Food

Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program

Updated December 16, 2011

Back to Arsenic in Apple Juice Main Page

From 2005 to 2011, 160 samples of apple juice and apple concentrate were analyzed by FDA. In cases where apple juice concentrate was analyzed, a conversion calculation was used to convert the total arsenic concentration in the apple concentrate to the single strength concentration for the reconstituted apple juice. On December 15, 2008, FDA determined a Level of Concern of 23 parts per billion (ppb) for inorganic arsenic in single strength apple juice on December 15, 2008 (see Hazard Assessment and Level Concern - Apple Juice).

On November 21, 2011, FDA posted 82 new total arsenic sample results as well as 8 additional sample results that were not previously reported. On December 16, 2011, FDA posted speciation results for samples that had been speciated as part of the Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program.

Total Arsenic Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-20111
Sample Number Product Sample Description Fiscal Year Total Arsenic Concentration Country of Origin
Original concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2 Single strength concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2
230618 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-05 ND3 ND Chile
230738 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-05 24 4 Turkey
328812 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-05 ND ND South Africa
452301 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-06 7 7 United States
468644 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-06 ND ND China
436912 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-07 ND ND China 
410772 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 45 45* United States
410773 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
410774 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
410775 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
449394 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
449395 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
449396 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
449397 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
449398 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 27 27* United States
449399 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 12 12 United States
449400 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 9 9 United States
452302 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 27 27* United States
456533 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND Argentina
456534 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 1 1 United States
456535 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
462816 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 45 45* Turkey
464615 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 ND ND United States
464616 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 42 42* United States
464617 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 11 11 United States
464683 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 2 2 Mexico
465001 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 21 3 China
466889 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 51 8 China
468285 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-08 10 10 China
468406 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 30 5 China
468614 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 8 1 China
468644 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 ND ND China
471573 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 5 <1 China
476013 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 73 12 Turkey
On December 15, 2008, FDA determined a Level of Concern of 23 parts per billion (ppb) for inorganic arsenic in single strength apple juice
479360 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-08 8 1 China
440861 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 23 23 United States
452300 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 ND ND United States
466909 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 ND ND China
473892 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 ND ND Turkey
474408 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 ND ND China
483691 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 ND ND Turkey
485186 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 20 20 United States
485187 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 25 25* United States
487030 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 ND ND China
487925 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 ND ND Turkey
502151 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 139 23 China
507178 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 18 18 United States
519455 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-09 6 6 United States
523338 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 35 6 Argentina
523339 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 20 3 Chile
524320 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-09 ND ND Turkey
586482 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND China
594190 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 38 6 Turkey
594202 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 236 39* Turkey
594594 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 178 29* China
596004 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND China
602991 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND Mexico
635868 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND China
636399 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND China
637122 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-10 ND ND China
644387 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 ND ND China
645417 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-10 22 4 Turkey
487852 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
579979 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 ND ND China
598658 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 10 2 United States
623999 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
634441 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND Unknown
634442 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
637933 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 24 4 United States
638429 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND United States
650743 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND United States
652900 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 7 7 United States
657537 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 47 8 China
657538 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 23 4 China
659595 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 2 2 United States
659596 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 5 5 United States
659597 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 7 7 United States
663117 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND United States
666428 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
666428 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
683150 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 7 1 China
686103 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 55 9 United States
686104 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 ND ND United States
693219 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
696042 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 5 5 United States
704764 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND Brazil
709179 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 22 4 China
709532 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 24 4 China
709762 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 ND ND China
709788 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
709790 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
709986 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 24 4 China
710031 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 39 6 China
710261 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 11 11 China
710268 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 ND ND Canada
710395 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 26 4 China
710471 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 48 8 China
710560 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 11 11 China
710623 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 4 4 United States
710624 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 5 5 United States
710625 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 2 2 United States
710626 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 3 3 United States
710888 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
710911 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 9 1 China
710972 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
710980 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 8 1 China
711102 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711013 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 25 4 China
711099 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 9 9 China
711100 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 6 6 China
711103 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 10 10 China
711109 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 1 <1 China
711110 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711238 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 4 <1 China
711258 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 6 <1 China
711274 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 9 1 China
711397 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711399 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711510 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 24 4 China
711520 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 32 5 China
711535 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 7 1 China
711551 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711622 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 9 1 China
711639 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 5 <1 China
711791 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 42 7 China
711793 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
711803 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
712124 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 19 3 China
712230 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
712300 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 8 1 China
712575 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
712583 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
713347 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 51 8 China
713390 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
713395 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
713409 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 13 2 China
713476 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 8 1 China
713479 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 4 <1 China
713511 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 13 2 China
714118 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 29 29 China
714119 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 29 5 China
714123 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 28 5 China
714337 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 6 1 China
714339 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 3 <1 China
714340 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 17 3 China
714611 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
714617 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 9 1 China
714689 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 28 5 China
714933 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 11 2 China
715045 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
715276 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
715278 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
715448 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 ND ND China
715996 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 8 1 China
716167 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 13 2 China
716387 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice FY-11 ND ND China
716388 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 12 2 China
716589 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 11 2 China
716658 apple, core fruit juices or concentrates apple juice concentrate FY-11 15 2 China

