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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services


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2004-2005 Exploratory Survey Data on Perchlorate in Food




Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and manmade chemical. Naturally occurring perchlorate, for example, is found in arid states (e.g., Texas), as well as in nitrate fertilizer deposits in Chile and potash found in United States and Canada. Most of the perchlorate manufactured in the United States is used as the primary ingredient of solid rocket propellant. Perchlorate is also used in pyrotechnics, such as fireworks, gun powder, explosives, and highway flares. In addition, perchlorate is used in a wide variety of industrial processes, including tanning and leather finishing, rubber manufacture, paint and enamel production, and additives in lubricating oils.

In recent years there has been increasing interest in perchlorate levels in soil, ground water, drinking water, and irrigation water around the country and what health effects these levels may have. Human exposure to sufficient doses of perchlorate can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its functions and potentially leading to a reduction in the production of thyroid hormones.

In order to work toward development of an assessment of the potential risk of perchlorate, FDA is conducting exploratory surveys to better understand the occurrence and levels of perchlorate in a variety of foods from various locations. The levels of perchlorate found in the foods analyzed will also be used to better understand perchlorate exposure from food and to support action, if warranted, to protect the public health.

For determining perchlorate levels in food, a rapid, sensitive, and specific ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) method, developed by FDA, with limits of quantitation of 0.5 part per billion (ppb) for bottled water; 1.0 ppb for produce; and 3.0 ppb for milk, grain products, and seafood was used. This method, entitled "Determination of Perchlorate Anion in Foods by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry," has been published in the September 15, 2004 issue of Analytical Chemistry (Analytical Chemistry, 2004, 76, 5518-5522) and is posted on CFSAN's internet website.

2004/2005 Exploratory Surveys

The data

The data presented below in Tables 1-12 are results from exploratory surveys of individual food products conducted by FDA during Fiscal Years (FY) 2004 and 2005 (a fiscal year covers the period from October 1 in a year to September 30 in the following year, e.g., FY 2004 is from October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2004).

During FY04, FDA conducted an initial exploratory survey in which FDA collected samples of domestic origin of seven food products (bottled water, milk, lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe). The overall goal of the sampling plan (convenience samples, not necessarily representative of the U.S. food supply) was to gather initial information on occurrence of perchlorate in foods from various locations with a high likelihood of perchlorate contamination. The produce samples (lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe) were collected particularly from regions (i.e., Southern California and Arizona) where water sources are known to be contaminated with perchlorate based on a study report of detecting perchlorate in winter lettuce grown in Southern California or Arizona (Environmental Working Group. Suspect Salads: Toxic rocket fuel found in samples of winter lettuce. 2003. ) and thus, the perchlorate levels are likely to be biased high. Bottled water and milk samples were collected from throughout the country. Produce samples (lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe) were selected for the survey based on their high water content, relatively high consumption, and early indications of perchlorate uptake by plants, when irrigated with perchlorate-containing water or when plants are grown in soil that naturally contains perchlorate or that has been previously exposed to perchlorate-containing water or fertilizer. Additional information on sample collection and perchlorate analysis by FDA field offices during FY04 is provided in a document entitled " FDA Collection and Analysis of Food for Perchlorate - High Priority - DFP # 04-11" posted on CFSAN's internet website.

For FY05, FDA expanded the exploratory survey. Besides collecting additional samples of tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe, FDA collected samples of other high water content foods, including fruits and fruit juices such as apples, oranges, and grapes; vegetables such as cucumbers, green beans, and greens; and seafood such as aquaculture fish and shrimp. In addition, grain products such as wheat flour, cornmeal, and rice were sampled as a follow up to a Texas Tech University study report finding perchlorate in wheat heads (Jackson et al., Perchlorate Accumulation in Forage and Edible Vegetation. 2005, 53:369-373. J. Agric. Food Chem.). The FY05 samples collected by FDA consisted of domestic products grown in a broader range of locations within the United States (i.e., Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Washington) to determine if perchlorate occurs in foods from wider regions of the United States, and not only from regions where water sources are known to be contaminated with perchlorate. In FY05, FDA also collected and analyzed a limited number of imported products commonly entering the U.S. market (e.g., produce from Mexico, grapes from Chile, aquaculture salmon from Canada, shrimp from Southeast Asia) that were available for sampling during FY05. However, food samples (domestic and imported) collected in FY05 are also convenience samples and are not necessarily representative of the U.S. food supply. Additional information on sample collection and perchlorate analysis by FDA field offices during FY05 is provided in a document entitled " FDA Collection and Analysis of Food for Perchlorate - High Priority - DFP # 05-09" posted on CFSAN's internet website.

Domestic produce samples were collected at the grower or packing shed, while fruit juice and import samples were collected at retail establishments. For sample analysis, only the edible portion of fruit, vegetable, and seafood samples were used to determine perchlorate levels. In addition, outermost leaves of each lettuce head were removed, similar to the actions typically taken by a consumer prior to consumption, while the entire bunch of spinach was used to determine perchlorate levels.

Limitations of the data

The FY04/05 exploratory survey data consist of 27 types of foods and beverages(1), representing only about 32 and 42 percent of the total diet for the U.S. population, ages 2 years and older and for children, 2-5 years, respectively. In addition, the data cover a limited number of samples of these foods and a limited number of brands. Also, the data do not fully address the variation from one unit of a food product to another unit of the same product, or from one production lot or production area of a food product to another lot. Further, the choice of food products for testing in this exploratory survey should not be taken as an indicator of food product choices by consumers or of food product recommendations by FDA.

