Animal & Veterinary
Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network
To promote human and animal health by:
Collaborating with veterinary diagnostic laboratories in order to
- provide scientific information
- build laboratory capacity and
- train scientists
To help CVM investigate potential problems with:
CVM regulated products
- animal feeds
- animal drugs
This program will coordinate facilities, equipment, and professional expertise of government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories across the country and Canada to response to high priority chemical and microbial feed/drug contamination events. The network provides the means for rapid response to reports of animal injury and establishes protocols to facilitate veterinary diagnostic reporting to FDA.
CVM provides grants/contracts/cooperative agreements to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to further FDA’s response capacity. Vet-LIRN works with the veterinary diagnostic laboratories to document, investigate and diagnose animal feed or drug related illnesses. These efforts can contribute to overall food safety as animal feed events could signal potential issues in the human food system.
Vet-LIRN held its first developmental meeting on March 3rd and 4th at the Greenbelt Marriott in Greenbelt, Maryland. The goal of the meeting was to establish contact with various laboratories that are interested in joining the network. Comments and ideas were provided by the laboratory directors to help Vet-LIRN plan its activities and coordinate with other networks. The laboratories in attendance are also associated with NAHLN, AAVLD, and FERN.
Vet-LIRN is working in collaboration with the Moffett Center and the Iowa State University to provide proficiency tests (PT) to its network laboratories as well as its cooperative agreement laboratories. Proficiency tests are used by laboratories to assess their current capabilities and make updates as needed to enhance performance.
Laboratories participated in five PTs to date including three microbial PTs and two chemistry PTs. The microbial PTs consisted of three rounds of Salmonella testing in dog fecal samples. For each round a total of 26 laboratories participated from the network with resounding success. The chemistry PTs include measuring copper and other elements in liver tissue with a total of 16 network laboratories participating and measuring 5-Hydroxyflunixin in raw milk samples with a total of 22 network laboratories participating.
Strong participation from network laboratories shows that this kind of testing is important to diagnostic laboratories.
During 2007, FDA noted a number of adverse event consumer complaints associated with consumption of jerky pet treats. Product testing did not identify a causative agent, thus FDA issued a cautionary warning regarding chicken jerky products to consumers in 2007 and a Preliminary Animal Health Notification in 2008. There were fewer complaints during 2009 and 2010, but increasing numbers in 2011 generated a third FDA warning in November of the same year. As of September 24, 2013, FDA has received approximately 3000 reports of pet illnesses which may be related to consumption of the jerky treats.
Vet-LIRN became actively involved in pet jerky treats investigation at the end of 2011. We obtain medical histories of pets that have been seen by a veterinarian, and based on the case profile, we plan and organize testing of treats collected from the consumer. Testing is performed by FDA laboratories and other animal health diagnostic laboratories in our network. Vet-LIRN also coordinates collection and testing of diagnostic material and tissues from affected animals. Our cooperation with experts from government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories across the country will provide a high level of professional expertise to provide greater insight into pet jerky treats related illness. The most recent document describing the Investigation Rationale and Results was posted October 22, 2013.
Two major melamine adulteration events, US pet food in 2007 and China infant formula in 2008, demonstrated the need to increase capability to rapidly analyze large numbers of samples using rapid and sensitive methods. To address this need, a collaborative project was established between Vet-LIRN and three FERN laboratories with goals:
- to improve and validate rapid and sensitive LC/MS/MS methods to detect and quantify melamine and cyanuric acid in animal tissues
- to analyze melamine and cyanuric acid in tissues of pigs exposed to these chemicals to obtained data needed for risk assessments to maintain animal and food safety.
Methods developed will also be used in a project evaluating performance of selected commercially available kits in analysis of melamine. The data from these studies will be used to assess and improve preparedness in the event of feed or food adulteration.
Vet-LIRN participation in the planning, play, and evaluation of emergency preparedness and response activities strengthens our ability to establish and initiate strategies to fulfill the roles and responsibilities of veterinary diagnostics laboratories in real world emergency events.
In May of 2011, Vet-LIRN participated in the National Level Exercise 2011 (NLE). NLE is a White House directed Congressionally-mandated exercise that includes the participation of federal department and agency senior officials, their deputies and staff; and key operational elements. NLE 2011 focused on regional catastrophic response and recovery activities between federal, regional, state, tribal, local and private sector participants. The purpose of NLE 2011 was to prepare and coordinate a multiple-jurisdictional integrated response to a national catastrophic event. The exercise simulated the catastrophic nature of a major earthquake in the central US region of the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). NLE 2011 was the first NLE to simulate a natural hazard.
In early June of 2012, Vet-LIRN participated in the National Level Exercise 2012 (NLE12), which examined the nation's ability to coordinate and implement prevention, preparedness, response and recovery plans pertaining to significant cyber events.
This was the first time multiple FDA Centers and offices participated in a national level cyber based exercise, and more than 250 FDA personnel served as exercise players or evaluators. By participating in the NLE12, FDA strengthened its capabilities for responding to cyber attacks, ensuring the agency's ability to carry on its critical functions in the face of such a threat.
Vet-LIRN recently became a member of the Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks (ICLN). This membership will help increase connectivity and collaboration with other laboratory networks accountable for providing timely, credible, and interpretable data in support of surveillance, early detection and consequence management of events needing an integrated laboratory response.
Vet-LIRN is participating in the planning of the ICLN Table Top Exercise to take place in September 2012. The exercise will test the efficient coordination of analytical laboratory services for chemical, biological, and radiological events through inter-network strategic and operational planning, identification of accountabilities, communication and information sharing, resource optimization, and resource and response coordination. Signatory departments and agencies involved in ICLN include US Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Interior, Department of Justice, Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency.
