Animal & Veterinary
Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network
- Our Mission
- More on the Network
- Conference March 2011
- Proficiency Testing
- Vet-LIRN and Jerky Pet Treats Investigation
- Method Development, Outbreak Preparedness and Risk Assessment
- Vet-LIRN Participation in Emergency Preparedness and Response Activities
- Vet-LIRN Helps to Develop the Pet Event Tracking Network (PETNet)
- Vet-LIRN Program Cooperative Agreements
- Network Laboratories
To promote human and animal health by:
Collaborating with veterinary diagnostic laboratories in order to
- provide scientific information
- build laboratory capacity and
- train scientists
To help CVM investigate potential problems with:
CVM regulated products
- animal feeds
- animal drugs
This program will coordinate facilities, equipment, and professional expertise of government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories across the country and Canada to respond to high priority chemical and microbial feed/drug contamination events. The network provides the means for rapid response to reports of animal injury and establishes protocols to facilitate veterinary diagnostic reporting to FDA.
CVM provides grants/contracts/cooperative agreements to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to further FDA’s response capacity. Vet-LIRN works with the veterinary diagnostic laboratories to document, investigate and diagnose animal feed or drug related illnesses. These efforts can contribute to overall food safety as animal feed events could signal potential issues in the human food system.
Vet-LIRN also works with referring veterinarians and pet owners to investigate cases of potential foodborne illness in pets. Each investigation is tailored to the presenting case, but in general, Vet-LIRN reviews the pet’s medical records, obtains the feeding history, and sometimes requests additional diagnostic (blood, urine, and/or tissue) samples from the ill or deceased pet. When conducting investigations, Vet-LIRN follows specific Network Procedures for Owners and for Veterinarians.
Vet-LIRN held its first developmental meeting on March 3rd and 4th at the Greenbelt Marriott in Greenbelt, Maryland. The goal of the meeting was to establish contact with various laboratories that are interested in joining the network. Comments and ideas were provided by the laboratory directors to help Vet-LIRN plan its activities and coordinate with other networks. The laboratories in attendance are also associated with NAHLN, AAVLD, and FERN.
Vet-LIRN is working in collaboration with the Moffett Center and the Iowa State University to provide proficiency tests (PT) to its network laboratories as well as its cooperative agreement laboratories. PTs are used by laboratories to assess their current capabilities and make updates as needed to enhance performance.
Laboratories participated in six PTs to date including three microbial PTs and three chemistry PTs. The microbial PTs consisted of three rounds of Salmonella testing in dog fecal samples. For each round a total of 26 laboratories participated from the network with resounding success. The chemistry PTs include:
- Measuring copper and other elements in liver tissue with 16 network laboratories participating.
- Measuring 5-Hydroxyflunixin in raw milk samples with 22 network laboratories participating.
- Measuring Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk samples with 18 network laboratories participating.
Strong participation from network laboratories shows that this kind of testing is important to diagnostic laboratories.
During 2007, FDA noted a number of adverse event consumer complaints associated with consumption of jerky pet treats. Product testing did not identify a causative agent, thus FDA issued a cautionary warning regarding chicken jerky products to consumers in 2007 and a Preliminary Animal Health Notification in 2008. There were fewer complaints during 2009 and 2010, but increasing numbers in 2011 generated a third FDA warning in November of the same year. As of September 24, 2013, FDA has received approximately 3000 reports of pet illnesses which may be related to consumption of the jerky treats.
Vet-LIRN became actively involved in pet jerky treats investigation at the end of 2011. We obtain medical histories of pets that were seen by a veterinarian, and based on the case profile, we plan and organize testing of treats collected from the consumer. Testing is performed by FDA laboratories and other animal health diagnostic laboratories in our network. Vet-LIRN also coordinates collection and testing of diagnostic material and tissues from affected animals. Our cooperation with experts from government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories across the country will provide a high level of professional expertise to provide greater insight into pet jerky treats related illness. The most recent document describing the Investigation Rationale and Results was posted October 22, 2013.
Two major melamine adulteration events, US pet food in 2007 and China infant formula in 2008, demonstrated the need to increase capability to rapidly analyze large numbers of samples using rapid and sensitive methods. To address this need, a collaborative project was established between Vet-LIRN and three FERN laboratories with goals:
- to improve and validate rapid and sensitive LC/MS/MS methods to detect and quantify melamine and cyanuric acid in animal tissues
- to analyze melamine and cyanuric acid in tissues of pigs exposed to these chemicals to obtained data needed for risk assessments to maintain animal and food safety.
The data from these studies will be used to assess and improve preparedness in the event of feed or food adulteration.
Vet-LIRN participation in the planning, play, and evaluation of emergency preparedness and response activities strengthens our ability to establish and initiate strategies to fulfill the roles and responsibilities of veterinary diagnostics laboratories in real world emergency events.