To help address these limitations, FDA is continuing to test additional food types for perchlorate. In FY05 and FY06, FDA tested for perchlorate levels in samples of baby and adults foods, respectively, collected under FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) survey. FDA is preparing a perchlorate exposure assessment based on FDA's FY05/06 TDS data which is expected to be released in the fall of 2007. TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey in which more than 280 core foods (TDS foods) in the U.S. food supply are collected and analyzed to determine levels of various contaminants and nutrients in those foods.

What Consumers Should Understand

Consumers should not view the perchlorate levels as an indicator of perchlorate exposure, or as the "risk" of eating certain foods. First, perchlorate levels alone do not equate to perchlorate exposure; calculating exposure requires consideration of both perchlorate levels, and the amounts of food that consumers eat. Second, estimates of perchlorate exposure take into account not single food items, but the wide variety of foods found in a range of diets. Third, the scope of the data is too limited to properly consider potential sources of variation in measured perchlorate levels, such as variability between different units or lots of food. Fourth, the impacts of perchlorate exposure will vary depending upon an individual's iodine sufficiency. Thus, the data were not generated to be representative of the perchlorate levels in the U.S. food supply but are only exploratory in nature.

Until more is known about the health effects of perchlorate and its occurrence in foods, FDA recommends a healthy eating plan, consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products; includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts; and is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium) and added sugars. Additionally, adequate intake of iodine has previously been recognized as important for healthy thyroid function.

Exposure Estimates

FDA's CFSAN estimated human exposure to perchlorate through consumption of 27 foods and beverages for which CFSAN has collected data on perchlorate levels (See " Preliminary Estimation of Perchlorate Dietary Exposure Based on FDA 2004/2005 Exploratory Data"). Data sources for the 27 foods and beverages are from FDA's FY04/05 exploratory surveys that are presented in this document.


Table 1: Perchlorate Values in Lettuce Samples
Type of LettuceLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Green Leaf LettuceGadsen, Arizona11.810.6
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona10.1
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona10.7
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona10.9
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona13.9
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona14.7
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona23.1
Green Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona27.4
Green Leaf LettuceEl Centro, California9.90
Green Leaf Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California10.4
Green Leaf LettuceHoltville, California17.7
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California1.00
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California1.30
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California3.10
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California3.83
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California5.40
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California5.98
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California5.98
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California6.50
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California7.72
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California11.9
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California14.6
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California16.1
Green Leaf LettuceSalinas, California21.7
Green Leaf LettuceChester, New Jersey1.20
Green Leaf LettuceAtascosa, Texas7.60
Iceberg LettuceEast Yuma, Arizona6.15ND=LOD 8.10
ND=LOD/2 8.06
ND=0 8.04
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona3.71
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona5.79
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona6.15
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona7.68
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona7.73
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona7.82
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona10.4
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona12.9
Iceberg LettuceYuma, Arizona21.4
Iceberg LettuceBrawley, California7.51
Iceberg LettuceBrawley, California11.7
Iceberg LettuceEl Centro, California7.19
Iceberg LettuceEl Centro, California7.67
Iceberg LettuceEl Centro, California8.27
Iceberg LettuceEl Centro, California9.70
Iceberg LettuceEl Centro, California9.96
Iceberg LettuceGonzales, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceHoltville, California6.20
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California0.40*
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California0.88*
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California2.28
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California2.28
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California3.31
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California3.50
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California4.00
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California4.46
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California5.70
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California5.90
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California8.10
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California29.6
Iceberg LettuceSalinas, California32.4
Iceberg LettuceSanta Maria, California2.27
Iceberg LettuceSanta Maria, California7.10
Iceberg LettuceBelle Glade, Florida1.30
Iceberg LettuceBelle Glade, Florida71.6
Iceberg LettuceCedarville, New Jersey2.70
Red Leaf LettuceGadsen, Arizona8.25ND=LOD 11.19
ND=LOD/2 11.19
ND=0 11.18
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona6.84
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona7.75
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona8.41
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona9.30
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona12.2
Red Leaf LettuceYuma, Arizona16.1
Red Leaf Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California2.80
Red Leaf Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California3.00
Red Leaf Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California26.8
Red Leaf Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California52.0
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California0.78*
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, CaliforniaND
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California1.70
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California2.50
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California5.97
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California6.65
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California10.8
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California11.1
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California12.5
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California12.9
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California13.5
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California16.5
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California16.6
Red Leaf LettuceSalinas, California17.2
Red Leaf LettuceHondo, Texas8.51
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona7.15ND=LOD 11.76
ND=LOD/2 11.75
ND=0 11.75
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona7.35
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona7.50
Romaine Lettuce, organic, Romaine heartsYuma, Arizona9.17
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona9.46
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona11.5
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona14.6
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona17.0
Romaine LettuceYuma, Arizona24.7
Romaine Lettuce, redYuma, Arizona129
Romaine LettuceBrawley, California12.5
Romaine LettuceBrawley, California17.1
Romaine LettuceBrawley, California22.2
Romaine Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California5.80
Romaine Lettuce, organicEl Centro, California5.90
Romaine LettuceEl Centro, California11.3
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California0.89*
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California1.07
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California1.10
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California1.48
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California1.60
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California2.30
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California2.48
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California3.79
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California4.16
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California4.50
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California5.80
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California8.35
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California8.40
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California13.0
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California16.2
Romaine LettuceSalinas, California23.9
Romaine LettuceWatsonville, California0.54*
Romaine LettuceBelle Glade, FloridaND
Romaine LettuceBelle Glade, Florida13.7
Romaine LettuceBlairstown, New Jersey7.07
Romaine LettuceBridgeton, New Jersey4.46
Romaine LettuceCedarville, New Jersey10.1
Romaine LettuceEmerson, New Jersey3.70
Romaine LettuceNewfield, New Jersey14.2
Romaine LettuceToms River, New Jersey21.6
Romaine Lettuce, red, certified organicAustin, Texas6.85

