The identification of many seafood products can be achieved through the use of short, standardized gene fragments (e.g. DNA Barcoding, Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing (FINS), etc.). For animals, a fragment (655 base pairs starting near the 5' end) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) has been shown to provide reliable species level discrimination in most cases. For some groups, additional reference gene regions have been established. For example, for certain species of shrimp a 475 base pair fragment of the COI gene starting near the 3' end has also been shown to be effective for identifying species. In this database, the standard 5' COI barcode fragment is provided for all specimens; in addition, an alternative 3' COI fragment is provided for some shrimp species.
This database currently comprises barcode sequences and nomenclature information for more than 1040 seafood specimens of Vertebrates (labeled V) and Invertebrates (labeled I, or I(C) for crustaceans). Additional nomenclature information includes the Latin scientific name, the common name, and the FDA Acceptable Market Name.
FDA Acceptable Market Names and common names are derived from The Seafood List - FDA's Guide to Acceptable Market Names for Seafood Sold in Interstate Commerce. The procedure for establishing FDA Acceptable Market Names is described in Guidance for Industry: The Seafood List - FDA's Guide to Acceptable Market Names for Seafood Sold in Interstate Commerce.
The Searchable Database Table is sorted by Scientific Name when opened. Users may click on any column title to see the table sorted on that column. To display only Invertebrates, Click on Field Search, select the TYPE column, and search for I. To display only Vertebrates, Click on Field Search, select the TYPE column, and search for V, etc. Users can then further search within those results. A hyperlink associated with each Scientific name will open a detail page for that specimen with additional information as well as a reference DNA sequence (FASTA format) that can be used to identify that species by copying the sequence into an appropriate analysis application for comparison to sequences generated from an unknown seafood sample. Sequences applicable for the identification of unknown seafood samples can be generated following the provided Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). In addition there are photographs or links to photographs for some specimens. All specimens from which sequences were derived for this database have been authenticated by a trained taxonomic expert. In most cases, the specimen is also vouchered in a permanent, curated collection. Voucher reference numbers and specimen storage locations are provided in the table and/or on the individual specimen pages where available.
The Posted Date is the date the reference sequence was first made publically available; the Modified Date is the most recent update to the reference sequence.
- DNA-based Seafood Identification
- Single Laboratory Validated Method for DNA-Barcoding for the Species Identification of Fish for FDA Regulatory Compliance
- Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE)
- Guidance for Industry: The Seafood List - FDA's Guide to Acceptable Market Names for Seafood Sold in Interstate Commerce
- Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance - Fourth Edition