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  1. Science & Research (Biologics)

Development of New Immunological Assays and Animal Models to Evaluate Vaccine Safety and Efficacy Against Emerging Diseases


Hana Golding, PhD

Hana Golding, PhD

Office of Vaccines Research and Review
Division of Viral Products
Laboratory of Retroviruses



Hana Golding is currently the Chief of the Laboratory of Retrovirus at the Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), FDA. Dr. Golding received her Ph.D. degree from Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, and her postdoctoral training at the Experimental Immunology Branch, NCI, NIH. Dr. Golding Joined the Division of Viral Products, CBER in 1987 and was appointed the Chief of the Laboratory of Retrovirus Research in 1993. To date, Dr. Golding has authored more than 200 research papers and book chapters on immunology, virology, and infectious diseases topics.

The main areas of research projects in the Golding lab include:

  • Vaccines against viral pathogens, including pandemic influenza, RSV, Ebola, Zika, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2
  • Evaluation of vaccine safety (in vivo/in vitro) and immune responses, including new methods for increasing antibody avidity and epitope diversity
  • Vaccine adjuvants, including their mode of action and impact on immune responses, as well as identifying new biomarkers predictive of adjuvant safety and efficacy in people.

General Overview

Industry and academic researchers are developing new vaccines against viruses, including pandemic influenza strains of avian origin (H5N1, H7N7, H7N9, H9N9), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Ebola, Zika virus, and now SARS-CoV-2. Novel "universal influenza vaccines" are also under development. Many of these vaccines are being developed and tested together with novel adjuvants (agents that stimulate or increase immune response to vaccines).

Therefore, in addition to evaluating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine itself, FDA must also evaluate the combination of vaccine and its adjuvant. Moreover, evaluation of each viral vaccine presents unique challenges that agency regulators must address individually.

The goal of our program is to develop new and improved tools for monitoring vaccine safety and efficacy. FDA will then share these new tools with the regulated industry to enable use of these tools in their research and development efforts.

The availability of new tools could reduce the time it takes to develop new vaccines against influenza, RSV, Ebola, Zika, and SARS-CoV-2, and help FDA to quickly recognize potential safety problems with vaccines that use new adjuvants. Thus, our work will contribute significantly to public health in the U.S. and globally by facilitating development and approval of new vaccines that prevent serious diseases.

Scientific Overview

Our laboratory is working to provide new insights that will facilitate the development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic viruses, including vaccines against avian influenza (H5, H7, H9, H2) based on the globular head of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from the corresponding viruses. We are also exploring new protective targets in RSV attachment protein (G), Ebola glycoprotein GP, and the new SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Future vaccines for influenza strains with pandemic potential will likely be combined with adjuvants in order to improve their immunogenicity, to generate heterosubtypic neutralizing activity, and to reduce the amount of antigen required for vaccination. Reducing amounts needed would be an important advantage for global vaccination campaigns.

In parallel with vaccine development, we are working to improve the analytical tools available for comparing immune responses generated by different vaccine candidates. Our laboratory initiated the use of whole Genome Phage Display Libraries (GFPDL) for comprehensive analyses of antibody repertoires. Additionally, we use surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to quantitate antibody binding to properly folded viral surface proteins and to measure antibody affinity maturation. These tools are used in the evaluation of convalescent sera and monoclonal antibodies, and to compare immune sera from recipients of adjuvanted vs. unadjuvanted influenza vaccines.

Both GFPDL and SPR technologies have been developed for RSV, which causes high morbidity in newborn children and in frail elderly individuals. Detailed knowledge of the changes in anti-RSV reactivity in different age groups is key to successful vaccination. New RSV vaccines are in advanced development and will be evaluated in the very old, the very young (newborn infants), and pregnant mothers.

In response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the outbreaks of Zika virus infections in the Americas, multiple vaccine initiatives are ongoing. We developed novel methods to better explore the antibody repertoires following Ebola and Zika infection and vaccination.

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, our lab developed several analytical tools for in-depth analyses of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. These include Whole-Genome-Fragment-Phage-Display-Libraries (GFPDL) covering both the spike protein and internal genes; pseudovirus neutralization assays against the original Wuhan strain and against multiple variants of concern; ACE2/RBD blocking ELISAs;, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assays to measure antibody affinity against spike protein subdomains and receptor binding domain (RBD) with escape mutations. Human monocytes are also being used in a project to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 that involves cytokine storm and high levels of fever-inducing molecules. A role for antibody complexes is also under investigation.