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for lettuce.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for lettuce.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 2: Perchlorate Values in Bottled Water Samples
Type of Bottled WaterLocation of Source WaterPerchlorate (ppb) (µg/L)
Artesian WaterAugusta, GeorgiaND
Distilled WaterParkville, MissouriND
Distilled WaterParkville, MissouriND
Drinking WaterAnaheim, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterBrea, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterEl Monte, South El Monte, Rosemead, and Baldwin Park, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterEl Monte, South El Monte, Rosemead, and Baldwin Park, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterIrvine, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterOntario, CaliforniaND
Drinking WaterIndependence, MissouriND
Drinking WaterParkville, MissouriND
Drinking WaterParkville, MissouriND
Drinking WaterJamestown, North CarolinaND
Drinking WaterJamestown, North CarolinaND
Drinking WaterAbilene, TexasND
Drinking WaterSan Antonio, TexasND
Drinking WaterUnknownND
Drinking WaterUnknownND
Purified Rain WaterDripping Spring, TexasND
Purified WaterBrea, CaliforniaND
Purified WaterClaremont, California and northern CaliforniaND
Purified WaterCucamonga, CaliforniaND
Purified WaterDenver, ColoradoND
Purified WaterWSSC Tara Road Facility, MarylandND
Purified WaterWSSC Tara Road Facility, MarylandND
Purified WaterEagan, MinnesotaND
Purified WaterNorfolk, NebraskaND
Purified WaterOmaha, NebraskaND
Purified WaterBishopville, South CarolinaND
Purified WaterRichland County, South CarolinaND
Purified WaterCorpus Christi, TexasND
Purified WaterCorpus Christi, TexasND
Purified WaterSan Antonio, TexasND
Purified WaterUnknownND
Purified WaterUnknownND
Purified Well WaterAnaheim, CaliforniaND
Spring WaterBenton County, Arkansas, Dickinson County, Kansas, or Lafayette Township, WisconsinND
Spring WaterGento County, Arkansas, Dickinson County, Kansas, or Lafayette Township, WisconsinND
Spring WaterHighland, California0.56
Spring WaterOntario, CaliforniaND
Spring WaterNew Tripoli, Bangor, Stroudsberg, Negins, South Coventry, and Pine Grove, Pennsylvania, and/or Oakland, MarylandND
Spring WaterPine Grove, PennsylvaniaND
Spring WaterPine Grove, PennsylvaniaND
Spring WaterJasper, TexasND
Spring WaterJasper, TexasND
Spring WaterKeller, TexasND
Spring WaterKeller, Texas0.45*
Spring WaterWood County, TexasND
Spring WaterUnknownND
Spring WaterUnknownND
Spring WaterUnknownND

