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Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)

 

Table of Contents

FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) presents the agency's preferred laboratory procedures for microbiological analyses of foods and cosmetics. AOAC International published previous editions of this manual in a loose-leaf notebook format, and, more recently, on CD-ROM. This online BAM is now available to the public. Some changes have been made to methods since the previous version. A listing of chapters updated since the last hard-copy version (Edition 8, Revision A /1998) can be found in About the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Chapter numbers have been retained from the previous version, however, for this Table of Contents, chapters have been grouped by category. Please send comments to Thomas Hammack.

 


 IntroductionBAM Council
THOMAS HAMMACK, Chair
MAUREEN DAVIDSON
PETER FENG
BEILEI GE
KAREN JINNEMAN
PATRICK M. REGAN
JULIE KASE
PALMER ORLANDI
WILLIAM BURKHARDT
Chapter
No.
TitleAuthors

General Guidelines/Procedures
1Food Sampling and Preparation of Sample Homogenate W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
T. S. HAMMACK
2Microscopic Examination of Foods, and Care and Use of the MicroscopeJ.R. BRYCE
P.L. POELMA (ret.)
3Aerobic Plate Count L.J. MATURIN (ret.)
J.T. PEELER (ret.)
25Investigation of Food Implicated in IllnessG.J. JACKSON (ret.)
J.M. MADDEN (ret.)
W.E. HILL (ret.)
K.C. KLONTZ

Methods for Specific Pathogens
4Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria
Updated 02/13
P. FENG,
S. D. WEAGANT (ret.)
M.A. GRANT (dec.)
W. BURKHARDT
 
4ADiarrheagenic Escherichia coli  Updated 07/14P. FENG
S.D. WEAGANT (ret.)
K. JINNEMAN
 
5Salmonella  Updated 05/14W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
A. JACOBSON
T.S. HAMMACK
6Shigella  Updated 02/13W.H. ANDREWS (ret.)
A. JACOBSON
7CampylobacterJ.M. HUNT (ret.)
C. ABEYTA,
T. TRAN (ret.)
8Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosisS.D. WEAGANT (ret.)
P. FENG,
J.T. STANFIELD (ret.)
9VibrioANGELO DEPAOLA JR.
C.A. KAYSNER (ret.)
28Detection of Enterotoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Foods by the Polymerase Chain ReactionW.H. KOCH (ret.),
W.L. PAYNE (ret.),
T.A. CEBULA (ret.)
10Listeria monocytogenes  Updated 02/13A.D. HITCHINS (ret.)
KAREN JINNEMAN
11Serodiagnosis of Listeria monocytogenesR.W. BENNETT
R.E. WEAVER
12Staphylococcus aureusR.W. BENNETT
G.A. LANCETTE (ret.)
14Bacillus cereusS. M. TALLENT
E.J. RHODEHAMEL (ret.)
S.M. HARMON (ret.)
N. BELAY (ret.)
D.B. SHAH (ret.)
R. W. BENNETT
16Clostridium perfringensE.J. RHODEHAMEL (ret.)
S.M. HARMON (ret.)
Contact: R.W. BENNETT
17Clostridium botulinumH.M. SOLOMON (ret.)
T. LILLY, Jr.(ret.)
18Yeasts, Molds, and MycotoxinsV. TOURNAS,
M.E. STACK (ret.)
P.B. MISLIVEC (dec.)
H.A. KOCH,
R. BANDLER
19Parasitic Animals in FoodsJ.W. BIER (ret.)
G.J. JACKSON (ret.)
A.M. ADAMS,
R.A. RUDE (ret.)
19ADetection of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium from Fresh Produce: Isolation and Identification by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Microscopic analysisP.A. ORLANDI
C. FRAZAR
L. CARTER
D.T. CHU (ret.)
26ADetection and Quantitation of Hepatitis A Virus in Shellfish by the Polymerase Chain ReactionB.B. GOSWAMI (ret.)
26BDetection of Hepatitis A in Foods New 01/14J.W. WILLIAMS-WOODS
G. HARTMAN
W. BURKHARDT
29CronobacterY. CHEN,
K. LAMPEL,
T. HAMMACK

Methods for Microbial Toxins
13AStaphylococcal Enterotoxins: Micro-slide Double Diffusion and ELISA-based MethodsR.W. BENNETT
J.M. HAIT
15Bacillus cereus Diarrheal EnterotoxinR.W. BENNETT