The new analytical tools developed in our lab will help to find correlates of protection against influenza, RSV, Ebola, Zika, and SARS-CoV-2. New tools could also contribute to the design of improved vaccines with broad cross-protection potential.

Some new adjuvants contain components that can cause unacceptable reactogenicity and systemic adverse reactions. Often these adverse reactions are undetectable in pre-clinical toxicity studies in small animals, due to species differences in the cellular receptor targeted by the novel adjuvants or because of their lower sensitivity to drug-associated toxicities. Therefore, we are developing rapid in vitro screening assays based on human cells to evaluate the activities of new adjuvants and to identify parameters that will predict unacceptable toxicities, including fever, in humans.

Our program is also continuing in the application of whole-body bioimaging of animals challenged with recombinant RSV-luciferase. This approach, in addition to the use of advanced statistic tools, provides a practical, quantitative, and humane approach to studying virus dissemination in animal models and to evaluating the efficacy of novel vaccines and therapies against smallpox and RSV.

Important Links

Innovation and Regulatory Science-Research Summary: Study of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins could help inform vaccine design | FDA


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    Reduced control of SARS-CoV-2 infection associates with lower mucosal antibody responses in pregnancy.
    St Clair LA, Eldesouki RE, Sachithanandham J, Yin A, Fall A, Morris CP, Norton JM, Abdullah O, Dhakal S, Barranta C, Golding H, Bersoff-Matcha SJ, Pilgrim-Grayson C, Berhane L, Cox AL, Burd I, Pekosz A, Mostafa HH, Klein EY, Klein SL
  2. Cytokine 2024 Jan;173:156447
    Pyrogenic and inflammatory mediators are produced by polarized M1 and M2 macrophages activated with D-dimer and SARS-CoV-2 spike immune complexes.
    Park YJ, Acosta D, Rubel Hoq M, Khurana S, Golding H, Zaitseva M
  3. Nat Commun 2023 Dec 1;14(1):7952
    Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BQ.1, BQ.1.1 and XBB.1 variants following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in children.
    Bellusci L, Grubbs G, Sait S, Yonker LM, Randolph AG, Novak T, Kobayashi T, Overcoming COVID−19 Investigators, Khurana S
  4. Cell 2023 Oct 12;186(21):4632-51.e23
    Multi-omics analysis of mucosal and systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 after birth.
    Wimmers F, Burrell AR, Feng Y, Zheng H, Arunachalam PS, Hu M, Spranger S, Nyhoff LE, Joshi D, Trisal M, Awasthi M, Bellusci L, Ashraf U, Kowli S, Konvinse KC, Yang E, Blanco M, Pellegrini K, Tharp G, Hagan T, Chinthrajah RS, Nguyen TT, Grifoni A, Sette A, Nadeau KC, Haslam DB, Bosinger SE, Wrammert J, Maecker HT, Utz PJ, Wang TT, Khurana S, Khatri P, Staat MA, Pulendran B
  5. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Aug;6(8):e2327307
    Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune immunoglobulins following infection plus vaccination vs infection.
    Bellusci L, Golding H, Khurana S
  6. Front Mol Biosci 2023 Jun 13;10:1207670
    Glycosylation of H4 influenza strains with pandemic potential and susceptibilities to lung surfactant SP-D.
    Parsons LM, Zoueva O, Grubbs G, Plant E, Jankowska E, Xie Y, Song H, Gao GF, Ye Z, Khurana S, Cipollo JF
  7. Sci Transl Med 2023 May 10;15(695):eadg7404
    Broadly neutralizing antibodies against sarbecoviruses generated by immunization of macaques with an AS03-adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine.
    Feng Y, Yuan M, Powers JM, Hu M, Munt JE, Arunachalam PS, Leist SR, Bellusci L, Kim J, Sprouse KR, Adams LE, Sundaramurthy S, Zhu X, Shirreff LM, Mallory ML, Scobey TD, Moreno A, O'Hagan DT, Kleanthous H, Villinger FJ, Veesler D, King NP, Suthar MS, Khurana S, Baric RS, Wilson IA, Pulendran B
  8. J Clin Invest 2023 Apr 17;133(8):e168583
    Therapeutic potential of convalescent plasma and SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune immunoglobulins against BQ.1, BQ.1.1 and XBB variants.
    Bellusci L, Golding H, Khurana S
  9. Nature 2023 Feb;614(7949):752-61
