Food

2004-2005 Exploratory Survey Data on Perchlorate in Food

Perchlorate


Background

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and manmade chemical. Naturally occurring perchlorate, for example, is found in arid states (e.g., Texas), as well as in nitrate fertilizer deposits in Chile and potash found in United States and Canada. Most of the perchlorate manufactured in the United States is used as the primary ingredient of solid rocket propellant. Perchlorate is also used in pyrotechnics, such as fireworks, gun powder, explosives, and highway flares. In addition, perchlorate is used in a wide variety of industrial processes, including tanning and leather finishing, rubber manufacture, paint and enamel production, and additives in lubricating oils.

In recent years there has been increasing interest in perchlorate levels in soil, ground water, drinking water, and irrigation water around the country and what health effects these levels may have. Human exposure to sufficient doses of perchlorate can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its functions and potentially leading to a reduction in the production of thyroid hormones.

In order to work toward development of an assessment of the potential risk of perchlorate, FDA is conducting exploratory surveys to better understand the occurrence and levels of perchlorate in a variety of foods from various locations. The levels of perchlorate found in the foods analyzed will also be used to better understand perchlorate exposure from food and to support action, if warranted, to protect the public health.

For determining perchlorate levels in food, a rapid, sensitive, and specific ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) method, developed by FDA, with limits of quantitation of 0.5 part per billion (ppb) for bottled water; 1.0 ppb for produce; and 3.0 ppb for milk, grain products, and seafood was used. This method, entitled "Determination of Perchlorate Anion in Foods by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry," has been published in the September 15, 2004 issue of Analytical Chemistry (Analytical Chemistry, 2004, 76, 5518-5522) and is posted on CFSAN's internet website.

2004/2005 Exploratory Surveys

The data

The data presented below in Tables 1-12 are results from exploratory surveys of individual food products conducted by FDA during Fiscal Years (FY) 2004 and 2005 (a fiscal year covers the period from October 1 in a year to September 30 in the following year, e.g., FY 2004 is from October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2004).

During FY04, FDA conducted an initial exploratory survey in which FDA collected samples of domestic origin of seven food products (bottled water, milk, lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe). The overall goal of the sampling plan (convenience samples, not necessarily representative of the U.S. food supply) was to gather initial information on occurrence of perchlorate in foods from various locations with a high likelihood of perchlorate contamination. The produce samples (lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe) were collected particularly from regions (i.e., Southern California and Arizona) where water sources are known to be contaminated with perchlorate based on a study report of detecting perchlorate in winter lettuce grown in Southern California or Arizona (Environmental Working Group. Suspect Salads: Toxic rocket fuel found in samples of winter lettuce. 2003. ) and thus, the perchlorate levels are likely to be biased high. Bottled water and milk samples were collected from throughout the country. Produce samples (lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe) were selected for the survey based on their high water content, relatively high consumption, and early indications of perchlorate uptake by plants, when irrigated with perchlorate-containing water or when plants are grown in soil that naturally contains perchlorate or that has been previously exposed to perchlorate-containing water or fertilizer. Additional information on sample collection and perchlorate analysis by FDA field offices during FY04 is provided in a document entitled " FDA Collection and Analysis of Food for Perchlorate - High Priority - DFP # 04-11" posted on CFSAN's internet website.

For FY05, FDA expanded the exploratory survey. Besides collecting additional samples of tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and cantaloupe, FDA collected samples of other high water content foods, including fruits and fruit juices such as apples, oranges, and grapes; vegetables such as cucumbers, green beans, and greens; and seafood such as aquaculture fish and shrimp. In addition, grain products such as wheat flour, cornmeal, and rice were sampled as a follow up to a Texas Tech University study report finding perchlorate in wheat heads (Jackson et al., Perchlorate Accumulation in Forage and Edible Vegetation. 2005, 53:369-373. J. Agric. Food Chem.). The FY05 samples collected by FDA consisted of domestic products grown in a broader range of locations within the United States (i.e., Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Washington) to determine if perchlorate occurs in foods from wider regions of the United States, and not only from regions where water sources are known to be contaminated with perchlorate. In FY05, FDA also collected and analyzed a limited number of imported products commonly entering the U.S. market (e.g., produce from Mexico, grapes from Chile, aquaculture salmon from Canada, shrimp from Southeast Asia) that were available for sampling during FY05. However, food samples (domestic and imported) collected in FY05 are also convenience samples and are not necessarily representative of the U.S. food supply. Additional information on sample collection and perchlorate analysis by FDA field offices during FY05 is provided in a document entitled " FDA Collection and Analysis of Food for Perchlorate - High Priority - DFP # 05-09" posted on CFSAN's internet website.

