced through a variety of foods including raw meat, vegetables, refrigerated foods (including fruits and vegetables), smoked and raw seafood, and unpasteurized dairy products.
Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Pathogenic E. coli is a bacterium associated with foodborne illness in humans and animals.
- CPG 690.800-Salmonella in Food for Animals
- CVM GFI #80 Evaluation the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives
- June 03, 2015 CVM Issues Assignment to Collect Official Samples of Raw Foods for Dogs or Cats in Interstate Commerce in the United States and Analyze them for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC)
- January 29, 2014 CVM Issues Assignment to Collect and Analyze Samples of Milk Replacer Products for Salmonella
- December 16, 2013 CVM Issues Assignment to Collect and Analyze Samples of Pet Foods, Pet Treats, and Pet Nutritional Supplements for Salmonella
- March 22, 2013 CVM Issues Field Assignment to Collect and Analyze Samples of Pet Foods, Pet Treats, and Pet Nutritional Supplements in Interstate Commerce in the United States for Salmonella
- March 19, 2013 CVM Issues Field Assignment to Collect and Analyze Commercial Milk Replacer Products for Salmonella
- March 27, 2012 Assignment to Collect Samples of Poultry Feed (Layers, Broilers and Turkeys) and Analyze Them for Salmonella
- October 24, 2011 FY 2012 Nationwide Assignment to Collect and Analyze Samples of Pet Foods, Pet Treats, and Supplements for Pets from Interstate Commerce in the United States for Salmonella
- October 21, 2010 FY 2011 Nationwide Assignment to Collect and Analyze Samples of Direct-Human-Contact Feed from Interstate Commerce in the United States for Salmonella
- Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)
- FDA's Bad Bug Book
- Get the Facts about Salmonella
- Get the Facts about Listeria
- FDA’s Advice: Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Foods to Your Pets