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.50 ppb for water.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.20 ppb for water.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 3: Perchlorate Values in Milk Samples
Type of MilkLocation Samples CollectedPerchlorate (ppb)
Perchlorate (ppb)
Raw Milk, batch 1Maryland3.40ND=LOD 5.77
ND=LOD/2 5.76
ND=0 5.75
Raw Milk, batch 2Maryland4.23
Raw Milk, batch 3Maryland4.83
Fat Free MilkCalifornia5.70
Fat Free MilkPennsylvania2.00*
1% MilkCalifornia4.69
1% MilkCalifornia5.86
1% MilkCalifornia6.39
1% MilkCalifornia6.99
1% MilkCalifornia8.33
1% MilkPennsylvania4.30
1% MilkVirginia7.60
1% Milk, chocolateVirginia7.20
2% MilkCalifornia4.31
2% MilkMissouri9.10
Whole MilkArizonaND
Whole MilkArizona3.16
Whole MilkArizona3.46
Whole MilkArizona3.84
Whole MilkArizona4.20
Whole MilkArizona4.60
Whole MilkArizona4.70
Whole MilkArizona4.81
Whole MilkArizona4.90
Whole MilkArizona5.10
Whole MilkArizona5.50
Whole MilkArizona5.60
Whole MilkArizona6.18
Whole MilkArizona6.20
Whole MilkArizona7.30
Whole MilkArizona7.40
Whole MilkArizona8.80
Whole MilkArizona9.40
Whole MilkArizona10.2
Whole MilkArizona10.4
Whole Milk, organicCaliforniaND
Whole MilkCalifornia1.91*
Whole MilkCalifornia3.19
Whole MilkCalifornia3.40
Whole MilkCalifornia3.90
Whole MilkCalifornia4.04
Whole MilkCalifornia4.26
Whole MilkCalifornia4.30
Whole MilkCalifornia4.50
Whole MilkCalifornia4.50
Whole MilkCalifornia4.60
Whole MilkCalifornia4.60
Whole MilkCalifornia4.77
Whole MilkCalifornia5.00
Whole MilkCalifornia5.00
Whole MilkCalifornia5.03
Whole MilkCalifornia5.30
Whole MilkCalifornia5.30
Whole MilkCalifornia5.32
Whole MilkCalifornia5.52
Whole MilkCalifornia5.60
Whole MilkCalifornia5.60
Whole MilkCalifornia5.60
Whole MilkCalifornia5.70
Whole MilkCalifornia5.80
Whole MilkCalifornia5.80
Whole MilkCalifornia5.87
Whole MilkCalifornia5.92
Whole MilkCalifornia5.95
Whole MilkCalifornia6.10
Whole MilkCalifornia6.43
Whole MilkCalifornia7.49
Whole MilkCalifornia7.70
Whole MilkCalifornia7.80
Whole MilkCalifornia9.15
Whole MilkCalifornia9.90
Whole MilkGeorgiaND
Whole MilkGeorgia3.85
Whole MilkGeorgia8.40
Whole MilkGeorgia9.06
Whole MilkIowa7.80
Whole MilkIowa8.00
Whole MilkIowa8.50
Whole MilkIowa8.70
Whole MilkKansas5.43
Whole MilkKansas10.0
Whole MilkKansas10.4
Whole MilkLouisiana3.20
Whole MilkLouisiana3.80
Whole MilkLouisiana3.90
Whole MilkLouisiana4.10
Whole MilkLouisiana7.00
Whole MilkMaryland4.78
Whole MilkMaryland5.21
Whole MilkMaryland5.50
Whole MilkMaryland7.30
Whole MilkMaryland7.70
Whole Milk, organicMaryland11.3
Whole MilkMissouri4.60
Whole MilkMissouri5.90
Whole MilkMissouri6.70
Whole MilkMissouri6.78
Whole MilkMissouri6.84
Whole MilkMissouri7.90
Whole MilkMissouri9.00
Whole MilkNew Jersey3.40
Whole MilkNew Jersey3.60
Whole MilkNew Jersey4.08
Whole MilkNew Jersey4.44
Whole MilkNew Jersey4.85
Whole MilkNorth Carolina5.12
Whole MilkPennsylvania6.10
Whole MilkPennsylvania6.90
Whole MilkPennsylvania7.20
Whole MilkSouth Carolina6.31
Whole MilkSouth Carolina6.70
Whole MilkTexas3.84
Whole MilkTexas4.77
Whole MilkTexas5.62
Whole MilkTexas6.83
Whole MilkTexas7.15
Whole MilkVirginia3.40
Whole MilkVirginia6.80
Whole Milk, organicWashington3.20
Whole MilkWashington3.80
Whole MilkWashington4.20
Whole MilkWashington5.40
Whole MilkWashington6.54
Whole MilkWashington7.47
Whole MilkWashington7.70

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for milk.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for milk.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 4: Perchlorate Values in Tomato Samples
Type of TomatoLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
TomatoesCaliforniaNDND=LOD 13.67
ND=LOD/2 13.63
ND=0 13.59
TomatoesCamarillo, CaliforniaND
TomatoesCamarillo, California2.80
Tomatoes, CherokeeCamarillo, California3.00
TomatoesCarlsbad, California5.20
TomatoesCity of Industry, California1.83
Tomatoes, Heirloom varietyFallbrook, California2.25
TomatoesFallbrook, California3.00
TomatoesFillmore, California4.60
Tomatoes, SupersteakLake Elsinore, California1.04
Tomatoes, Sweet MamaLake Elsinore, California1.70
TomatoesMission Hills, CaliforniaND
TomatoesMoorpark, California7.01
TomatoesOceanside, CaliforniaND
Tomatoes, GrapeOxnard, California1.03
TomatoesPico Rivera, CaliforniaND
TomatoesPiru, CaliforniaND
Tomatoes, RomaPiru, CaliforniaND
TomatoesRedlands, California1.40
TomatoesRiverside, California1.40
TomatoesRiverside, California2.40
Tomatoes, RomaRiverside, California3.00
TomatoesRiverside, California3.84
TomatoesSelma, California0.76*
TomatoesSelma, California6.84
TomatoesSomis, California38.8
Tomatoes, Brandywine HeirloomTustin, CaliforniaND
Tomatoes, HeirloomTustin, California1.90
Tomatoes, RomaVista, California3.87
TomatoesBoca Raton, Florida5.15
Tomatoes, Italian PlumFlorida City, Florida21.1
TomatoesFort Pierce, Florida12.1
Tomatoes, Italian PlumHomestead, Florida3.14
Tomatoes, GreenPalmetto, Florida6.79
Tomatoes, GreenPalmetto, Florida12.3
Tomatoes, Green RomaQuincy, Florida10.0
Tomatoes, GrapeQuincy, Florida11.1
Tomatoes, GrapeWimauma, Florida5.28
TomatoesBrookhaven, Mississippi2.43
TomatoesCrystal Springs, MississippiND
TomatoesMize, MississippiND
TomatoesMagee, MississippiND
TomatoesYazoo City, Mississippi2.17
TomatoesFenton, Missouri5.91
Tomatoes, BeefsteakCedarville, New Jersey5.58
TomatoesCherry Hill, New JerseyND
Tomatoes, BeefsteakChester, New Jersey3.36
TomatoesEast Brunswick, New JerseyND
Tomatoes, PlumGlen Gardner, New Jersey6.48
TomatoesHillsborough, New Jersey16.4
TomatoesJamesburg, New Jersey1.04
TomatoesLakewood, New Jersey2.60
TomatoesLong Valley, New Jersey1.30
TomatoesMonmouth Junction, New Jersey0.38*
TomatoesMonroeville, New JerseyND
Tomatoes, BeefsteakSwedesboro, New JerseyND
TomatoesThorofare, New JerseyND
TomatoesMount Olive, North Carolina9.97
TomatoesEvans City, PennsylvaniaND
TomatoesNew Ringgold, Pennsylvania4.30
TomatoesValencia, Pennsylvania1.10
TomatoesYardley, PennsylvaniaND
TomatoesYardley, Pennsylvania1.80
TomatoesSummerton, South Carolina4.32
Tomatoes, GrapeMexico195