    Influenza vaccination reveals sex dimorphic imprints of prior mild COVID-19.
    Sparks R, Lau WW, Liu C, Han KL, Vrindten KL, Sun G, Cox M, Andrews SF, Bansal N, Failla LE, Manischewitz J, Grubbs G, King LR, Koroleva G, Leimenstoll S, Snow L, Chen J, Tang J, Mukherjee A, Sellers BA, Apps R, McDermott AB, Martins AJ, Bloch EM, Golding H, Khurana S, Tsang JS
  10. Clin Infect Dis 2023 Feb 1;76(3):e503-6
    SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune intravenous human immunoglobulins neutralizes Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.3 and BA.4/BA.5 for treatment of COVID-19.
    Awasthi M, Golding H, Khurana S
  11. Clin Infect Dis 2023 Feb 1;76(3):554-5
    Reply to Focosi et al. [Recent hybrid plasma better neutralizes Omicron sublineages than old hyperimmune serum.]
    Golding H, Khurana S
  12. Nat Immunol 2023 Jan;24(1):186-99
    Adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 persist in the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue of children.
    Xu Q, Milanez-Almeida P, Martins AJ, Radtke AJ, Hoehn KB, Oguz C, Chen J, Liu C, Tang J, Grubbs G, Stein S, Ramelli S, Kabat J, Behzadpour H, Karkanitsa M, Spathies J, Kalish H, Kardava L, Kirby M, Cheung F, Preite S, Duncker PC, Kitakule MM, Romero N, Preciado D, Gitman L, Koroleva G, Smith G, Shaffer A, McBain IT, McGuire PJ, Pittaluga S, Germain RN, Apps R, Schwartz DM, Sadtler K, Moir S, Chertow DS, Kleinstein SH, Khurana S, Tsang JS, Mudd P, Schwartzberg PL, Manthiram K
  13. BMC Bioinformatics 2022 Dec 19;23(1):547
    Unsupervised outlier detection applied to SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide sequences can identify sequences of common variants and other variants of interest.
    Hahn G, Lee S, Prokopenko D, Abraham J, Novak T, Hecker J, Cho M, Khurana S, Baden LR, Randolph AG, Weiss ST, Lange C
  14. Gastroenterology 2022 Dec;163(6):1672-5
    Durability of immunity is low against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3 variants following second and third vaccination in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease receiving biologics.
    Bellusci L, Zahra FT, Hopkins DE, Salazar JC, Hyams JS, Khurana S
  15. Clin Infect Dis 2022 Nov 1;75(9):1645-8
    Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants in serum from children with vaccination-induced myocarditis.
    Zahra FT, Grubbs G, Dummer K, Tremoulet AH, Shimizu C, Burns JC, Khurana S
  16. Clin Transl Med 2022 Nov;12(11):e1100
    Comprehensive profiling of the human viral exposome in households containing an at-risk child with mitochondrial disease during the 2020-2021 COVID-19 pandemic.
    Gordon-Lipkin EM, Marcum CS, Kruk S, Thompson E, Kelly SEM, Kalish H, Bellusci L, Khurana S, Sadtler K, McGuire PJ
  17. Nat Commun 2022 Oct 23;13(1):6309
    Breadth of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and protection induced by a nanoparticle vaccine.
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  18. Sci Immunol 2022 Oct 28;7(76):eadd5446
    An antibody from single human V(H)-rearranging mouse neutralizes all SARS-CoV-2 variants through BA.5 by inhibiting membrane fusion.
    Luo S, Zhang J, Kreutzberger AJB, Eaton A, Edwards RJ, Jing C, Dai HQ, Sempowski GD, Cronin K, Parks R, Ye AY, Mansouri K, Barr M, Pishesha N, Williams AC, Vieira Francisco L, Saminathan A, Peng H, Batra H, Bellusci L, Khurana S, Alam SM, Montefiori DC, Saunders KO, Tian M, Ploegh H, Kirchhausen T, Chen B, Haynes BF, Alt FW
  19. J Infect Dis 2022 Aug 15;226(4):655-63
    Increased antibody avidity and cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants by hyperimmunized Tc-Bovine derived human immunoglobulins for treatment of COVID-19.
    Tang J, Grubbs G, Lee Y, Wu H, Luke TC, Egland KA, Bausch CL, Sullivan EJ, Khurana S
  20. EBioMedicine 2022 Aug;82:104186
    Ebola-Detect: a differential serodiagnostic assay for Ebola virus infections and surveillance in the presence of vaccine-induced antibodies.
    Ravichandran S, Khurana S
  21. Nat Commun 2022 Aug 8;13(1):4617
    Antibody affinity and cross-variant neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3 following third mRNA vaccination.