*Result was not included in the original version that posted on September 27, 2011.
For the December 16, 2011 posting, the calculations for converting total arsenic concentration in apple juice concentrate to single strength juice were updated to use a µg/kg basis rather than a µg/L basis for the calculation. This resulted in changes for single strength concentrations for 18 of the samples.
1This table does not include the Limit of Detection (LOD) for the test method. This information is being collected and will be added at a later date.
2Updated to reflect μg/kg for the December 16, 2011 posting.
3ND means “Not Detected.”

Calculation of Arsenic Level in Single Strength Apple Juice from Level in Concentrate using Sample Number 230738 as an Example

Apple Juice concentrate: 70oBrix, specific gravity 1.34956, found to contain 24 ppb arsenic

Single strength apple juice: 11.5oBrix, specific gravity 1.04622

  1. To calculate the amount of apple juice solids required to make 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5oBrix).
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622* 0.115 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
  2. To calculate the amount of apple juice concentrate (70oBrix) necessary to provide  100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids:
    X gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956* 0.7 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
    Solving for X, gives a result of 12.74 gallons
  3. The weight of 12.74 gallons of 70 ºBrix apple juice concentrate is calculated as follows:
    12.74 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956 = 143.19 lbs
  4. The weight of 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) into which 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) is used is calculated as follows:            
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622 = 871.32 lbs
  5. The percentage by weight of the apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) in the single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) is calculated as follows:
    143.19 lbs/871.32 lbs * 100 = 16.43%
  6. The amount of arsenic in ppb in 871.32 lbs of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) due to addition of 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) containing 24 ppb arsenic is calculated as follows:
    24 ppb arsenic * 0 .1643 = 4  ppb arsenic

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011

FDA first tests juice samples for total arsenic. The method used does not distinguish between different forms of arsenic. Provided below, are the speciation data for apple juice samples in which levels of total arsenic were at or above 23 ppb. In these cases, FDA tested the samples further to determine the amount of inorganic arsenic (the type of arsenic considered harmful to humans) and two potentially harmful forms of organic arsenic (monomethylarsonic acid, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA) present in the apple juice.[a]  

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011
  Analysis Performed by District or Regional Lab Analysis Performed by Forensic Chemistry Center
Sample Number Fiscal Year Product Total Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg (ppb) Total Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg
(ppb)   [b]
Inorganic Arsenic single strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)   [c] MMA + DMA Organic Arsenic Speciessingle strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)
464616 FY-08 apple juice 42 _ 13 23
485187 FY-09 apple juice 25 8 5 None detected
440861 FY-09 apple juice 23 19 18 None detected
594202 FY-10 apple juice concentrate 39 _ 43[d] 1

[a] The sum of all arsenic species detected may not add up to 100% of total arsenic due to the inherent experimental variability in the different methods used for the two types of analyses.  
[b] An additional total arsenic analysis was conducted using a slightly modified method with increased sensitivity.
[c] Inorganic arsenic = arsenite + arsenate
[d] Shipment was detained/refused.

Page Last Updated: 11/18/2014
Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.