In May of 2011, Vet-LIRN participated in the National Level Exercise 2011 (NLE). NLE is a White House directed Congressionally-mandated exercise that includes the participation of federal department and agency senior officials, their deputies and staff; and key operational elements. NLE 2011 focused on regional catastrophic response and recovery activities between federal, regional, state, tribal, local and private sector participants. The purpose of NLE 2011 was to prepare and coordinate a multiple-jurisdictional integrated response to a national catastrophic event. The exercise simulated the catastrophic nature of a major earthquake in the central US region of the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). NLE 2011 was the first NLE to simulate a natural hazard.
In early June of 2012, Vet-LIRN participated in the National Level Exercise 2012 (NLE12), which examined the nation's ability to coordinate and implement prevention, preparedness, response and recovery plans pertaining to significant cyber events.
This was the first time multiple FDA Centers and offices participated in a national level cyber based exercise, and more than 250 FDA personnel served as exercise players or evaluators. By participating in the NLE12, FDA strengthened its capabilities for responding to cyber attacks, ensuring the agency's ability to carry on its critical functions in the face of such a threat.
Vet-LIRN recently became a member of the Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks (ICLN). This membership will help increase connectivity and collaboration with other laboratory networks accountable for providing timely, credible, and interpretable data in support of surveillance, early detection and consequence management of events needing an integrated laboratory response.
Vet-LIRN is participating in the planning of the ICLN Table Top Exercise to take place in September 2012. The exercise will test the efficient coordination of analytical laboratory services for chemical, biological, and radiological events through inter-network strategic and operational planning, identification of accountabilities, communication and information sharing, resource optimization, and resource and response coordination. Signatory departments and agencies involved in ICLN include US Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Interior, Department of Justice, Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency.
The Partnership for Food Protection and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched of the Pet Event Tracking Network (PETNet) in August 2011. PETNet is a secure, web based information exchange system that allows FDA and Federal and State Agencies to share initial information about pet-food related incidents. PETNet’s voluntary information exchange, surveillance and alert system is designed to provide a real-time mechanism for sharing information about emerging pet food related illnesses between FDA, other Federal agencies, and the States. PETNet is currently made up of over 200 representatives from 4 Federal agencies, all 50 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia.
Vet-LIRN is working within FDA to develop the second phase of the project which will include adverse event reporting of livestock food and drugs. More information can be found on the website, http://peteventtracking.net.
Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets
Eleven Vet-LIRN cooperative agreement laboratories are evaluating Salmonella prevalence in the cat and dog pet population across the country. Goals for the study are to harmonize and validate methods, establish future surveillance needs and identify baseline prevalence for comparative analysis. Laboratories created a brochure describing the study to pet owners, patient selection criteria, consent forms, a questionnaire and standard data and reporting documents. Each laboratory will, over a 2 year period, sample feces from 200 dogs and cats without signs of salmonellosis (asymptomatic) and 200 which have signs of potential salmonellosis (symptomatic). This study will forward CVM’s public health mission by establishing harmonized methods to detect Salmonella in animal fecal samples for future outbreaks and by providing CVM with Salmonella strains present in the pet population at this point in time. Benefits already derived from this collaborative agreement were evident in the recent Salmonella infantis outbreak. Our laboratories were able to assist CDC by testing pet samples from households with human patients. The study is in progress and should be completed by end of 2014.
- August 04, 2011 FDA Provides Additional Information Regarding Request for Applications for Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets - a Vet-LRN Program Cooperative Agreement
- July 15, 2011 FDA Announces Request for Applications for Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets - a Vet-LRN Program Cooperative Agreement
CVM Vet-LIRN Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Program
The cooperative agreements are designed to enable the analyses of animal diagnostic samples and animal food/drug products during CVM investigations of consumer complaints or in the event that laboratory surge capacity is needed by FDA for analyses of potential microbiological or chemical contamination. While FDA’s Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA) is the primary inspection and analysis component of FDA, the Vet-LIRN program adds a component that is outside of ORA's usual investigations and testing programs, the examination of veterinary diagnostic samples. Examination of such samples facilitates early detection of animal food/drug adulteration or contamination. These efforts can contribute to overall food safety as animal food events could signal potential issues in the human food system. This cooperative agreement will facilitate methods standardization, training and proficiency testing of the partner laboratories. Such activities strengthen the overall food safety system by developing increased capacity and capabilities to detect adulteration which could affect animals raised for human consumption or companion animals consuming ingredients used in both animal and human food products.