Domestic produce samples were collected at the grower or packing shed, while fruit juice and import samples were collected at retail establishments. For sample analysis, only the edible portion of fruit, vegetable, and seafood samples were used to determine perchlorate levels. In addition, outermost leaves of each lettuce head were removed, similar to the actions typically taken by a consumer prior to consumption, while the entire bunch of spinach was used to determine perchlorate levels.

Limitations of the data

The FY04/05 exploratory survey data consist of 27 types of foods and beverages(1), representing only about 32 and 42 percent of the total diet for the U.S. population, ages 2 years and older and for children, 2-5 years, respectively. In addition, the data cover a limited number of samples of these foods and a limited number of brands. Also, the data do not fully address the variation from one unit of a food product to another unit of the same product, or from one production lot or production area of a food product to another lot. Further, the choice of food products for testing in this exploratory survey should not be taken as an indicator of food product choices by consumers or of food product recommendations by FDA.

To help address these limitations, FDA is continuing to test additional food types for perchlorate. In FY05 and FY06, FDA tested for perchlorate levels in samples of baby and adults foods, respectively, collected under FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) survey. FDA is preparing a perchlorate exposure assessment based on FDA's FY05/06 TDS data which is expected to be released in the fall of 2007. TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey in which more than 280 core foods (TDS foods) in the U.S. food supply are collected and analyzed to determine levels of various contaminants and nutrients in those foods.

What Consumers Should Understand

Consumers should not view the perchlorate levels as an indicator of perchlorate exposure, or as the "risk" of eating certain foods. First, perchlorate levels alone do not equate to perchlorate exposure; calculating exposure requires consideration of both perchlorate levels, and the amounts of food that consumers eat. Second, estimates of perchlorate exposure take into account not single food items, but the wide variety of foods found in a range of diets. Third, the scope of the data is too limited to properly consider potential sources of variation in measured perchlorate levels, such as variability between different units or lots of food. Fourth, the impacts of perchlorate exposure will vary depending upon an individual's iodine sufficiency. Thus, the data were not generated to be representative of the perchlorate levels in the U.S. food supply but are only exploratory in nature.

Until more is known about the health effects of perchlorate and its occurrence in foods, FDA recommends a healthy eating plan, consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products; includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts; and is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium) and added sugars. Additionally, adequate intake of iodine has previously been recognized as important for healthy thyroid function.

Exposure Estimates

FDA's CFSAN estimated human exposure to perchlorate through consumption of 27 foods and beverages for which CFSAN has collected data on perchlorate levels (See " Preliminary Estimation of Perchlorate Dietary Exposure Based on FDA 2004/2005 Exploratory Data"). Data sources for the 27 foods and beverages are from FDA's FY04/05 exploratory surveys that are presented in this document. 

