Food

Defect Levels Handbook

The Food Defect Action Levels
Levels of natural or unavoidable defects in foods that present no health hazards for humans

  1. Introduction
  2. Products without defects
  3. Use of Chemical Substances to Eliminate Defect Levels
  4. Using This Food Defect Action Level Booklet
  5. Additional Copies
  6. Glossary
  7. Commodities and Defect Action Levels

INTRODUCTION 

Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 110.110 allows the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish maximum levels of natural or unavoidable defects in foods for human use that present no health hazard. These "Food Defect Action Levels" listed in this booklet are set on this premise--that they pose no inherent hazard to health.

Poor manufacturing practices may result in enforcement action without regard to the action level. Likewise, the mixing of blending of food with a defect at or above the current defect action level with another lot of the same or another food is not permitted. That practice renders the final food unlawful regardless of the defect level of the finished food.

The FDA set these action levels because it is economically impractical to grow, harvest, or process raw products that are totally free of non-hazardous, naturally occurring, unavoidable defects. Products harmful to consumers are subject to regulatory action whether or not they exceed the action levels.

It is incorrect to assume that because the FDA has an established defect action level for a food commodity, the food manufacturer need only stay just below that level. The defect levels do not represent an average of the defects that occur in any of the products--the averages are actually much lower. The levels represent limits at which FDA will regard the food product "adulterated"; and subject to enforcement action under Section 402(a)(3) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act.

As technology improves, the FDA may review and change defect action levels on this list. Also, products may be added to the list. The FDA publishes these revisions as Notices in the Federal Register. It is the responsibility of the user of this booklet to stay current with any changes to this list.


PRODUCTS WITHOUT DEFECT LEVELS 

If there is no defect action level for a product, or when findings show levels or types of defects that do not appear to fit the action level criteria, FDA evaluates the samples and decides on a case-by-case basis. In this procedure, FDA's technical and regulatory experts in filth and extraneous materials use a variety of criteria, often in combination, in determining the significance and regulatory impact of the findings.

The criteria considered is based on the reported findings (e.g., lengths of hairs, sizes of insect fragments, distribution of filth in the sample, and combinations of filth types found). Moreover, FDA interprets the findings considering available scientific information (e.g., ecology of animal species represented) and the knowledge of how a product is grown, harvested, and processed.


USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES TO ELIMINATE DEFECT LEVELS  

It is FDA's position that pesticides are not the alternative to preventing food defects. The use of chemical substances to control insects, rodents and other natural contaminants has little, if any impact on natural and unavoidable defects in foods. The primary use of pesticides in the field is to protect food plants from being ravaged by destructive plant pests (leaf feeders, stem borers, etc.).

A secondary use of pesticides is for cosmetic purposes--to prevent some food products from becoming so severely damaged by pests that it becomes unfit to eat.


USING THIS FOOD DEFECT ACTION LEVEL BOOKLET  

This edition of The Food Defect Action Level includes the source of each defect and the significance of it (i.e., how the defect affects the food). Food processors may find this information helpful as a quality control tool in their operation.

Food commodities (Product) are listed alphabetically. Each listing indicates the analytical methodology (Defect Method) used, as well as the parameters for the defect (Defect Action Level).

The Macroanalytical Procedures Manual (MPM) is out of print. However, it is available at the web site: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/mpm-toc.html (Updated web reference: Macroanalytical Procedures Manual)

For information on the availability of the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) you may contact them at:

AOAC
481 North Frederick Avenue, Suite 500
Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2504
Telephone: 301-924-7077

The Glossary describes terms used throughout this booklet.


ADDITIONAL COPIES  

A printed version of this booklet may be obtained by written request to:

Industry Activities Staff (HFS-565)
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
FDA
200 C Street S.W. (See updated address.)
Washington, DC 20204

Please include a self-addressed mailing label to expedite shipment.

This document can also be printed directly from your browser. To aid in reading the hard copy it is recommended that it be printed in "landscape" mode.


GLOSSARY  

ABUSE

Improper handling.

AESTHETIC

Offensive to the senses.

CONTAMINATION

Addition of foreign material, (e.g., dirt, hair, excreta, non-invasive insects, machinery mold) to a product.

COPEPODS

Small free-swimming marine crustaceans, many of which are fish parasites. In some species the females enter the tissues of the host fish and may form pus pockets.

DAMAGE

Refers to the condition of the product which shows the evidence of the pest habitation or feeding, (e.g., tunneling, gnawing, egg cases, etc.).