Vet-LIRN has awarded multiple infrastructure grants over the course of several years. In September 2012, Vet-LIRN awarded 23 infrastructure cooperative agreements ($16.5K each) to facilitate participation in Vet-LIRN program activities. In September 2013, Vet-LIRN awarded 4 infrastructure cooperative agreements ($16.5K each) bringing the total to 27. The agreement facilitates participation in Vet-LIRN program activities. The Vet-LIRN cooperative agreements are intended to provide increased sample analyses in the event of animal food or drug related illnesses or other large-scale animal food/feed emergency events which require increased testing of implicated diagnostic or animal food samples.
- June 06, 2012 FDA Announces Request for Applications for Vet-LRN Program Cooperative Agreement PA-12-194
Vet-LIRN Cooperative Agreement Program to Expand and Validate Testing Methods for Food Contaminants in Animal Diagnostic Specimens
The testing of diagnostic specimens adds insight into investigations not routinely obtained from traditional food testing laboratories. Such investigations require detection methods that are validated for organs and diagnostic samples such as urine and feces, which are not typical food matrices. It is the purpose of this program to expand and validate detection methods among Vet-LIRN cooperative agreement laboratories. This activity is designed to increase the suite of validated methods available for testing during outbreaks or events. It is also designed to strengthen the collaborations and integration of the network laboratories in order to encourage seamless interactions during actual emergency related testing. In September 2013, seven grants were awarded.
In 2014, Vet-LIRN initiated a two year internship program to train veterinarians in the area of animal feed safety and CVM consumer complaints case investigations. This intern will participate in Vet-LIRN network activities to document, investigate, and diagnose animal feed, pet food and animal drug-related illnesses. Additional activities include coordinating network laboratory training and participating in test methods standardization, proficiency testing and emergency response exercises. The two year position will be filled through FDA’s Staff Fellowship program.
1. AR: AR Livestock and Poultry Lab
2. CA: CA Animal Health and Food Safety Lab at Univ. of CA, Davis – Chem +Δ
3. CA: CA Animal Health and Food Safety Lab at Univ. of CA, Davis – Micro Φ+
4. Canada: Univ. of Guelph, Animal Health Lab
5. CO: CO State Univ. Diagnostic Lab Φ+
6. CT: Univ. of CT, Vet Medical Diagnostic Lab +
7. GA: Athens Vet Diagnostic Lab at Univ. of GA Φ+
8. GA: Univ. of GA, Tifton Vet Diagnostic and Investigational Lab +
9. IN: Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab, Purdue Univ. +Δ
10. IA: Depart. of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine at IA State Univ. Φ+Δ
11. KA: KA State Univ. Vet Diagnostic Lab +
12. KY: Breathitt Vet Center; Murray State Univ. +
13. KY: Univ. of KY; Department of Vet Sciences; Vet Diagnostic Lab +Δ
14. LS: LS State Univ., School of Vet Medicine, Depart. of Pathobiological Science +
15. MD: Maryland Depart. of AG, Frederick Animal Health Lab
16. MI: Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health at MI State Univ. +
17. MN: Vet Diagnostic Lab at Univ. of MN
18. MS: MS State Univ., Vet Research and Diagnostic Lab System +
19. MO: Univ. of MO, Vet Medical Diagnostic Lab +
20. NC: NC State College of Vet Medicine +
21. NC: United States Depart. of AG, AG Marketing Service Lab Division
22. NJ: NJ Depart. of AG; Division of Animal Health +
23. NY: Animal Health Diagnostic Center; College of Vet Medicine; Cornell Univ.+Δ
24. NY: Depart. of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science; Cornell Univ. +
25. ND: ND State Univ.; Vet Diagnostic Lab +
26. OH: OH Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab at the OH Depart. of AG Φ+Δ
27. OK: OK State Univ., OK Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab +
28. OR: OR State Univ.; Vet Diagnostic Lab +
29. PA: PA Depart. of AG, PA Vet Lab
30. PA: Univ. of PA, PA Animal Diagnostic Lab, New Bolton Center Φ+Δ
31. PA: Univ. of PA, Ryan Vet Hospital Φ+
32. SD: Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Lab at SD State Univ. Φ+Δ
33. TN: TN Depart. of AG, Kord Animal Health Diagnostic Lab
34. TX: TX A&M Univ., Clinical Microbiology Lab Δ
35. UT: UT Vet Diagnostic Lab; UT State Univ.
36. VA: VA-MD Regional College of Vet Medicine, VA Tech Animal Lab Services Δ
37. WA: WA State Univ., College of Vet Medicine, WA Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab Δ
38. WS: Univ. of WS, Madison, WS Vet Diagnostic Lab
39. WY: Depart. of Vet Sciences at Univ. of WY
Φ Grantee: RFA-FD-11-010: Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets: Study for the Vet-LIRN Program
+ Grantee: PA-12-194: CVM Vet-LIRN Vet Diagnostic Lab Program
Δ Grantee: PA-13-244: Vet-LIRN Cooperative Agreement Program to Expand and Validate Testing Methods for Food Contaminants in Animal Diagnostic Specimens