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for tomatoes.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for tomatoes.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 5: Perchlorate Values in Carrot Samples
Type of CarrotLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
CarrotsTolleson, Arizona27.8ND=LOD 15.86
ND=LOD/2 15.85
ND=0 15.85
CarrotsTolleson, Arizona36.1
CarrotsTolleson, Arizona32.9
CarrotsAcampo, California10.0
Carrots, babyArvin, California2.24
CarrotsArvin, California4.53
CarrotsArvin, California7.01
CarrotsArvin, California33.0
Carrots, organicArvin, California87.6
CarrotsBakersfield, CaliforniaND
CarrotsBakersfield, California11.9
CarrotsBakersfield, California13.7
CarrotsBell Gardens, California0.56*
CarrotsCamarillo, California5.24
CarrotsCamarillo, California5.40
CarrotsCamarillo, California14.8
CarrotsCamarillo, California15.5
CarrotsCamarillo, California111
CarrotsCarpinteria, California2.00
CarrotsCarson, California1.17
CarrotsCoachella, California1.39
CarrotsCoachella, California1.39
CarrotsCoachella, California31.5
CarrotsGarden Grove, California1.20
CarrotsGoleta, CaliforniaND
Carrots, organicLamont, California14.2
CarrotsLinden, California13.2
CarrotsLong Beach, California2.39
CarrotsMoorpark, California81.3
CarrotsOntario, California9.40
CarrotsOxnard, California3.40
CarrotsSanta Maria, California7.59
CarrotsGreeley, ColoradoND
CarrotsLake Park, Georgia21.7
CarrotsKansas City, Kansas20.1
CarrotsWichita, Kansas1.54
CarrotsWichita, Kansas2.70
CarrotsHudsonville, Michigan9.23
CarrotsEdinburg, Texas2.36
CarrotsProsser, Washington0.84*
CarrotsProsser, Washington5.10
CarrotsProsser, Washington5.20
CarrotsProsser, Washington5.30
CarrotsProsser, Washington7.00
CarrotsProsser, Washington7.30
CarrotsProsser, Washington8.00
CarrotsProsser, Washington9.47
CarrotsProsser, Washington10.5
CarrotsProsser, Washington10.9
CarrotsProsser, Washington11.2
CarrotsProsser, Washington12.5
CarrotsProsser, Washington23.8
CarrotsProsser, Washington27.4
CarrotsProsser, Washington36.1

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for carrots
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for carrots.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 6: Perchlorate Values in Spinach Samples
Type of SpinachLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
SpinachArroyo Grande, California5.94115
Spinach, babyBrawley, California154
Spinach, babyBrawley, California927
SpinachCarlsbad, California96.0
SpinachCarson, California8.83
SpinachCastroville, California19.9
SpinachFillmore, California47.8
SpinachLompoc, California13.5
SpinachLong Beach, California266
SpinachMoorpark, California16.7
SpinachMoorpark, California259
SpinachMoss Landing, California137
SpinachOceano, California7.32
SpinachOceano, California56.3
SpinachOxnard, California14.8
SpinachOxnard, California19.9
SpinachOxnard, California117
SpinachOxnard, California131
SpinachPico Rivera, California13.5
SpinachPlacentia, California167
Spinach, AsianRiverside, California680
SpinachSalinas California32.8
SpinachSalinas, California51.5
SpinachSanata Maria, California12.2
SpinachSanata Maria, California12.7
SpinachSanta Maria, California38.0
SpinachSanta Maria, California39.2
Spinach, babySanata Maria, California111
SpinachSanta Paula, California7.87
SpinachSomis, California72.0
SpinachEast Windsor, New Jersey8.15
SpinachVineland, New Jersey40.9
Spinach, babyWayne, New Jersey6.02

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for spinach.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for spinach.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 7: Perchlorate Values in Melon Samples
Type of MelonLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
CantaloupesGoodyear, Arizona37.128.62
CantaloupesGoodyear, Arizona38.0
CantaloupesGoodyear, Arizona57.8
CantaloupesGoodyear, Arizona63.3
CantaloupesGoodyear, Arizona66.6
CantaloupesParker, Arizona6.72
CantaloupesParker, Arizona9.31
CantaloupesParker, Arizona10.6
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona3.15
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona3.23
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona4.04
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona5.16
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona6.33
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona14.2
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona16.1
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona16.1
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona17.9
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona18.6
CantaloupesYuma, Arizona114
CantaloupesBrawley, California11.4
CantaloupesBrawley, California19.9
CantaloupesBlythe, California4.72
CantaloupesBlythe, California7.66
CantaloupesBlythe, California8.08
CantaloupesHuron, California1.06
CantaloupesHuron, California0.95*
CantaloupesHuron, California7.47
CantaloupesLos Angeles, California6.16
CantaloupesLos Angeles, California6.35
CantaloupesLos Angeles, California6.36
CantaloupesMendota, California8.83
CantaloupesMendota, California14.1
CantaloupesRich Hill, Missouri0.87*
CantaloupesBainbridge, Pennsylvania3.00
CantaloupesNew Ringgold, Pennsylvania2.90
CantaloupesPleasant, Pennsylvania0.52*
CantaloupesValencia, Pennsylvania4.90
CantaloupesYardley, Pennsylvania11.5
CantaloupesCarrizo Springs, Texas2.06
CantaloupesJacksonville, Texas3.81
CantaloupesMcKinney, Texas8.86
CantaloupesMount Selman, Texas1.62
CantaloupesPecos, Texas2.57
CantaloupesUvalde, Texas2.02
CantaloupesUvalde, Texas2.62
CantaloupesCosta Rica1.34
CantaloupesDominican Republic713
CantaloupesCosta Rica0.99*