DECOMPOSED

Consists of the bacterial breakdown of the normal product tissues and the subsequent enzyme induced chemical changes. These changes are manifested by abnormal odors, taste, texture, color, etc.

DECOMPOSITION METABOLITES

Compounds such as histamines and diamines etc.

ECONOMIC ADULTERATION

Intentional failure to remove inedible materials from the finished product, or the intentional addition or substitution of cheaper food or ingredient to a product.

EXTRANEOUS MATERIALS 

Any foreign matter in a product associated with objectionable conditions or practices in production, storage, or distribution. Includes: objectionable matter contributed by insects, rodents, and birds; decomposed material; and miscellaneous matter such as sand, soil, glass, rust, or other foreign substances.

FOREIGN MATTER

Includes objectionable matter such as sticks, stones, burlap bagging, cigarette butts, etc. Also includes the valueless parts of the raw plant material, such as stems.

GUMMY

A resinous glaze on an almond kernel that is induced by an insect injury or mechanical damage.

HARVEST

occurs during the harvesting process.

HISTAMINE

A chemical compound formed by the bacterial decomposition of seafood.

INDOLE

A chemical compound formed by the bacterial decomposition of seafood.

INFECTION

A condition due to the growth of an organism in a host, (e.g., rot or decay, visible mold mycelia).

INFESTATION

The presence of any live or dead life cycle stages of insects in a host product, (e.g., weevils in pecans, fly eggs and maggots in tomato products); or evidence of their presence (i.e., excreta, cast skins, chewed product residues, urine, etc.); or the establishment of an active breeding population, (e.g., rodents in a grain silo). 

MILDEW 

Refers to downy mildew which is a fungus infection that causes yellow-brown spots on the leaves of edible greens in the mustard family.

MOLD COUNT

Refers to the results of the Howard mold count method which is reported as the percentage of positive microscopic fields that have been scored as either positive or negative based on the presence or absence of a minimum amount of mold hyphae. Performed only on comminuted fruits and vegetables, and some ground spices. The source of the mold hyphae is rotten raw material that is processed along with sound raw material but is no longer visible due to the comminution process.

MOLDY 

Evidenced by the presence of mold (mold hyphae and/or spore forming structures) that are visible to the unaided eye. Microscopic examination may be used to confirm the presence of characteristic hyphal filaments and fruiting structures.

POST HARVEST

occurs after harvest, for example:

  1. field holding of the harvested crop prior to transit

  2. farm storage of harvested crop

  3. during transit by truck, ship, rail, etc.

  4. at the processing facility, awaiting processing or proper storage

PREHARVEST

occurs while product is in the field, during growth or awaiting harvest.

PROCESSING

occurs while in the processing facility, in storage or during processing.

RANCID

A condition where a product has a disagreable odor or taste of decomposed oils or fat. For example, rancid nuts frequently are soft, with a yellow, dark, or oily appearance, a bitter taste and a stale odor.

ROT

Plant tissue that is visibly decomposed, usually discolored with disagreeable odors and taste. The plant tissue has been invaded and is being digested by microorganisms. Although rot can also be caused by bacteria and yeasts, these organisms are secondary invaders. Molds are the primary organisms of decomposition and the presence of mold hyphae in the tissue is used to confirm rot.

SHRIVELED

A condition where the nut kernel is shrunken and not fully developed, commonly a result of climatic stress or infection by certain molds. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF DEFECT 

Refers to the real or potential impact on the consumer due to the presence of a particular defect. A listed defect can have more than one significance to the consumer (e.g., the mold defect of whole cassia has an aesthetic significance, whereas the mold defect of green coffee beans has a potential health hazard significance due to the threat of mold toxins produced by the mold species known to infect coffee beans).

SOUR

In fruits, consists of the bacterial breakdown of the product and the formation of lactic acid and subsequent sour taste.

WATER INSOLUBLE INORGANIC MATTER

A contaminant of the finished product that consists of fine grit that originates from the sand, dirt, and stones that contaminate the raw agricultural product at the time of harvest.

WHOLE OR EQUIVALENT INSECT

A whole insect, separate head, or body portions with head attached.

WORTHLESS 

Any condition where the product has been affected by organisms or the environment that it has no food value.