    Bellusci L, Grubbs G, Zahra FT, Forgacs D, Golding H, Ross TM, Khurana S
  22. Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jul 1;75(1):e459-65
    Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of human hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult Syrian hamsters.
    Stauft CB, Tegenge M, Khurana S, Lee Y, Selvaraj P, Golding H, Wang T, Golding B
  23. Ann Rheum Dis 2022 Jul;81(7):1044-5
    Neutralisation of circulating SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variants by convalescent plasma and SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune intravenous human immunoglobulins for treatment of COVID-19.
    Zahra FT, Bellusci L, Grubbs G, Golding H, Khurana S
  24. Nat Commun 2022 May 27;13(1):2979
    Cross-reactive immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is low in pediatric patients with prior COVID-19 or MIS-C.
    Tang J, Novak T, Hecker J, Grubbs G, Zahra FT, Bellusci L, Pourhashemi S, Chou J, Moffitt K, Halasa NB, Schwartz SP, Walker TC, Tarquinio KM, Zinter MS, Staat MA, Gertz SJ, Cvijanovich NZ, Schuster JE, Loftis LL, Coates BM, Mack EH, Irby K, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM, Kong M, Flori HR, Maddux AB, Shein SL, Crandall H, Hume JR, Hobbs CV, Tremoulet AH, Shimizu C, Burns JC, Chen SR, Moon HK, Lange C, Randolph AG, Khurana S
  25. Protein Sci 2022 May;31(5):e4300
    Insect cell expression and purification of recombinant SARS-COV-2 spike proteins that demonstrate ACE2 binding.
    Struble LR, Smith AL, Lutz WE, Grubbs G, Sagar S, Bayles KW, Radhakrishnan P, Khurana S, El-Gamal D, Borgstahl GEO
  26. Blood 2022 May 5;139(18):2842-6
    Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron after vaccination of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia patients.
    Bellusci L, Grubbs G, Srivastava P, Nemeth MJ, Griffiths EA, Golding H, Khurana S
  27. PLoS Pathog 2022 Apr 6;18(4):e1010468
    D-dimer and CoV-2 spike-immune complexes contribute to the production of PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes.
    Park YJ, Acosta D, Vassell R, Tang J, Khurana S, Weiss CD, Golding H, Zaitseva M
  28. J Virol 2022 Mar;96(5):e0172521
    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease following influenza virus infection in ferrets recapitulates the model in pigs.
    Kimble JB, Wymore Brand M, Kaplan BS, Gauger P, Coyle EM, Chilcote K, Khurana S, Vincent AL
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    SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine induced higher antibody affinity and IgG titers against variants of concern in post-partum vs non-post-partum women.
    Lee Y, Grubbs G, Ramelli SC, Levine AR, Bathula A, Saharia K, Purcell M, Singireddy S, Dugan CL, Kirchoff L, Lankford A, Cipriano S, Curto RA, Wu J, Raja K, Kelley E, Herr D, Vannella KM, Ravichandran S, Tang J, Harris A, Sajadi M, Chertow DS, Grazioli A, Khurana S
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    Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and following breakthrough Omicron infection in an autoimmune patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Pernicious Anemia, and chronic atrophic autoimmune gastritis: a case report.
    Cluff E, Bellusci L, Golding H, Khurana S
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    Systemic and lower respiratory tract immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and variants in pediatric severe COVID-19 and Mis-C.
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    Impact of convalescent plasma therapy on SARS CoV-2 antibody profile in COVID-19 patients.
    Tang J, Grubbs G, Lee Y, Golding H, Khurana S
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    A broadly cross-reactive antibody neutralizes and protects against sarbecovirus challenge in mice.
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  34. EMBO Mol Med 2022 Jan 11;14(1):e13847
    Protective antigenic sites identified in respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein reveals importance of p27 domain.
    Lee J, Lee Y, Klenow L, Coyle EM, Tang J, Ravichandran S, Golding H, Khurana S