The Partnership for Food Protection and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched of the Pet Event Tracking Network (PETNet) in August 2011. PETNet is a secure, web based information exchange system that allows FDA and Federal and State Agencies to share initial information about pet-food related incidents. PETNet’s voluntary information exchange, surveillance and alert system is designed to provide a real-time mechanism for sharing information about emerging pet food related illnesses between FDA, other Federal agencies, and the States. PETNet is currently made up of over 200 representatives from 4 Federal agencies, all 50 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia.
Vet-LIRN is working within FDA to develop the second phase of the project which will include adverse event reporting of livestock food and drugs. More information can be found on the website, http://peteventtracking.net.
Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets - a Vet-LIRN Program Cooperative Agreement
- Eleven Vet-LIRN cooperative agreement laboratories are evaluating Salmonella prevalence in the cat and dog pet population across the country. Goals for the study are to harmonize and validate methods, establish future surveillance needs and identify a baseline prevalence for comparative analysis. Laboratories created a brochure describing the study to pet owners, patient selection criteria, consent forms a questionnaire and standard data and reporting documents. Each laboratory will, over a 2 year period, sample feces from 200 dogs and cats without signs of salmonellosis (asymptomatic) and 200 which have signs of potential salmonellosis (symptomatic). This study will forward CVM’s public health mission by establishing harmonized methods to detect Salmonella in animal fecal samples for future outbreaks and by providing CVM with Salmonella strains present in the pet population at this point in time. Benefits already derived from this collaborative agreement were evident in the recent Salmonella infantis outbreak. Our laboratories were able to assist CDC by testing pet samples from households with human patients. The study is in progress and should be completed by end of 2013.
- August 04, 2011 FDA Provides Additional Information Regarding Request for Applications for Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets - a Vet-LRN Program Cooperative Agreement
- July 15, 2011 FDA Announces Request for Applications for Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets - a Vet-LRN Program Cooperative Agreement
Vet-LIRN Program Cooperative Agreement
- The cooperative agreements are designed to enable the analyses of animal diagnostic samples and animal food/drug products in the event that laboratory surge capacity is needed by Vet-LIRN and the FDA for analyses related to microbiological or chemical contamination, either through intentional or unintentional means. While FDA’s Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA) is the primary inspection and analysis component of FDA, the Vet-LIRN program will add a component that is outside of ORA's usual investigations and testing programs, the examination of veterinary diagnostic samples. Examination of such samples will greatly facilitate early detection of animal food/drug adulteration or contamination. These efforts can contribute to overall food safety as animal food events could signal potential issues in the human food system. This cooperative agreement will facilitate methods standardization, training and proficiency testing of the partner laboratories. Such activities strengthen the overall food safety system by developing increased capacity and capabilities to detect adulteration which could affect animals raised for human consumption or companion animals consuming ingredients used in both animal and human food products
Information on how to report a pet food complaint to the FDA can be found at http://www.fda.gov/petfoodcomplaints.
Renate Reimschuessel, V.M.D., Ph.D.
Sarah Nemser, M.S.
Andriy Tkachenko, Ph.D.
Olgica Ceric, D.V.M, Ph.D.
David Rotstein, DVM, MPVM, Dipl. ACVP
Jake Guag, M.S.
Renate Reimschuessel, V.M.D., Ph.D.
1. Arkansas: Arkansas Livestock and Poultry Lab
2. California: California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory at University of California, Davis*+^
3. Canada: University of Guelph, Animal Health Laboratory
4. Colorado: Colorado State University, Colorado State University Diagnostic Laboratory*+
5. Connecticut: University of Connecticut, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory+
6. Georgia: Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at University of Georgia*+
7. Georgia: University of Georgia, Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory+
8. Indiana: Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Purdue University+
9. Iowa: Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine at Iowa State University*+^
10. Kansas: Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
11. Kentucky: Breathitt Veterinary Center; Murray State University+
12. Kentucky: University of Kentucky; Department of Veterinary Sciences; Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory+^
13. Louisiana: Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiological Science+
14. Maryland: Maryland Department of Agriculture, Frederick Animal Health Laboratory
15. Michigan: Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health at Michigan State University+
16. Minnesota: Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at University of Minnesota
17. Mississippi: Mississippi State University, Veterinary Research and Diagnostic Lab System+
18. North Carolina: North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine
19. North Carolina: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service Laboratory Division
20. New Jersey: New Jersey Department of Agriculture; Division of Animal Health+
21. New York: Animal Health Diagnostic Center; College of Veterinary Medicine; Cornell University+
22. North Dakota: North Dakota State University; Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
23. Ohio: Ohio Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at the Ohio Department of Agriculture*+
24. Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University, Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
25. Oregon: Oregon State University; Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory+
26. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, New Bolton Center*+^
27. South Dakota: Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory at South Dakota State University*+^
28. Tennessee: Tennessee Department of Agriculture, Kord Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory
29. Texas: Texas A&M University, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory^
30. Utah: Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory; Utah State University
31. Virginia-Maryland: Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services^
32. Washington: Washington State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory^
33. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
34. Wyoming: Department of Veterinary Sciences at University of Wyoming^
*Laboratories that received funding through RFA-FD-11-010: Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets: Study for the Vet-LIRN Program
+Laboratories that received funding through PA-12-194: CVM Vet-LIRN Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Program
^Laboratories that received funding through PA-13-244: Vet-LIRN Cooperative Agreement Program to Expand and Validate Testing Methods for Food Contaminants in Animal Diagnostic Specimens