COMMODITIES AND DEFECT ACTION LEVELS  

PRODUCT

DEFECT
(Method)

ACTION LEVEL

Allspice, Ground

Insect Filth
(AOAC 981.21)

Average of 30 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 981.21)

Average of 1 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE: Insect fragments - pre/post harvest and processing insect infestation. Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Allspice, Whole

Mold
(MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more berries by weight are moldy

DEFECT SOURCE: : Preharvest and/or post harvest infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Apple Butter

Mold
(AOAC 975.51)

Average of mold count is 12% or more

Rodent filth
(AOAC 945.76)

Average of 4 or more rodent hairs per 100 grams of apple butter

Insects
(AOAC 945.76)

Average of 5 or more whole or equivalent insects (not counting mites, aphids, thrips, or scale insects) per 100 grams of apple butter

DEFECT SOURCE: Mold - post harvest infection. Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair. Whole or equivalent insects - preharvest, and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation,
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Apricots, Canned

Insect filth
(MPM-V51)

Average of 2% or more by count has been damaged or infected by insects

DEFECT SOURCE: Pre-harvest insect infestation
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Asparagus, Canned or Frozen

Insect filth
(MPM-V93)

10% by count of spears or pieces are infested with 6 or more attached asparagus beetle eggs and/or sacs

Insects
(MPM-V93 )

Asparagus contains an average of 40 or more thrips per 100 grams
OR
Insects (whole or equivalent) of 3mm or longer have an average aggregate length of 7mm or longer per 100 grams of asparagus

DEFECT SOURCE: Pre-harvest insect infestation
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Bay (Laurel) Leaves 

Mold
(MPM-V32 )  *

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are moldy

Insect filth
(MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested

Mammalian excreta
(MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound after processing

DEFECT SOURCE: Mold - preharvest infection. Insect infestation - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation. Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Beets, Canned

Rot

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight with dry rot

DEFECT SOURCE: Preharvest mold infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Berries: Drupelet, Canned and Frozen (blackberries, raspberries, etc.)

Mold
(AOAC 955.47)

Average mold count is 60% or more

Insects and larvae
(AOAC 981.20)

Average of 4 or more larvae per 500 grams
OR
Average of 10 or more whole insects or equivalent per 500 grams (excluding thrips, aphids and mites)

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects and larvae - preharvest insect infestation. Mold - post harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Berries: Lingon, Canned (European cranberry)

Insect larvae
( MPM-V64)

Average of 3 or more larvae per pound in a minimum of 12 subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects-pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Berries: Multer, Canned

Insects
( MPM-V64)

Average of 40 or more thrips per No.2 can in all subsamples and 20% of subsamples are materially infested

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects-pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Broccoli, Frozen

Insects and mites
(AOAC 945.82)

Average of 60 or more aphids and/or thrips and/or mites per 100 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Brussels Sprouts, Frozen

Insects
( MPM-V95)

Average of 30 or more aphids and/or thrips per 100 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Capsicum Pods

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of more than 3% of pods by weight are insect-infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of more than 1mg mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest insect infestation. Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - mold may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Ground Capsicum (excluding paprika)

Mold
(AOAC 945.94)

Average mold count is more than 20%

Insect filth
(AOAC 978.22)

Average of more than 50 insect fragments per 25 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 978.22)

Average of more than 6 rodent hairs per 25 grams

DEFECT SOURCE: Mold - pre-harvest and/or post harvest mold infection. Insect fragments - pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation. Rodent hair - pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta 
Significance: Aesthetic, Mold may contain mycotoxin producing fungi 

Ground Paprika

Mold
(AOAC 945.94)

Average mold count is more than 20%

Insect filth
(AOAC 977.25B)

Average of more than 75 insect fragments per 25 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 977.25B)

Average of more than 11 rodent hairs per 25 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - pre and/or post harvest mold infection. Insect fragments - pre and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation. Rodent hair - pre and/or post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta 
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - mold may contain mycotoxin producing fungi 

Cassia (or) Cinnamon Bark, Whole

Mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are moldy

Insect filth
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - post harvest mold infection. Insect infestation - post harvest and/or processing. Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination.
Significance: Aesthetic

Cinnamon, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 968.38b)

Average of 400 or more insect fragments per 50 gram

Rodent filth
(AOAC 968.38b)

Average of 11 or more rodent hairs per 50 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation. Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Cherries: Brined and Maraschino

Insect filth
( MPM-V48)

Average of 5% or more pieces are rejects due to maggots

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Cherries: Fresh, Canned, or Frozen

Rot
( MPM-V48)

Average of 7% or more pieces are rejects due to rot

Insect filth
( MPM-V48)

Average of 4% or more pieces are rejects due to insects other than maggots

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect reject - Pre-harvest and/or post harvest insect infestation, Rot reject - pre-harvest mold infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Cherry Jam

Mold
( MPM-V61)