Table 1: Perchlorate Values in Lettuce Samples
Type of Lettuce Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Green Leaf Lettuce Gadsen, Arizona 11.8 10.6
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 10.1
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 10.7
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 10.9
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 13.9
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 14.7
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 23.1
Green Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 27.4
Green Leaf Lettuce El Centro, California 9.90
Green Leaf Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 10.4
Green Leaf Lettuce Holtville, California 17.7
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 1.00
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 1.30
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 3.10
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 3.83
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 5.40
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 5.98
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 5.98
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 6.50
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 7.72
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 11.9
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 14.6
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 16.1
Green Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 21.7
Green Leaf Lettuce Chester, New Jersey 1.20
Green Leaf Lettuce Atascosa, Texas 7.60
Iceberg Lettuce East Yuma, Arizona 6.15 ND=LOD 8.10
ND=LOD/2 8.06
ND=0 8.04
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 3.71
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 5.79
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 6.15
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.68
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.73
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.82
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 10.4
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 12.9
Iceberg Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 21.4
Iceberg Lettuce Brawley, California 7.51
Iceberg Lettuce Brawley, California 11.7
Iceberg Lettuce El Centro, California 7.19
Iceberg Lettuce El Centro, California 7.67
Iceberg Lettuce El Centro, California 8.27
Iceberg Lettuce El Centro, California 9.70
Iceberg Lettuce El Centro, California 9.96
Iceberg Lettuce Gonzales, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Holtville, California 6.20
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 0.40*
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 0.88*
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 2.28
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 2.28
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 3.31
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 3.50
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 4.00
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 4.46
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 5.70
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 5.90
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 8.10
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 29.6
Iceberg Lettuce Salinas, California 32.4
Iceberg Lettuce Santa Maria, California 2.27
Iceberg Lettuce Santa Maria, California 7.10
Iceberg Lettuce Belle Glade, Florida 1.30
Iceberg Lettuce Belle Glade, Florida 71.6
Iceberg Lettuce Cedarville, New Jersey 2.70
Red Leaf Lettuce Gadsen, Arizona 8.25 ND=LOD 11.19
ND=LOD/2 11.19
ND=0 11.18
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 6.84
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.75
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 8.41
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 9.30
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 12.2
Red Leaf Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 16.1
Red Leaf Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 2.80
Red Leaf Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 3.00
Red Leaf Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 26.8
Red Leaf Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 52.0
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 0.78*
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California ND
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 1.70
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 2.50
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 5.97
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 6.65
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 10.8
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 11.1
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 12.5
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 12.9
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 13.5
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 16.5
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 16.6
Red Leaf Lettuce Salinas, California 17.2
Red Leaf Lettuce Hondo, Texas 8.51
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.15 ND=LOD 11.76
ND=LOD/2 11.75
ND=0 11.75
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.35
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 7.50
Romaine Lettuce, organic, Romaine hearts Yuma, Arizona 9.17
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 9.46
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 11.5
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 14.6
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 17.0
Romaine Lettuce Yuma, Arizona 24.7
Romaine Lettuce, red Yuma, Arizona 129
Romaine Lettuce Brawley, California 12.5
Romaine Lettuce Brawley, California 17.1
Romaine Lettuce Brawley, California 22.2
Romaine Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 5.80
Romaine Lettuce, organic El Centro, California 5.90
Romaine Lettuce El Centro, California 11.3
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 0.89*
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 1.07
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 1.10
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 1.48
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 1.60
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 2.30
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 2.48
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 3.79
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 4.16
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 4.50
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 5.80
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 8.35
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 8.40
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 13.0
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 16.2
Romaine Lettuce Salinas, California 23.9
Romaine Lettuce Watsonville, California 0.54*
Romaine Lettuce Belle Glade, Florida ND
Romaine Lettuce Belle Glade, Florida 13.7
Romaine Lettuce Blairstown, New Jersey 7.07
Romaine Lettuce Bridgeton, New Jersey 4.46
Romaine Lettuce Cedarville, New Jersey 10.1
Romaine Lettuce Emerson, New Jersey 3.70
Romaine Lettuce Newfield, New Jersey 14.2
Romaine Lettuce Toms River, New Jersey 21.6
Romaine Lettuce, red, certified organic Austin, Texas 6.85

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for lettuce.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for lettuce.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 2: Perchlorate Values in Bottled Water Samples
Type of Bottled Water Location of Source Water Perchlorate (ppb) (µg/L)
Artesian Water Augusta, Georgia ND
Distilled Water Parkville, Missouri ND
Distilled Water Parkville, Missouri ND
Drinking Water Anaheim, California ND
Drinking Water Brea, California ND
Drinking Water El Monte, South El Monte, Rosemead, and Baldwin Park, California ND
Drinking Water El Monte, South El Monte, Rosemead, and Baldwin Park, California ND
Drinking Water Irvine, California ND
Drinking Water Ontario, California ND
Drinking Water Independence, Missouri ND
Drinking Water Parkville, Missouri ND
Drinking Water Parkville, Missouri ND
Drinking Water Jamestown, North Carolina ND
Drinking Water Jamestown, North Carolina ND
Drinking Water Abilene, Texas ND
Drinking Water San Antonio, Texas ND
Drinking Water Unknown ND
Drinking Water Unknown ND
Purified Rain Water Dripping Spring, Texas ND
Purified Water Brea, California ND
Purified Water Claremont, California and northern California ND
Purified Water Cucamonga, California ND
Purified Water Denver, Colorado ND
Purified Water WSSC Tara Road Facility, Maryland ND
Purified Water WSSC Tara Road Facility, Maryland ND
Purified Water Eagan, Minnesota ND
Purified Water Norfolk, Nebraska ND
Purified Water Omaha, Nebraska ND
Purified Water Bishopville, South Carolina ND
Purified Water Richland County, South Carolina ND
Purified Water Corpus Christi, Texas ND
Purified Water Corpus Christi, Texas ND
Purified Water San Antonio, Texas ND
Purified Water Unknown ND
Purified Water Unknown ND
Purified Well Water Anaheim, California ND
Spring Water Benton County, Arkansas, Dickinson County, Kansas, or Lafayette Township, Wisconsin ND
Spring Water Gento County, Arkansas, Dickinson County, Kansas, or Lafayette Township, Wisconsin ND
Spring Water Highland, California 0.56
Spring Water Ontario, California ND
Spring Water New Tripoli, Bangor, Stroudsberg, Negins, South Coventry, and Pine Grove, Pennsylvania, and/or Oakland, Maryland ND
Spring Water Pine Grove, Pennsylvania ND
Spring Water Pine Grove, Pennsylvania ND
Spring Water Jasper, Texas ND
Spring Water Jasper, Texas ND
Spring Water Keller, Texas ND
Spring Water Keller, Texas 0.45*
Spring Water Wood County, Texas ND
Spring Water Unknown ND
Spring Water Unknown ND
Spring Water Unknown ND

