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Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program

Updated December 16, 2011

Back to Arsenic in Apple Juice Main Page

From 2005 to 2011, 160 samples of apple juice and apple concentrate were analyzed by FDA. In cases where apple juice concentrate was analyzed, a conversion calculation was used to convert the total arsenic concentration in the apple concentrate to the single strength concentration for the reconstituted apple juice. On December 15, 2008, FDA determined a Level of Concern of 23 parts per billion (ppb) for inorganic arsenic in single strength apple juice on December 15, 2008 (see Hazard Assessment and Level Concern - Apple Juice).

On November 21, 2011, FDA posted 82 new total arsenic sample results as well as 8 additional sample results that were not previously reported. On December 16, 2011, FDA posted speciation results for samples that had been speciated as part of the Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program.

Total Arsenic Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-20111

Sample Number Product Sample Description Fiscal Year Total Arsenic Concentration Country of Origin
Original concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2 Single strength concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2

230618

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-05

ND3

ND

Chile

230738

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-05

24

4

Turkey

328812

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-05

ND

ND

South Africa

452301

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-06

7

7

United States

468644

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-06

ND

ND

China

436912

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-07

ND

ND

China 

410772

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

45

45*

United States

410773

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

410774

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

410775

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

449394

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

449395

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

449396

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

449397

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

449398

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

27

27*

United States

449399

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

12

12

United States

449400

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

9

9

United States

452302

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

27

27*

United States

456533

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

Argentina

456534

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

1

1

United States

456535

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

462816

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

45

45*

Turkey

464615

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

ND

ND

United States

464616

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

42

42*

United States

464617

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

11

11

United States

464683

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

2

2

Mexico

465001

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

21

3

China

466889

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

51

8

China

468285

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-08

10

10

China

468406

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

30

5

China

468614

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

8

1

China

468644

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

ND

ND

China

471573

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

5

<1

China

476013

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

73

12

Turkey

On December 15, 2008, FDA determined a Level of Concern of 23 parts per billion (ppb) for inorganic arsenic in single strength apple juice