Average mold count is 30% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest mold infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Chocolate and Chocolate Liquor

Insect filth
(AOAC 965.38)

Average is 60 or more insect fragments per 100 grams when 6 100-gram subsamples are examined
OR
Any 1 subsample contains 90 or more insect fragments

Rodent filth
(AOAC 965.38)

Average is 1 or more rodent hairs per 100 grams in 6 100-gram subsamples examined
OR
Any 1 subsample contains 3 or more rodent hairs

Shell
(AOAC 968.10-970.23)

For chocolate liquor, if the shell is in excess of 2% calculated on the basis of alkali-free nibs

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta, Shell - processing contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Citrus Fruit Juices, Canned

Mold
(AOAC 970.75)

Average mold count is 10% or more

Insects and insect eggs
(AOAC 970.72)

5 or more Drosophila and other fly eggs per 250 ml or 1 or more maggots per 250 ml

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - processing contamination, Fly eggs and/or maggots - post harvest insect infestation 
Significance: Aesthetic

Cloves

Stems
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more stems by weight

DEFECT SOURCE:  Harvest
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic, economic adulteration

Cocoa Beans

Mold
( MPM-V18)

More than 4% of beans by count are moldy

Insect filth
( MPM-V18)

More than 4% of beans by count are insect-infested including insect-damaged

Insect filth and/or mold

More than 6% of beans by count are insect-infested or moldy
NOTE: Level differs when both filth and mold are present

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V18)

Average of 10 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE: Mold - post harvest infection, Insect infested/damaged - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Cocoa Powder Press Cake

Insect filth
(AOAC 965.38)

Average of 75 or more insect fragments per subsample of 50 grams when 6 subsamples are examined
OR
Any 1 subsample contains 125 or more insect fragments

Rodent filth
(AOAC 965.38)

Average in 6 or more subsamples is 2 or more rodent hairs per subsample of 50 grams
OR
Any 1 subsample contains 4 or more rodent hairs

Shell
(AOAC 968.10-970.23)

2% or more shell calculated on the basis of alkali-free nibs.

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta, Shell - processing contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Coffee Beans, Graded Green

Grade defects
( MPM-V6)

Beans are poorer than Grade 8 of the New York Green Coffee Association

DEFECT SOURCE:   Quality - processing
Significance: Aesthetic, economic adulteration

Coffee Beans, Green

Insect filth and insects
( MPM-V1)

Average 10% or more by count are insect-infested or insect-damaged
Note:
If live external infestation is present use the Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) titled " Food Storage and Warehousing-Adulteration-Filth" (CPG 580.100) in accordance with "Interpretation of Insect Filth" (CPG 555.600)

Mold
( MPM-V1)

Average of 10% or more beans by count are moldy

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested/damaged - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - mold may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Condimental Seeds Other than Fennel Seeds and Sesame Seeds

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 3 mg or more of mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Corn: Sweet Corn, Canned

Insect larvae
(AOAC 973.61)

Insect larvae (corn ear worms, corn borers) 2 or more 3mm or longer larvae, cast skins, larval or cast skin fragments of corn ear worms or corn borer and the aggregate length of such larvae, cast skins, larval or cast skin fragments exceeds 12 mm in 24 pounds (24 No. 303 cans or equivalent)

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Corn Husks for Tamales

Insect filth
( MPM-V115)

Average of 5 % or more husks by weight are insect-infested (including insect-damaged)

Mold
( MPM-V115)

Average of 5% or more husks by weight are moldy

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or processing insect infestation, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Cornmeal

Insects
(AOAC 981.19)

Average of 1 or more whole insects (or equivalent) per 50 grams

Insect filth
(AOAC 981.19)

Average of 25 or more insect fragments per 25 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 981.19)

Average of 1 or more rodent hairs per 25 grams
OR
Average of 1 or more rodent excreta fragment per 50 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects and insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair and excreta fragments - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Cranberry Sauce

Mold
(AOAC 970.76)

Average mold count is more than 15%
OR
The mold count of any 1 subsample is more than 50%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Cumin Seed

Sand and grit
(AOAC 975.48)

Average of 9.5% or more ash and/or 1.5% or more acid insoluble ash

DEFECT SOURCE:  Harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Currant Jam, Black

Mold
( MPM-V61)

Average mold count is 75% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Currants

Insect filth
( MPM-V53)

5% or more, by count, wormy in the average of the subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Curry Powder

Insect filth
(AOAC 975.48)

Average of 100 or more insect fragments per 25 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 975.48)