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for melons
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for melons
(4) ** =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 8: Perchlorate Values in Fruit Samples
Type of FruitLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Apples, GalaAcampo, CaliforniaNDND=LOD 0.30
ND=LOD/2 0.15
ND=0 0.0
Apples, GravensteinSebastopol, CaliforniaND
Apples, GravensteinSebastopol, CaliforniaND
Apples, GravensteinSebastopol, CaliforniaND
Apples, Pink PearlSebastopol, CaliforniaND
Apples, Arkansas BlackTaylorsville, North CarolinaND
Apples, Granny SmithHendersonville, North CarolinaND
Apples, RomeFlat Rock, North CarolinaND
Apple, GalaMonroeville, New JerseyND
Grapes, GreenExeter, CaliforniaNDND=LOD 8.58
ND=LOD/2 8.51
ND=0 8.44
Grapes, RedExeter, California1.30
Grapes, Red FlameEsparto, CaliforniaND
Grapes, Red SeedlessHughson, CaliforniaND
GrapesMarysville, California4.00
Grapes, ConcordAvondale, PennsylvaniaND
Grapes, ChardonnayGap, Pennsylvania0.94*
GrapesGirard, PennsylvaniaND
OrangesRiverside, California1.29ND=LOD 3.47
ND=LOD/2 3.39
ND=0 3.32
OrangesRedlands, California3.27
OrangesRedlands, California23.3
OrangesRiverside, CaliforniaND
OrangesRiverside, CaliforniaND
Oranges, ValenciaImmokalee, FloridaND
Oranges, ValenciaLantana, FloridaND
Oranges, ValenciaTitusville, Florida1.82
Oranges, ValenciaWinter Garden, Florida3.49
Oranges, ValenciaWinter Garden, FloridaND
StrawberriesBuellton, California2.68ND=LOD 2.14
ND=LOD/2 2.11
ND=0 2.08
StrawberriesCardiff, California1.39
StrawberriesCarlsbad, California1.46
StrawberriesCarlsbad, California1.95
StrawberriesDel Mar, California1.66
StrawberriesEscondido, California2.13
StrawberriesFallbrook, CaliforniaND
StrawberriesOceanside, CaliforniaND
StrawberriesSalinas, California11.3
StrawberriesWatsonville, California1.51
StrawberriesWatsonville, California1.61
StrawberriesWatsonville, California1.63
StrawberriesWatsonville, California1.83
StrawberriesWatsonville, California2.39
StrawberriesWatsonville, California6.31
StrawberriesWatsonville, CaliforniaND
StrawberriesWatsonville, CaliforniaND
StrawberriesWatsonville, California0.80*
StrawberriesWatsonville, California0.80*
WatermelonGilbert, Arizona1.00ND=LOD 1.96
ND=LOD/2 1.91
ND=0 1.85
WatermelonPicacho, ArizonaND
WatermelonCarlsbad, CaliforniaND
WatermelonCarlsbad, CaliforniaND
WatermelonCoachella, CaliforniaND
WatermelonHemet, California3.28
WatermelonLake Elsinore, California2.96
WatermelonMendota, California1.31
WatermelonNewport Beach, CaliforniaND
WatermelonAvon Park, Florida1.65
Watermelon, seedlessDover, Florida2.71
WatermelonHawthorne, FloridaND
WatermelonPlant City, Florida8.34
WatermelonHessmer Louisiana1.35
WatermelonHessmer Louisiana2.19
WatermelonLucedale, Mississippi6.99
WatermelonPort Arthur, TexasND

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for fruits.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for fruits.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 9: Perchlorate Values in Fruit Juice Samples
Type of Fruit JuicePurchase LocationPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Apple juiceLa Jolla, California1.492.15
Apple juice from concentrateLa Jolla, California2.52
Apple juice from concentrateSan Diego, California2.35
Apple juice concentrateChina2.19
Apple juice concentrateChina3.45
Apple juice concentrate, clearChina1.28
Apple nectarEl Salvador1.56
Apple nectarEl Salvador3.11
Apple juice nectarVenezuela1.39
Orange juiceHouston, Texas2.272.59
Orange juiceHouston, Texas2.43
Orange juiceHouston, Texas2.53
Orange juiceHouston, Texas2.58
Orange juiceHouston, Texas3.15