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    Antibody affinity maturation and cross-variant activity following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination: impact of prior exposure and sex.
    Tang J, Grubbs G, Lee Y, Huang C, Ravichandran S, Forgacs D, Golding H, Ross TM, Khurana S
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    SARS-CoV-2 immune repertoire in MIS-C and pediatric COVID-19.
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    Systemic and mucosal immune profiling in asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals reveal unlinked immune signatures.
    Ravichandran S, Grubbs G, Tang J, Lee Y, Huang C, Golding H, Khurana S
  38. Genet Epidemiol 2021 Oct;45(7):685-93
    Genome-wide association analysis of COVID-19 mortality risk in SARS-CoV-2 genomes identifies mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that colocalizes with P.1 of the Brazilian strain.
    Hahn G, Wu CM, Lee S, Lutz SM, Khurana S, Baden LR, Haneuse S, Qiao D, Hecker J, DeMeo DL, Tanzi RE, Choudhary MC, Etemad B, Mohammadi A, Esmaeilzadeh E, Cho MH, Li JZ, Randolph AG, Laird NM, Weiss ST, Silverman EK, Ribbeck K, Lange C
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    Pause in immunosuppressive treatment results in improved immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in autoimmune patient: a case report.
    Golding B, Lee Y, Golding H, Khurana S
  40. Protein Sci 2021 Sep;30(9):1983-90
    CyDisCo production of functional recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain.
    Prahlad J, Struble LR, Lutz WE, Wallin SA, Khurana S, Schnaubelt A, Broadhurst MJ, Bayles KW, Borgstahl GEO
  41. iScience 2021 Sep 24;24(9):103006
    Epitope diversity of SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune intravenous human immunoglobulins and neutralization of variants of concern.
    Tang J, Lee Y, Ravichandran S, Grubbs G, Huang C, Stauft CB, Wang T, Golding B, Golding H, Khurana S
  42. Br J Haematol 2021 Aug;194(3):549-53
    Immune responses and therapeutic challenges in paediatric patients with new-onset acute myeloid leukaemia and concomitant COVID-19.
    Patel PA, Lapp SA, Grubbs G, Edara VV, Rostad CA, Stokes CL, Pauly MG, Anderson EJ, Piantadosi A, Suthar MS, Khurana S, Sabnis HS
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    Mind the gap from research laboratory to clinic: challenges and opportunities for next-generation assays in human diseases.
    D'Souza MP, Palin AC, Calder T, Golding H, Kleinstein SH, Milliken EL, O'Connor D, Tomaras G, Warren J, Boggiano C
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    Immunologic mechanisms of seasonal influenza vaccination administered by microneedle patch from a randomized phase I trial.
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    Neutralizing antibody vaccine for pandemic and pre-emergent coronaviruses.
    Saunders KO, Lee E, Parks R, Martinez DR, Li D, Chen H, Edwards RJ, Gobeil S, Barr M, Mansouri K, Alam SM, Sutherland LL, Cai F, Sanzone AM, Berry M, Manne K, Bock KW, Minai M, Nagata BM, Kapingidza AB, Azoitei M, Tse LV, Scobey TD, Spreng RL, Rountree RW, DeMarco CT, Denny TN, Woods CW, Petzold EW, Tang J, Oguin TH 3rd, Sempowski GD, Gagne M, Douek DC, Tomai MA, Fox CB, Seder R, Wiehe K, Weissman D, Pardi N, Golding H, Khurana S, Acharya P, Andersen H, Lewis MG, Moore IN, Montefiori DC, Baric RS, Haynes BF
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    Longitudinal antibody repertoire in "mild" versus "severe" COVID-19 patients reveals immune markers associated with disease severity and resolution.
    Ravichandran S, Lee Y, Grubbs G, Coyle EM, Klenow L, Akasaka O, Koga M, Adachi E, Saito M, Nakachi I, Ogura T, Baba R, Ito M, Kiso M, Yasuhara A, Yamada S, Sakai-Tagawa Y, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Imai M, Yamayoshi S, Yotsuyanagi H, Kawaoka Y, Khurana S
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    Antibody affinity maturation and plasma IgA associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
    Tang J, Ravichandran S, Lee Y, Grubbs G, Coyle EM, Klenow L, Genser H, Golding H, Khurana S
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    Bromelain inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection via targeting ACE-2, TMPRSS2, and spike protein.