Average of 4 or more rodent hairs per 25 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Date Material (Chopped, Sliced, (or) Macerated)  

Insects
( MPM-V53)

10 or more dead insects (whole or equivalent) in 1 or more subsamples
OR
5 or more dead insects (whole or equivalent) per 100 grams

Pits
( MPM-V53)

2 or more pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer measured in the longest dimension per 900 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Pits - processing
SIGNIFICANCE: Insects - Aesthetic, Pits - mouth/tooth injury

Dates, Pitted

Multiple
( MPM-V53)

Average of 5% or more dates by count are rejects (moldy, dead insects, insect excreta, sour, dirty, and/or worthless) as determined by macroscopic sequential examination

Pits
( MPM-V53)

Average of 2 or more pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer in the longest dimension per 100 dates

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects, insect excreta, & mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Sour & worthless - preharvest, Dirt - harvest contamination, Pits - processing
Significance: Insects, insect excreta, mold, sour & worthless, dirt - Aesthetic, Pits - mouth/tooth injury

Dates, Whole

Multiple
( MPM-V53)

Average of 5% or more dates by count are rejects (moldy, dead insects, insect excreta, sour, dirty, and/or worthless) as determined by macroscopic sequential examination

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects, insect excreta, & mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Sour & worthless - preharvest, Dirt - harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Eggs and Other Egg Products, Frozen

Decomposition
(AOAC 939.14, 940.36, 940.37)

2 or more cans decomposed and at least 2 subsamples from decomposed cans have direct microscopic counts of 5 million or more bacteria per gram

DEFECT SOURCE:  Processing (incubator rejects)
Significance: Economic

Fennel Seed

Insects
( MPM-V32)

20% or more of subsamples contain insects

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

20% or more of subsamples contain mammalian excreta
OR
average of more than 3 mg of mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insects - preharvest and/or post harvest insect infestation, Excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Fig Paste

Insects
(AOAC 964.23)

Contains 13 or more insect heads per 100 grams of fig paste in each of 2 or more subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Figs

Insect filth and/or mold and/or dirty fruit or pieces of fruit
( MPM-V53)

Average of 10% or more by count are insect-infested and/or moldy and/or dirty fruit or pieces of fruit

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - Pre-harvest and/or post harvest infestation, Moldy - preharvest infection. Dirt - harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Tullibees, Ciscoes, Inconnus, Chubs, and Whitefish

Parasites (cysts)
( MPM-V28)

50 parasitic cysts per 100 pounds (whole or fillets), provided that 20% of the fish examined are infested

DEFECT SOURCE: Pre-harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Blue Fin and other Fresh Water Herring

Parasites (cysts)
( MPM-V28)

60 parasitic cysts per 100 fish (fish averaging 1 pound or less) or 100 pounds of fish averaging over 1 pound), provided that 20% of the fish examined are infested

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Red Fish and Ocean Perch

Parasites (copepods)
( MPM-V28)

3 % of the fillets examined contain 1 or more copepods accompanied by pus pockets

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Ginger, Whole

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 3% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 3 mg or more of mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infestation - post harvest and/or processing, Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Greens, Canned

Mildew
(AOAC 967.23)

Average of 10% or more of leaves, by count or weight, showing mildew over 1/2" in diameter

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Hops

Insects
(AOAC 967.23)

Average of more than 2,500 aphids per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Macaroni and Noodle Products

Insect filth
(AOAC 969.41)

Average of 225 insect fragments or more per 225 grams in 6 or more subsamples

Rodent filth
(AOAC 969.41)

Average of 4.5 rodent hairs or more per 225 grams in 6 or more subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation. Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Mace

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 3% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 3 mg or more of mammalian excreta per pound

Foreign matter
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1.5% or more of foreign matter through a 20-mesh sieve

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infestation - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing. Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination, Foreign matter - post harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Marjoram, Whole Plant, Unprocessed

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infestation - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Marjoram, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 1175 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 8 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Marjoram, Unground

Insect filth
(AOAC 985.39)

Average of 250 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 985.39)

Average of 2 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Mushrooms, Canned and Dried

Insects
(AOAC 967.24)

Average of over 20 or more maggots of any size per 100 grams of drained mushrooms and proportionate liquid or 15 grams of dried mushrooms
OR
Average of 5 or more maggots 2 mm or longer per 100 grams of drained mushrooms and proportionate liquid or 15 grams of dried mushrooms

Mites
(AOAC 967.24)

Average of 75 mites per 100 grams drained mushrooms and proportionate liquid or 15 grams of dried mushrooms