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for fruit juices.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for fruit juices.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 10: Perchlorate Values in Vegetable Samples
Type of VegetablesLocation of GrowerPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
BroccoliCastroville, California10.3ND=LOD 8.49
ND=LOD/2 8.47
ND=0 8.44
BroccoliKing City, California9.87
BroccoliMoorpark, California3.00
BroccoliOceano, CaliforniaND
BroccoliOxnard, California23.1
BroccoliOxnard, CaliforniaND
BroccoliSalinas, California2.48
BroccoliSanta Maria, California4.82
BroccoliEast Windsor, New Jersey6.96
BroccoliHackettstown, New Jersey3.60
BroccoliBuckingham, Pennsylvania7.68
Broccoli, organicGreensburg, Pennsylvania40.2
BroccoliRichland, Pennsylvania4.67
BroccoliUvalde County, Texas1.60
Cabbage, greenCarlsbad, California10.9ND=LOD 8.80
ND=LOD/2 8.74
ND=0 8.68
Cabbage, greenDove Canyon, California25.6
Cabbage, redFallbrook, California24.3
Cabbage, redLong Beach, California8.07
Cabbage, greenRedlands, California4.10
Cabbage, greenRiverside, California24.7
CabbageSalinas, California5.13
Cabbage, redWestminster, CaliforniaND
Collard GreensOxnard, California39.192.4
Collard GreensWatsonville, California135
Collard GreensMount Olive, North Carolina238
Collard GreensMurphy, North Carolina142
Collard GreensNewton Grove, North Carolina47.8
Collard GreensRaleigh, North Carolina39.7
Collard GreensRaleigh, North Carolina316
Collard GreensPeleion, South Carolina69.1
Collard GreensUnknown8.61
Collard GreensUnknown17.3
Collard GreensUnknown26.8
Collard GreensUnknown42.2
Collard GreensUnknown58.2
Mustard GreensOxnard, California114
CucumbersBuellton, California3.26ND=LOD 6.64
ND=LOD/2 6.62
ND=0 6.59
CucumbersFillmore, California27.2
CucumbersFountain Valley, California3.63
CucumbersHighland, California0.66*
CucumbersOceanside, California14.1
CucumbersOxnard, California3.08
CucumbersPico Rivera, California18.02
CucumbersRiverside, California3.53
CucumbersRiverside, California3.69
CucumbersRiverside, California14.6
CucumbersWestminster, California4.39
CucumbersStarke, Florida4.93
CucumbersNorman Park, Georgia2.20
CucumbersHudsonville, MichiganND
CucumbersSouth Haven, Michigan3.84
CucumbersDominican RepublicND
CucumbersDominican Republic0.30*
CucumbersDominican Republic7.73
Cucumbers, babyDominican Republic14.0
Cucumbers, seedlessCanadaND
Green BeansAcampo, California6.62ND=LOD 6.12
ND=LOD/2 6.09
ND=0 6.05
Green BeansArvin, California8.88
Green BeansCarlsbad, California5.09
Green BeansCarlsbad, California9.73
Green BeansCarlsbad, California10.2
Green BeansFountain Valley, California25.9
Green BeansLinden, California5.34
Green BeansLong Beach, CaliforniaND
Green BeansSacramento, California1.36
Green BeansSacramento, California3.29
Green BeansSacramento, California4.63
Green BeansSacramento, California5.39
Green BeansSacramento, California7.46
Green BeansWestminster, California4.82
Green BeansCanada7.18
Green BeansCanada9.17
Green BeansCanadaND
Green BeansCanadaND
Green Beans (string beans)CanadaND
Onions, redCarlsbad, California0.32*ND=LOD 0.53
ND=LOD/2 0.42
ND=0 0.31
Onions, redFallbrook, CaliforniaND
Onions, redRamona, California1.79
Onions, redValley Center, CaliforniaND
Onions, sweetColumbus, New MexicoND
Onions, whiteLancaster, CaliforniaND
Onions, yellowFive Points, CaliforniaND
Onions, yellowDeming, New MexicoND
Onions, yellowHatch, New MexicoND
Onions, yellowLas Cruces, New MexicoND
Green OnionsMoorpark, CaliforniaND
Green Onions w/o bulbsOxnard, California1.56
Potatoes, white, ShepodyMountain Home, IdahoNDND=LOD 0.30
ND=LOD/2 0.15
ND=0 0.00
Potatoes, white, ShepodyE Declo, IdahoND
Potatoes, RussetClear Lake, MinnesotaND
Potatoes, whiteClear Lake, MinnesotaND
Potatoes, Yukon GoldClear Lake, MinnesotaND
Potatoes, redHoople, North DakotaND
Sweet PotatoesAtwater, California0.85*ND=LOD 1.24
Sweet PotatoesAtwater, California1.47
Sweet PotatoesPauma Valley, California0.97*
Sweet PotatoesUnknown1.00
Sweet PotatoesUnknown1.07
Sweet PotatoesUnknown2.07