    Sagar S, Rathinavel AK, Lutz WE, Struble LR, Khurana S, Schnaubelt AT, Mishra NK, Guda C, Palermo NY, Broadhurst MJ, Hoffmann T, Bayles KW, Reid SPM, Borgstahl GEO, Radhakrishnan P
  49. Mol Immunol 2020 Dec;128:139-49
    Production of fever mediator PGE(2) in human monocytes activated with MDP adjuvant is controlled by signaling from MAPK and p300 HAT: key role of T cell derived factor.
    Liu F, Romantseva T, Park YJ, Golding H, Zaitseva M
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    Secretome analysis of inductive signals for BM-MSC transdifferentiation into salivary gland progenitors.
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    Nonhuman primates exposed to Zika virus in utero are not protected against reinfection at 1 year postpartum.
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    Autoreactivity of broadly neutralizing influenza human antibodies to human tissues and human proteins.
    Khurana S, Hahn M, Klenow L, Golding H
  53. Sci Transl Med 2020 Jul 1;12(550):eabc3539
    Antibody signature induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunogens in rabbits.
    Ravichandran S, Coyle EM, Klenow L, Tang J, Grubbs G, Liu S, Wang T, Golding H, Khurana S
  54. iScience 2020 Mar 27;23(3):100920
    Human antibody repertoire following Ebola virus infection and vaccination.
    Fuentes S, Ravichandran S, Coyle EM, Klenow L, Khurana S
  55. Cell Host Microbe 2020 Feb 12;27(2):262-76
    Longitudinal human antibody repertoire against complete Ebola virus proteome following natural infection reveals immune markers of protection.
    Khurana S, Ravichandran S, Hahn M, Coyle EM, Spencer SW, Zak SE, Kindrachuk J, Davey Jr. RT, Dye JM, Chertow DS
  56. J Infect Dis 2020 Feb 15;221(4):636-46
    Antigenic fingerprinting of RSV-A infected hematopoietic cell transplant recipients reveals importance of mucosal anti-RSV-G antibodies in control of RSV infection in humans.
    Fuentes S, Hahn M, Chilcote K, Chemaly RF, Shah DP, Ye X, Avadhanula V, Piedra PA, Golding H, Khurana S
  57. Vaccine 2020 Jan 22;38(4):800-7
    Expansion of the 1st WHO international standard for antiserum to respiratory syncytial virus to include neutralisation titres against RSV subtype B: an international collaborative study.
    McDonald JU, Rigsby P, Atkinson E, Engelhardt OG, Study Participants
  58. Lancet Respir Med 2019 Nov;7(11):951-63
    Anti-influenza hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin for adults with influenza A or B infection (FLU-IVIG): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
    Davey RT Jr, Fernandez-Cruz E, Markowitz N, Pett S, Babiker AG, Wentworth D, Khurana S, Engen N, Gordin F, Jain MK, Kan V, Polizzotto MN, Riska P, Ruxrungtham K, Temesgen Z, Lundgren J, Beigel JH, Lane HC, Neaton JD
  59. Sci Signal 2019 Oct 8;12(602):eaat6023
    T cell-derived soluble glycoprotein GPIbalpha mediates PGE2 production in human monocytes activated with the vaccine adjuvant MDP.
    Liu F, Endo Y, Romantseva T, Wu WW, Akue A, Shen RF, Golding H, Zaitseva M
  60. NPJ Vaccines 2019 Oct 14;4:42
    Harmonization of Zika neutralization assays by using the WHO International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibody.
    Mattiuzzo G, Knezevic I, Hassall M, Ashall J, Myhill S, Faulkner V, Hockley J, Rigsby P, Wilkinson DE, Page M, collaborative study participants
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    Antibiotics-driven gut microbiome perturbation alters immunity to vaccines in humans.
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  62. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jul 23;116(30):15194-9
    Antibody-dependent enhancement of influenza disease promoted by increase in hemagglutinin stem flexibility and virus fusion kinetics.
    Winarski KL, Tang J, Klenow L, Lee J, Coyle EM, Manischewitz J, Turner HL, Takeda K, Ward AB, Golding H, Khurana S
  63. Nat Commun 2019 Jul 26;10(1):3338
    Repeat vaccination reduces antibody affinity maturation across different influenza vaccine platforms in humans.
    Khurana S, Hahn M, Coyle EM, King LR, Lin TL, Treanor J, Sant A, Golding H
  64. Nat Commun 2019 Apr 26;10(1):1943