Decomposition
( MPM-V100)

Average of more than 10% of mushrooms are decomposed

DEFECT SOURCE: Insects - preharvest insect infestation, Mites - preharvest and/or post harvest infestation, Decomposition - preharvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Nectars, Apricot, Peach and Pear

Mold

Average mold count is 12% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Nutmeg, Whole

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V41)

Average of 10% or more pieces by count are insect-infested and/or moldy

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infestation - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Nutmeg, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 979.26)

Average of 100 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 979.26)

Average of 1 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE: Insect fragments - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Nuts, Tree

Multiple Defects
( MPM-V81)

Reject nuts (insect-infested, rancid, moldy, gummy, and shriveled or empty shells) as determined by macroscopic examination at or in excess of the following levels:

Nut Type

Unshelled %

Shelled %

Almonds

5

5

Brazils

10

5

Cashew

--

5

Green Chestnuts

15

--

Baked Chestnuts

10

--

Dried Chestnuts

--

5

Filberts

10

5

Lichee Nuts

5

--

Pecans

10

5

Pili Nuts

15

10

Pistachios

10

5

Walnuts

10

5

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection, Gummy & shriveled - preharvest physiological condition, Rancidity - post harvest
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Pitted olives  

Pits
( MPM-V67)

Average of 1.3 percent or more by count of olives with whole pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer measured in the longest dimension

DEFECT SOURCE:  Processing
Significance: Mouth/tooth injury

Imported Green olives

Insect damage
( MPM-V67)

7% or more olives by count showing damage by olive fruit fly

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Salad olives

Pits
( MPM-V67)

Average of 1.3 or more olives by count of olives with whole pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer measured in the longest dimension

Insect damage
( MPM-V67)

9% or more olives by weight showing damage by olive fruit fly

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pits - processing, Insect damage - preharvest insect infestation
SIGNIFICANCE: Pits - mouth/tooth injury, Insect damage - Aesthetic

Salt-cured olives

Insects
( MPM-V67)

Average of 10% or more olives by count with 10 or more scale insects each

Mold
( MPM-V67)

Average of 25% or more olives by count are moldy

DEFECT SOURCE:  Scale insects - preharvest infestation, Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Imported Black olives

Insect damage
( MPM-V67)

10% or more olives by count showing damage by olive fruit fly

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Oregano, Whole Plant, Unprocessed

Insect filth and/or mold weight
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more insect infested and/or moldy pieces by weight

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing, Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Oregano, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 1250 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 5 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta 
Significance: Aesthetic

Oregano, Crushed

Insect filth
(AOAC 969.44)

Average of 300 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 969.44)

Average of 2 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Peaches, Canned and Frozen

Mold/Insect damage
( MPM-V51)

Average of 3% or more fruit by count are wormy or moldy

Insects
( MPM-V51)

In 12 1-pound cans or equivalent, one or more larvae and/or larval fragments whose aggregate length exceeds 5 mm

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest infection, Insect damage - preharvest insect infestation, Larvae - preharvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Peanut Butter

Insect filth
(AOAC 968.35)

Average of 30 or more insect fragments per 100 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 968.35)

Average of 1 or more rodent hairs per 100 grams

Grit
(AOAC 968.35)

Gritty taste and water insoluble inorganic residue is more than 25 mg per 100 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta, Grit - harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Peanuts, Shelled

Multiple defects
( MPM-V89)

Average of 5% or more kernels by count are rejects (insect-infested, moldy, rancid, otherwise decomposed, and dirty)

Insects
( MPM-V89)

Average of 20 or more whole insects or equivalent in 100-pound bag siftings

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - post harvest and/or processing infestation, Moldy - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection, Rancid & decomposed - post harvest abuse, Dirty - harvest contamination.
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Peanuts, Unshelled

Multiple defects
( MPM-V89)

Average of 10% or more peanuts by count are rejects (insect- infested, moldy, rancid, otherwise decomposed, and dirty)

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - post harvest and/or processing infestation, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection, Rancid & decomposed - post harvest abuse
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - may contain mycotoxin producing fungi

Peas: Black-Eyed, Cowpeas, Field Peas, Dried

Insect damage
( MPM-V104)

Average of 10% or more by count of class 6 damage or higher in minimum of 12 subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Peas, Black-Eyed Peas, Cowpeas, (Succulent), Canned

Insect larvae
( MPM-V104)

Average of 5 or more cowpea curculio larvae or the equivalent per No. 2 can

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Peas and Beans, Dried

Insect filth
( MPM-V104)