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.50 ppb for water.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.20 ppb for water.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 3: Perchlorate Values in Milk Samples
Type of Milk Location Samples Collected Perchlorate (ppb)
(µg/L)
Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Raw Milk, batch 1 Maryland 3.40 ND=LOD 5.77
ND=LOD/2 5.76
ND=0 5.75
Raw Milk, batch 2 Maryland 4.23
Raw Milk, batch 3 Maryland 4.83
Fat Free Milk California 5.70
Fat Free Milk Pennsylvania 2.00*
1% Milk California 4.69
1% Milk California 5.86
1% Milk California 6.39
1% Milk California 6.99
1% Milk California 8.33
1% Milk Pennsylvania 4.30
1% Milk Virginia 7.60
1% Milk, chocolate Virginia 7.20
2% Milk California 4.31
2% Milk Missouri 9.10
Whole Milk Arizona ND
Whole Milk Arizona 3.16
Whole Milk Arizona 3.46
Whole Milk Arizona 3.84
Whole Milk Arizona 4.20
Whole Milk Arizona 4.60
Whole Milk Arizona 4.70
Whole Milk Arizona 4.81
Whole Milk Arizona 4.90
Whole Milk Arizona 5.10
Whole Milk Arizona 5.50
Whole Milk Arizona 5.60
Whole Milk Arizona 6.18
Whole Milk Arizona 6.20
Whole Milk Arizona 7.30
Whole Milk Arizona 7.40
Whole Milk Arizona 8.80
Whole Milk Arizona 9.40
Whole Milk Arizona 10.2
Whole Milk Arizona 10.4
Whole Milk, organic California ND
Whole Milk California 1.91*
Whole Milk California 3.19
Whole Milk California 3.40
Whole Milk California 3.90
Whole Milk California 4.04
Whole Milk California 4.26
Whole Milk California 4.30
Whole Milk California 4.50
Whole Milk California 4.50
Whole Milk California 4.60
Whole Milk California 4.60
Whole Milk California 4.77
Whole Milk California 5.00
Whole Milk California 5.00
Whole Milk California 5.03
Whole Milk California 5.30
Whole Milk California 5.30
Whole Milk California 5.32
Whole Milk California 5.52
Whole Milk California 5.60
Whole Milk California 5.60
Whole Milk California 5.60
Whole Milk California 5.70
Whole Milk California 5.80
Whole Milk California 5.80
Whole Milk California 5.87
Whole Milk California 5.92
Whole Milk California 5.95
Whole Milk California 6.10
Whole Milk California 6.43
Whole Milk California 7.49
Whole Milk California 7.70
Whole Milk California 7.80
Whole Milk California 9.15
Whole Milk California 9.90
Whole Milk Georgia ND
Whole Milk Georgia 3.85
Whole Milk Georgia 8.40
Whole Milk Georgia 9.06
Whole Milk Iowa 7.80
Whole Milk Iowa 8.00
Whole Milk Iowa 8.50
Whole Milk Iowa 8.70
Whole Milk Kansas 5.43
Whole Milk Kansas 10.0
Whole Milk Kansas 10.4
Whole Milk Louisiana 3.20
Whole Milk Louisiana 3.80
Whole Milk Louisiana 3.90
Whole Milk Louisiana 4.10
Whole Milk Louisiana 7.00
Whole Milk Maryland 4.78
Whole Milk Maryland 5.21
Whole Milk Maryland 5.50
Whole Milk Maryland 7.30
Whole Milk Maryland 7.70
Whole Milk, organic Maryland 11.3
Whole Milk Missouri 4.60
Whole Milk Missouri 5.90
Whole Milk Missouri 6.70
Whole Milk Missouri 6.78
Whole Milk Missouri 6.84
Whole Milk Missouri 7.90
Whole Milk Missouri 9.00
Whole Milk New Jersey 3.40
Whole Milk New Jersey 3.60
Whole Milk New Jersey 4.08
Whole Milk New Jersey 4.44
Whole Milk New Jersey 4.85
Whole Milk North Carolina 5.12
Whole Milk Pennsylvania 6.10
Whole Milk Pennsylvania 6.90
Whole Milk Pennsylvania 7.20
Whole Milk South Carolina 6.31
Whole Milk South Carolina 6.70
Whole Milk Texas 3.84
Whole Milk Texas 4.77
Whole Milk Texas 5.62
Whole Milk Texas 6.83
Whole Milk Texas 7.15
Whole Milk Virginia 3.40
Whole Milk Virginia 6.80
Whole Milk, organic Washington 3.20
Whole Milk Washington 3.80
Whole Milk Washington 4.20
Whole Milk Washington 5.40
Whole Milk Washington 6.54
Whole Milk Washington 7.47
Whole Milk Washington 7.70