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for vegetables.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for vegetables.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 11: Perchlorate Values in Grain Samples
Type of GrainPurchase LocationPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Corn masa mix, instantYakima, WashingtonNDND=LOD 1.16
ND=LOD/2 0.68
ND=0 0.20
Corn mealWichita, KansasND
Corn mealHouston, TexasND
Corn meal, Polenta typePhoenix, Arizona4.46
Corn meal, Polenta typeSan Francisco, CaliforniaND
Corn meal, 100% stone groundPhoenix, ArizonaND
Corn meal, whitePhoenix, ArizonaND
Corn meal, whiteOakland, CaliforniaND
Corn meal, whiteDes Moines, IowaND
Corn meal, whiteOmaha, NebraskaND
Corn meal, yellowPhoenix, ArizonaND
Corn meal, yellowPhoenix, ArizonaND
Corn meal, yellowDavenport, IowaND
Corn meal, yellowHelena, MontanaND
Corn meal, yellowHelena, MontanaND
Corn meal, yellowDallas, TexasND
Corn meal, yellowSan Antonio, TexasND
Corn meal, yellowSan Antonio, TexasND
Corn meal, yellowYakima, WashingtonND
Corn meal, yellowYakima, WashingtonND
Corn meal, yellow, organicSan Antonio, TexasND
Grits (cornmeal)Pacifica, CaliforniaND
OatmealLittle Rock, Arkansas1.88*ND=LOD 3.96
ND=LOD/2 3.85
ND=0 3.74
OatmealLittle Rock, Arkansas4.11
OatmealLittle Rock, Arkansas6.42
OatmealPhoenix, Arizona2.58*
OatmealPhoenix, Arizona12.2
OatmealPhoenix, ArizonaND
OatmealPhoenix, ArizonaND
OatmealAlameda, California4.16
OatmealOakland, CaliforniaND
OatmealPacifica, California8.85
OatmealPacifica, CaliforniaND
OatmealSan Francisco, California4.12
OatmealBoise, Idaho1.68*
OatmealBoise, Idaho3.45
OatmealCedar Rapids, Iowa8.22
OatmealDes Moines, IowaND
OatmealWichita, Kansas3.54
OatmealOmaha, Nebraska8.36
OatmealMill Creek, Washington2.21*
OatmealMill Creek, Washington3.71
Oatmeal cereal for babyPhoenix, Arizona1.67*
Oat flakes, babySan Francisco, California5.03
Rice, BrownChicago, IllinoisNDND=LOD 1.00
ND=LOD/2 0.50
ND=0 0.00
Rice, BrownChicago, IllinoisND
Rice, BrownIndianapolis, IndianaND
Rice, BrownIndianapolis, IndianaND
Rice, Brown, instantChicago, IllinoisND
Rice, Brown, instant, whole grainChicago, IllinoisND
Rice, Brown, instantChicago, IllinoisND
Rice, Brown, instantIndianapolis, IndianaND
Rice, Brown, instantIndianapolis, IndianaND
Rice, Brown, instantIndianapolis, IndianaND
Rice, whiteWichita, KansasNDND=LOD 1.00
ND=LOD/2 0.50
ND=0 0.00
Rice, whiteOmaha, NebraskaND
Rice, whiteGrandview, MissouriND
Rice, whiteKirkwood, MissouriND
Rice, whiteMedina, OhioND
Rice, whiteMedina, OhioND
Rice, whiteStronsville, OhioND
Rice, white, instantMedina, OhioND
Rice, white, instantMedina, OhioND
Whole Wheat FlourChicago, Illinois3.78ND=LOD 4.27
ND=LOD/2 4.09
ND=0 3.90
Whole Wheat FlourChicago, Illinois5.18
Whole Wheat FlourChicago, Illinois5.61
Whole Wheat FlourChicago, Illinois9.39
Whole Wheat FlourChicago, IllinoisND
Whole Wheat FlourWichita, Kansas7.75
Whole Wheat FlourGrandview, Missouri6.68
Whole Wheat FlourKirkwood, MissouriND
Whole Wheat FlourHelena, MontanaND
Whole Wheat FlourHelena, MontanaND
Whole Wheat FlourOmaha, Nebraska7.64
Whole Wheat FlourMedina, Ohio6.51
Whole Wheat FlourMedina, OhioND
Whole Wheat FlourStronsville, OhioND
Whole Wheat FlourStronsville, OhioND
Whole Wheat FlourBeaverton, Oregon2.98*
Whole Wheat FlourBeaverton, Oregon5.39
Whole Wheat FlourBeaverton, Oregon8.35
Whole Wheat Flour, whiteMedina, Ohio4.91

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for grains.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for grains
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


Table 12: Perchlorate Values in Fish and Seafood Samples
Type of Fish or SeafoodPurchase LocationPerchlorate (ppb)Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Catfish, wholeClarksdale, MississippiNDND=LOD 1.02
ND=LOD/2 0.60
ND=0 0.17
Catfish, wholeItta Bena, MississippiND
Catfish, wholeItta Bena, MississippiND
Catfish, wholeSunflower, Mississippi1.17*
CatfishAyden, North CarolinaND
CatfishRoper, North CarolinaND
CatfishWilliamston, North CarolinaND
Salmon, aquacultureBucks Harbor, MaineNDND=LOD 1.06
ND=LOD/2 0.65
ND=0 0.24
Salmon, aquacultureEastport, MaineND
Salmon, aquacultureCanadaND
Salmon, aquacultureCanadaND
Salmon, aquacultureCanadaND
Salmon, aquacultureCanadaND
Salmon, aquacultureChile1.23*
Salmon fillets, aquacultureChile1.42*
Salmon fillets, aquacultureChileND
Salmon fillets, aquacultureChileND
Salmon, wildCaliforniaND
ShrimpIndiaNDND=LOD 19.83
ND=LOD/2 19.63
ND=0 19.43
Shrimp, Black TigerIndia23.2

(1) ND = non-quantifiable
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for fish and seafoods.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for fish and seafoods
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


(1) Bottled water was not included among the 27 types of foods and beverages because only 2 out of 51 samples were found to contain perchlorate levels near the limit of quantitation (i.e., 0.5 parts per billion) and therefore was not included in estimating human exposure.