    Differential human antibody repertoires following Zika infection and the implications for serodiagnostics and disease outcome.
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  65. J Virol 2019 Apr;93(8):e00169-19
    Broad hemagglutinin-specific memory B cell expansion by seasonal influenza virus infection reflects early-life imprinting and adaptation to the infecting virus.
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  66. J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15;218(Suppl. 5):S636-48
    Fully human immunoglobulin G from transchromosomic bovines treats nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus Makona isolate.
    Luke T, Bennett RS, Gerhardt DM, Burdette T, Postnikova E, Mazur S, Honko AN, Oberlander N, Byrum R, Ragland D, St Claire M, Janosko KB, Smith G, Glenn G, Hooper J, Dye J, Pal S, Bishop-Lilly KA, Hamilton T, Frey K, Bollinger L, Wada J, Wu H, Jiao JA, Olinger GG, Gunn B, Alter G, Khurana S, Hensley LE, Sullivan E, Jahrling PB
  67. J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15;218(Suppl. 5):S597-602
    Antibody repertoire of human polyclonal antibodies against Ebola virus glycoprotein generated after deoxyribonucleic acid and protein vaccination of transchromosomal bovines.
    Fuentes S, Ravichandran S, Khurana S
  68. NPJ Vaccines 2018 Oct 1;3:40
    AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine promotes antibody diversity and affinity maturation, NAI titers, cross-clade H5N1 neutralization, but not H1N1 cross-subtype neutralization.
    Khurana S, Coyle EM, Manischewitz J, King LR, Gao J, Germain RN, Schwartzberg PL, Tsang JS, Golding H, CHI Consortium
  69. PLoS Pathog 2018 Aug 24;14(8):e1007262
    Protective antigenic sites in respiratory syncytial virus G attachment protein outside the central conserved and cysteine noose domains.
    Lee J, Klenow L, Coyle EM, Golding H, Khurana S
  70. Vaccine 2018 Jul 25;36(31):4657-62
    Improving ability of RSV microneutralization assay to detect G-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies through immortalized cell line selection.
    Boukhvalova MS, Mbaye A, Kovtun S, Yim KC, Konstantinova T, Getachew T, Khurana S, Falsey AR, Blanco JCG
  71. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2018 Apr 2;10(4):a029132
    What is the predictive value of animal models for vaccine efficacy in humans? The importance of bridging studies and species-independent correlates of protection.
    Golding H, Khurana S, Zaitseva M
  72. Vaccines 2018 Apr 27;6(2):24
    Development and regulation of novel influenza virus vaccines: a United States young scientist perspective.
    Khurana S
  73. J Virol 2018 Feb;92(4):e01588-17
    Comparison of the efficacy of N9 neuraminidase-specific monoclonal antibodies against influenza A(H7N9) virus infection.
    Wan H, Qi L, Gao J, Couzens LK, Jiang L, Gao Y, Sheng ZM, Fong S, Hahn M, Khurana S, Taubenberger JK, Eichelberger MC
  74. Cell Host Microbe 2017 Oct 11;22(4):471-83.e5
    A potent germline-like human monoclonal antibody targets a pH-sensitive epitope on H7N9 influenza hemagglutinin.
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  75. Antiviral Res 2017 Aug;144:8-20
    Development of an animal model of progressive vaccinia in nu/nu mice and the use of bioluminescence imaging for assessment of the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against vaccinial B5 and L1 proteins.
    Zaitseva M, Thomas A, Meseda CA, Cheung CYK, Diaz CG, Xiang Y, Crotty S, Golding H
  76. J Transl Med 2017 Jul 10;15(1):155
    Impaired B cell immunity in acute myeloid leukemia patients after chemotherapy.
    Goswami M, Prince G, Biancotto A, Moir S, Kardava L, Santich BH, Cheung F, Kotliarov Y, Chen J, Shi R, Zhou H, Golding H, Manischewitz J, King L, Kunz LM, Noonan K, Borrello IM, Smith BD, Hourigan CS
  77. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Mar 6;24(3):e00498-16
    Preexisting immunity not frailty phenotype predicts influenza post vaccination titers among older veterans.
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  78. Sci Rep 2017 Feb 10;7:42428
    Preclinical evaluation of bacterially produced RSV-G protein vaccine: Strong protection against RSV challenge in cotton rat model.