Additional Methods
20AInhibitory Substances in MilkL.J. MATURIN (ret.)
20BRapid HPLC Determination of Sulfamethazine in MilkJ.D. WEBER (ret.)
M.D. SMEDLEY
21AExamination of Canned FoodsW.L. LANDRY,
A.H. SCHWAB,
G.A. LANCETTE (ret.)
21BModification of Headspace Gas Analysis Methodology, Using the SP4270 IntegratorW.L. LANDRY
M.J. URIBE
22AExamination of Metal Containers for IntegrityR.C. LIN (ret.)
P.H. KING (ret)
M.R. JOHNSTON (ret.)
22BExamination of Glass Containers for IntegrityR.C. LIN (ret.)
P.H. KING (ret.)
M.R. JOHNSTON (ret.)
22CExamination of Flexible and Semirigid Food Containers for IntegrityG.W. ARNDT. JR. (NFPA)
22DExamination of Containers for Integrity: Glossary and ReferencesR.C. LIN,
P.H. KING
M.R. JOHNSTON
23Microbiological Methods for CosmeticsA.D. HITCHINS (ret.)
T.T. TRAN (ret.)
J.E. McCARRON
27Screening Method for Phosphatase (Residual) in CheeseG.C. ZIOBRO

Appendixes
Appendix 2Most Probable Number Determination from Serial DilutionsR. BLODGETT (ret.)
Appendix 3Guidelines for the Validation of Analytical Methods for the Detection of Microbial Pathogens in Foods (PDF, 400kb)
US Food and Drug Administration, Office of Foods
 
Appendix 4Food and Feed Items that are of current Interest to the FDA for Microbiological Methods ValidationT. HAMMACK

Archived Methods

BAM Council

MemberAffiliationTerm
Thomas Hammack, ChairCFSAN2013-2016
Maureen DavidsonCVM2013-2016
Peter FengCFSAN2013-2016
Beilei GeCVM2013-2016
Gregory GharstORA2014-2016
Karen JinnemanORA2013-2016
Patrick M. ReganORA2013-2016
Julie KaseCFSAN2013-2016
Palmer OrlandiORA2013-2016
William BurkhardtCFSAN2013-2016

Introduction

To test for an organism or microbial toxin not covered by the BAM, or to analyze a sample that may require special handling or processing, the user is referred to the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International; Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, Recommended Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, and Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods of the American Public Health Association; also, Standard Methods for Water Analysis of the Environmental Protection Agency. FDA works closely with AOAC International, APHA, EPA, the International Dairy Federation (IDF/FIL), and, by way of participation in Codex Alimentarius, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, not all methods appearing in the BAM have been collaboratively evaluated by one or more of these organizations.

Text for the BAM was peer-reviewed by scientists outside and within FDA.

Introduction to the 8th edition, Revision A (1998)

Innovations in methods for the microbiological analysis of food continue to appear at a rapid pace. Edition 8 (1995) of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM-8) contained numerous refinements of procedures and updates of references from the 1992 edition. The list of commercially available test kits and the discussion of rapid methods in Appendix 1 were thoroughly revised. Three chapters were added: the use of reverse transcription (RT) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect and quantify contamination of shellfish with hepatitis A virus (Chapter 26); new procedures for the alkaline phosphatase test to determine whether dairy foods were prepared with pasteurized milk (Chapter 27); and the use of PCR to detect toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in foods (Chapter 28). For this printing (BAM - 8A), the following has been revised or added: Campylobacter (Chapter 7), Yeast and Molds (Chapter 18), Cyclospora [Chapter 19 (Parasites)] and Staphylococcus enterotoxins (Chapter13). In addition, there are updated tables in Appendix 1 on Rapid Methods and revised and corrected tables in Appendix 2 on MPN. Appendix 3 reflects changes in media and corrects errors in the 8th Edition. A table summarizing changes from BAM-8 to BAM-8A is included.

The methods described in Chapters 1 to 28 are those preferred by FDA for the microbiological analysis of foods, drinks, and cosmetics as well as for their containers, contact materials, and the production environment. This is not necessarily the case for the rapid methods listed in Appendix 1: this appendix is a listing of different kits that are commercially available. These methods have not necessarily been evaluated by FDA, and listing of a method in this appendix does not constitute a recommendation.

To test for an organism or microbial toxin not covered by the BAM, or to analyze a sample that may require special handling or processing, the user is referred to the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International; Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, Recommended Procedures for the Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, and Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods of the American Public Health Association; also, Standard Methods for Water Analysis of the Environmental Protection Agency. FDA works closely with AOAC International, APHA, EPA, the International Dairy Federation (IDF/FIL), and, by way of participation in Codex Alimentarius, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, not all methods appearing in the BAM have been collaboratively evaluated by one or more of these organizations.

Text for the BAM was peer-reviewed by scientists outside and within FDA. Outside reviewers included P. Entis, J. Smith, M. Doyle, N. Stern, R. Twedt, S. Tatini, R. Labbe, M. Eklund, M. Cousin, L. Eveland, R. Richter, J. Kabara, M. Curiale, and the staff of the National Food Processors Association. Reviews by FDA's field microbiologists, who made valuable suggestions concerning content and practicality, were coordinated by Meredith A. Grahn and her staff.

The 8th Edition of the BAM was prepared in the Technical Editing Branch, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA by Lois A. Tomlinson with production assistance by Dorothy H. Hughley. This version (Revision A) of the 8th Edition, was prepared and produced by Dr. Robert I. Merker, Office of Special Research Skills, CFSAN, FDA.


Hypertext Source: Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition, Revision A, 1998.