Average of 5% or more by count insect-infested and/or insect-damaged by storage insects in a minimum of 12 subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Pepper, Whole (Black & White)

Insect filth and/or insect-mold
( MPM-V39)

Average of 1% or more pieces by weight are infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V39)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound

Foreign matter
( MPM-V39)

Average of 1% or more pickings and siftings by weight

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - post harvest and/or processing infestation, Moldy - post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination, Foreign material - post harvest contamination 
Significance: Aesthetic, Potential health hazard - mammalian excreta may contain salmonella

Pepper, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 972.40)

Average of 475 or more insect fragments per 50 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 972.40)

Average of 2 or more rodent hairs per 50 grams

DEFECT SOURCE: Insect fragments - post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Pineapple, Canned

Mold
(AOAC 970.75, MPM-V73)

Average mold count is 20% or more
OR
The mold count of any 1 subsample is 60% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Processing mold contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Pineapple Juice

Mold
(AOAC 970.75)

Average mold count is 15% or more
OR
The mold count of any 1 subsample is 40% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Processing mold contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Plums, Canned

Rot
( MPM-V51)

Average of 5% or more plums by count with rot spots larger than the area of a circle 12 mm in diameter

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Popcorn

Rodent filth
(AOAC 950.91)

1 or more rodent excreta pellets are found in 1 or more subsamples, and 1 or more rodent hairs are found in 2 or more other subsamples
OR
2 or more rodent hairs per pound and rodent hair is found in 50% or more of the subsamples
OR
20 or more gnawed grains per pound and rodent hair is found in 50% or more of the subsamples

Field corn

5% or more by weight of field corn

DEFECT SOURCE:  Rodent excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta, Rodent gnawing - post harvest and/or processing damage, Field corn - harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Potato Chips

Rot
( MPM-V113)

Average of 6% or more pieces by weight contain rot

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Prunes Dried and Dehydrated, Low-Moisture

Multiple defects
( MPM-V53)

Average of a minimum of 10 subsamples is 5% or more prunes by count are rejects (insect-infested, moldy or decomposed, dirty, and/or otherwise unfit )

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest infestation, Moldy & decomposed - preharvest infection, Dirty - harvest contamination, Otherwise unfit - preharvest condition 
Significance: Aesthetic

Prunes, Pitted

Pits
( MPM-V53)

Average of 2% or more by count with whole pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer and 4 or more of 10 subsamples of pitted prunes have 2% or more by count with whole pits and/or pit fragments 2 mm or longer

DEFECT SOURCE:  Processing
Significance: Mouth/tooth injury 

Puree, Apricot, Peach and Pear

Mold
(AOAC 982.33)

Average mold count is 12% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Raisins, Natural & Golden  

Mold
( MPM-V76)

Average of 10 subsamples is 5% or more, by count, moldy raisins

Sand and Grit
( MPM-V76)

Average of 40 mg or more of sand and grit per 100 grams of natural or golden bleached raisins

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection, Sand - post harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Raisins, Golden

Insects and insect eggs
(AOAC 969.42 & MPM-V76)

10 or more whole or equivalent insects and 35 Drosophila eggs per 8 oz.

DEFECT SOURCE:  Post harvest and/or processing infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Sage, Whole Plant, Unprocessed

Insect filth
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect infested

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more per pound after processing

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Sage, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 985.38)

Average of 200 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 985.38)

Average of 9 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Sauerkraut

Insects
(AOAC 955.45)

Average of more than 50 thrips per 100 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Sesame Seeds

Insect filth
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more seeds by weight are insect-infested or damaged

Mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more seeds by weight are decomposed

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5 mg or more mammalian excreta per found

Foreign matter
( MPM-V32)

Average of 0.5% or more foreign matter by weight

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Mold - preharvest infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination, Foreign matter - post processing and/or processing contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Spices, Leafy, Other Than Bay Leaves

Insect filth and/or mold
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect-infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more of Mammalian excreta per pound after processing

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Spinach, Canned or Frozen

Insects and mites
(AOAC 974.33)

Average of 50 or more aphids, thrips and/or mites per 100 grams
OR
2 or more 3 mm or longer larvae and/or larval fragments or spinach worms (caterpillars) whose aggregate length exceeds 12 mm are present in 24 pounds
OR
Leaf miners of any size average 8 or more per 100 grams or leaf miners 3 mm or longer average 4 or more per 100 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest infestation 
Significance: Aesthetic

Strawberries: Frozen Whole or Sliced

Mold
(AOAC 952.22)