    Fuentes S, Klenow L, Golding H, Khurana S
  79. Vaccine 2017 Jan 23;35(4):694-702
    Development of bioluminescence imaging of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in virus-infected live mice and its use for evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines.
    Fuentes S, Arenas D, Moore MM, Golding H, Khurana S
  80. Nat Med 2016 Dec;22(12):1439-47
    Human antibody repertoire after VSV-Ebola vaccination identifies novel targets and virus-neutralizing IgM antibodies.
    Khurana S, Fuentes S, Coyle EM, Ravichandran S, Davey RT Jr, Beigel JH
  81. J Virol 2016 Oct;90(20):9383-93
    Antigenic fingerprinting of antibody response following highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus exposure in humans: Evidence for anti-PA-X antibodies.
    Khurana S, Chung KY, Coyle EM, Meijer A, Golding H
  82. Sci Rep 2016 May 27;6:26494
    ICOS(+)PD-1(+)CXCR3(+) T follicular helper cells contribute to the generation of high-avidity antibodies following influenza vaccination.
    Bentebibel SE, Khurana S, Schmitt N, Kurup P, Mueller C, Obermoser G, Palucka AK, Albrecht RA, Garcia-Sastre A, Golding H, Ueno H
  83. Sci Rep 2016 Apr 25;6:24897
    Production of potent fully human polyclonal antibodies against Ebola Zaire virus in transchromosomal cattle.
    Dye JM, Wu H, Hooper JW, Khurana S, Kuehne AI, Coyle EM, Ortiz RA, Fuentes S, Herbert AS, Golding H, Bakken RA, Brannan JM, Kwilas SA, Sullivan EJ, Luke TC, Smith G, Glenn G, Li W, Ye L, Yang C, Compans RW, Tripp RA, Jiao JA
  84. PLoS Pathog 2016 Apr 21;12(4):e1005554
    Antigenic fingerprinting following primary RSV infection in young children identifies novel antigenic sites and reveals unlinked evolution of human antibody repertoires to fusion and attachment glycoproteins.
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  85. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016 Jan 27;3(1):e196
    Patients with MS under daclizumab therapy mount normal immune responses to influenza vaccination.
    Lin YC, Winokur P, Blake A, Wu T, Manischewitz J, King LR, Romm E, Golding H, Bielekova B
  86. J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1270-8
    High affinity H7 head and stalk domain-specific antibody responses to an inactivated influenza H7N7 vaccine after priming with live attenuated influenza vaccine.
    Halliley JL, Khurana S, Krammer F, Fitzgerald T, Coyle EM, Chung KY, Baker SF, Yang H, Martínez-Sobrido L, Treanor JJ, Subbarao K, Golding H, Topham DJ, Sangster MY
  87. J Virol 2015 Aug;89(16):8193-205
    Non-glycosylated G protein vaccine protects against homologous and heterologous RSV challenge while glycosylated G enhances RSV lung pathology and cytokine levels.
    Fuentes S, Coyle EM, Golding H, Khurana S
  88. MBio 2015 Aug 4;6(4):e01156-15
    A simple flow-cytometric method measuring B cell surface immunoglobulin avidity enables characterization of affinity maturation to influenza A virus.
    Frank GM, Angeletti D, Ince WL, Gibbs JS, Khurana S, Wheatley AK, Max EE, McDermott AB, Golding H, Stevens J, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW
  89. Vaccine 2015 Jul 31;33(32):3953-62
    ISCOMATRIX(TM) a saponin-based adjuvant promotes epitope spreading and antibody affinity maturation of H7N9 virus like particle vaccine that correlate with virus neutralization in humans.
    Chung KY, Coyle EM, Jani D, King LR, Bhardwaj R, Fries L, Smith G, Glenn G, Golding H, Khurana S
  90. J Virol 2015 Mar;89(6):3295-307
    Post-challenge administration of Brincidofovir protects normal and immune-deficient mice reconstituted with limited numbers of T cells from lethal challenge with IHD-J-Luc vaccinia virus.
    Zaitseva M, McCullough KT, Cruz S, Thomas A, Diaz CG, Keilholz L, Grossi IM, Trost LC, Golding H
  91. PLoS One 2015 Jan 28;10(1):e0115476
    Oral priming with replicating adenovirus serotype 4 followed by subunit H5N1 vaccine boost promotes antibody affinity maturation and expands H5N1 cross-clade neutralization.
    Khurana S, Coyle EM, Manischewitz J, King LR, Ishioka G, Alexander J, Smith J, Gurwith M, Golding H


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