479360

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-08

8

1

China

440861

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

23

23

United States

452300

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

ND

ND

United States

466909

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

ND

ND

China

473892

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

ND

ND

Turkey

474408

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

ND

ND

China

483691

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

ND

ND

Turkey

485186

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

20

20

United States

485187

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

25

25*

United States

487030

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

ND

ND

China

487925

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

ND

ND

Turkey

502151

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

139

23

China

507178

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

18

18

United States

519455

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-09

6

6

United States

523338

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

35

6

Argentina

523339

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

20

3

Chile

524320

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-09

ND

ND

Turkey

586482

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

China

594190

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

38

6

Turkey

594202

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

236

39*

Turkey

594594

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

178

29*

China

596004

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

China

602991

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

Mexico

635868

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

China

636399

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

China

637122

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-10

ND

ND

China

644387

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

ND

ND

China

645417

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-10

22

4

Turkey

487852

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

579979

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

ND

ND

China

598658

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

10

2

United States

623999

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

634441

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

Unknown

634442

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

637933

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

24

4

United States

638429

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

United States

650743

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

United States

652900

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

7

7

United States

657537

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

47

8

China

657538

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

23

4

China

659595

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

2

2

United States

659596

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

5

5

United States

659597

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

7

7

United States

663117

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

United States

666428

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

666428

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

683150

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

7

1

China

686103

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

55

9

United States

686104

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

ND

ND

United States

693219

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

696042

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

5

5

United States

704764

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

Brazil

709179

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

22

4

China

709532

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

24

4

China

709762

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

ND

ND

China

709788

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

709790

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

709986

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

24

4

China

710031

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

39

6

China

710261

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

11

11

China

710268

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

ND

ND

Canada

710395

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

26

4

China

710471

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

48

8

China

710560

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

11

11

China

710623

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

4

4

United States

710624

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

5

5

United States

710625

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

2

2

United States

710626

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

3

3

United States

710888

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

710911

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

9

1

China

710972

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

710980

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

8

1

China

711102

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711013

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

25

4

China

711099

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

9

9

China

711100

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

6

6

China

711103

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

10

10

China

711109

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

1

<1

China

711110

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711238

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

4

<1

China

711258

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

6

<1

China

711274

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

9

1

China

711397

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711399

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711510

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

24

4

China

711520

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

32

5

China

711535

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

7

1

China

711551

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711622

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

9

1

China

711639

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

5

<1

China

711791

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

42

7

China

711793

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

711803

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

712124

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

19

3

China

712230

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

712300

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

8

1

China

712575

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

712583

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

713347

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

51

8

China

713390

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

713395

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

713409

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

13

2

China

713476

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

8

1

China

713479

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

4

<1

China

713511

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

13

2

China

714118

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

29

29

China

714119

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

29

5

China

714123

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

28

5

China

714337

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

6

1

China

714339

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

3

<1

China

714340

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

17

3

China

714611

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

714617

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

9

1

China

714689

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

28

5

China

714933

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

11

2

China

715045

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

715276

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

715278

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

715448

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

ND

ND

China

715996

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

8

1

China

716167

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

13

2

China

716387

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice

FY-11

ND

ND

China

716388

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

12

2

China

716589

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

11

2

China

716658

apple, core fruit juices or concentrates

apple juice concentrate

FY-11

15

2

China

*Result was not included in the original version that posted on September 27, 2011.
For the December 16, 2011 posting, the calculations for converting total arsenic concentration in apple juice concentrate to single strength juice were updated to use a µg/kg basis rather than a µg/L basis for the calculation. This resulted in changes for single strength concentrations for 18 of the samples.
1This table does not include the Limit of Detection (LOD) for the test method. This information is being collected and will be added at a later date.
2Updated to reflect μg/kg for the December 16, 2011 posting.
3ND means “Not Detected.”

Calculation of Arsenic Level in Single Strength Apple Juice from Level in Concentrate using Sample Number 230738 as an Example

Apple Juice concentrate: 70oBrix, specific gravity 1.34956, found to contain 24 ppb arsenic

Single strength apple juice: 11.5oBrix, specific gravity 1.04622

  1. To calculate the amount of apple juice solids required to make 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5oBrix).
     
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622* 0.115 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
  2. To calculate the amount of apple juice concentrate (70oBrix) necessary to provide  100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids:
     
    X gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956* 0.7 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
      
    Solving for X, gives a result of 12.74 gallons
  3. The weight of 12.74 gallons of 70 ºBrix apple juice concentrate is calculated as follows:
     
    12.74 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956 = 143.19 lbs
  4. The weight of 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) into which 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) is used is calculated as follows:            
     
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622 = 871.32 lbs
  5. The percentage by weight of the apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) in the single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) is calculated as follows:
     
    143.19 lbs/871.32 lbs * 100 = 16.43%
  6. The amount of arsenic in ppb in 871.32 lbs of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) due to addition of 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) containing 24 ppb arsenic is calculated as follows:
     
    24 ppb arsenic * 0 .1643 = 4  ppb arsenic

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011

FDA first tests juice samples for total arsenic. The method used does not distinguish between different forms of arsenic. Provided below, are the speciation data for apple juice samples in which levels of total arsenic were at or above 23 ppb. In these cases, FDA tested the samples further to determine the amount of inorganic arsenic (the type of arsenic considered harmful to humans) and two potentially harmful forms of organic arsenic (monomethylarsonic acid, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA) present in the apple juice.[a]  

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011

  Analysis Performed by District or Regional Lab Analysis Performed by Forensic Chemistry Center
Sample Number Fiscal Year Product Total Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg (ppb) Total Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg
(ppb)   [b]
Inorganic Arsenic single strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)   [c] MMA + DMA Organic Arsenic Speciessingle strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)
464616 FY-08 apple juice
42
_
13
23
485187 FY-09 apple juice
25
8
5
None detected
440861 FY-09 apple juice
23
19
18
None detected
594202 FY-10 apple juice concentrate
39
_
43[d]
1

[a] The sum of all arsenic species detected may not add up to 100% of total arsenic due to the inherent experimental variability in the different methods used for the two types of analyses.  
[b] An additional total arsenic analysis was conducted using a slightly modified method with increased sensitivity.
[c] Inorganic arsenic = arsenite + arsenate
[d] Shipment was detained/refused.