Average mold count of 45% or more and mold count of at least half of the subsamples is 55% or more

Grit

Berries taste gritty

DEFECT SOURCE:  Mold - post harvest and/or processing infection, Grit - harvest contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Thyme, Whole Ploant, Unprocessed

Insect filth
( MPM-V32)

Average of 5% or more pieces by weight are insect infested and/or moldy

Mammalian excreta
( MPM-V32)

Average of 1 mg or more mammalian excreta per pound after processing

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect infested - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection, Mammalian excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination
Significance: Aesthetic

Thyme, Ground

Insect filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 925 or more insect fragments per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 2 or more rodent hairs per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Thyme, Unground, Processed

Insect filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 325 insect fragments or more per 10 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 975.49)

Average of 2 rodent hairs or more per 10 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomatoes, Canned

Drosophila fly
(AOAC 955.46)

Average of 10 or more fly eggs per 500 grams
OR
5 or more fly eggs and 1 or more maggots per 500 grams
OR
2 or more maggots per 500 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomatoes, Canned, with (or) without Juice (Based on Drained Juice)

Mold
(AOAC 945.90)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 15% or more and the counts of all of the subsamples are more than 12%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomatoes, Canned Packed in Tomato Puree (Based on Drained Liquid)

Mold
(AOAC 945.90)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 29% or more and the counts of all of the subsamples are more than 25%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomato Juice

Drosophila fly
(AOAC 955.46)

Average of 10 or more fly eggs per 100 grams
OR
5 or more fly eggs and 1 or more maggots per 100 grams
OR
2 or more maggots per 100 grams, in a minimum of 12 subsamples

Mold
(AOAC 965.41)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 24% or more and the counts of all of the subsamples are more than 20%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Fly eggs & maggots - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Mold - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomato Paste, Pizza and other Sauces

Drosophila fly
(AOAC 955.46)

Average of 30 or more fly eggs per 100 grams
OR
15 or more fly eggs and 1 or more maggots per 100 grams
OR
2 or more maggots per 100 grams in a minimum of 12 subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomato Puree

Drosophila fly
(AOAC 955.46)

Average of 20 or more fly eggs per 100 grams
OR
10 or more fly eggs and 1 or more maggots per 100 grams
OR
2 or more maggots per 100 grams in a minimum of 12 subsamples

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation
Significance: Aesthetic

Tomato Paste (or) Puree 

Mold
(AOAC 965.41 ** )

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 45% or more and the mold counts of all of the subsamples are more than 40%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Pizza and Other Tomato Sauces

Mold
(AOAC 945.92)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 34% or more and the counts of all of the subsamples are more than 30%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Tomato Sauce, Undiluted

Mold
(AOAC 965.41)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 45% or more and the mold counts of all of the subsamples are more than 40%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Tomato Cstsup

Mold
(AOAC 965.41)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 55% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Tomato Powder, Except Spray-Dried

Mold
(AOAC 972.42)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 45% or more and the mold counts of all of the subsamples are mold than 40%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and /or processing infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Tomato Powder, Spray-Dried

Mold
(AOAC 972.42)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 67% or more

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic

Tomato Soup and Tomato Prouducts

Mold
(AOAC 945.91)

Average mold count in 6 subsamples is 45% or more and the mold counts of all of the subsamples are more than 40%

DEFECT SOURCE:  Pre-harvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infection
Significance: Aesthetic

Wheat

Insect damage
( MPM-V15)

Average of 32 or more insect-damaged kernels per 100 grams

Rodent filth
( MPM-V15)

Average of 9 mg or more rodent excreta pellets and/or pellet fragments per kilogram

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect damage - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing infestation, Excreta - post harvest and/or processing animal contamination.
Significance: Aesthetic

Wheat Flour

Insect filth
(AOAC 972.32)

Average of 75 or more insect fragments per 50 grams

Rodent filth
(AOAC 972.32)

Average of 1 or more rodent hairs per 50 grams

DEFECT SOURCE:  Insect fragments - preharvest and/or post harvest and/or processing insect infestation, Rodent hair - post harvest and/or processing contamination with animal hair or excreta.
SIGNIFICANCE: Aesthetic


May 1995; Revised March 1997 and May 1998 by gcz;  
*February 2005 - Source corrected from MPM-V92 to MPM-V32
**February 2005 - Source corrected from 955.46 to 965.41

December 2001 - Updated Address
5100 Paint Branch Parkway
College Park, MD 20740-3835

Page Last Updated: 07/10/2014
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