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for milk.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for milk.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 4: Perchlorate Values in Tomato Samples
Type of Tomato Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Tomatoes California ND ND=LOD 13.67
ND=LOD/2 13.63
ND=0 13.59
Tomatoes Camarillo, California ND
Tomatoes Camarillo, California 2.80
Tomatoes, Cherokee Camarillo, California 3.00
Tomatoes Carlsbad, California 5.20
Tomatoes City of Industry, California 1.83
Tomatoes, Heirloom variety Fallbrook, California 2.25
Tomatoes Fallbrook, California 3.00
Tomatoes Fillmore, California 4.60
Tomatoes, Supersteak Lake Elsinore, California 1.04
Tomatoes, Sweet Mama Lake Elsinore, California 1.70
Tomatoes Mission Hills, California ND
Tomatoes Moorpark, California 7.01
Tomatoes Oceanside, California ND
Tomatoes, Grape Oxnard, California 1.03
Tomatoes Pico Rivera, California ND
Tomatoes Piru, California ND
Tomatoes, Roma Piru, California ND
Tomatoes Redlands, California 1.40
Tomatoes Riverside, California 1.40
Tomatoes Riverside, California 2.40
Tomatoes, Roma Riverside, California 3.00
Tomatoes Riverside, California 3.84
Tomatoes Selma, California 0.76*
Tomatoes Selma, California 6.84
Tomatoes Somis, California 38.8
Tomatoes, Brandywine Heirloom Tustin, California ND
Tomatoes, Heirloom Tustin, California 1.90
Tomatoes, Roma Vista, California 3.87
Tomatoes Florida 5.66
Tomatoes Boca Raton, Florida 5.15
Tomatoes, Italian Plum Florida City, Florida 21.1
Tomatoes Fort Pierce, Florida 12.1
Tomatoes, Italian Plum Homestead, Florida 3.14
Tomatoes, Green Palmetto, Florida 6.79
Tomatoes, Green Palmetto, Florida 12.3
Tomatoes, Green Roma Quincy, Florida 10.0
Tomatoes, Grape Quincy, Florida 11.1
Tomatoes, Grape Wimauma, Florida 5.28
Tomatoes Brookhaven, Mississippi 2.43
Tomatoes Crystal Springs, Mississippi ND
Tomatoes Mize, Mississippi ND
Tomatoes Magee, Mississippi ND
Tomatoes Yazoo City, Mississippi 2.17
Tomatoes Fenton, Missouri 5.91
Tomatoes, Beefsteak Cedarville, New Jersey 5.58
Tomatoes Cherry Hill, New Jersey ND
Tomatoes, Beefsteak Chester, New Jersey 3.36
Tomatoes East Brunswick, New Jersey ND
Tomatoes, Plum Glen Gardner, New Jersey 6.48
Tomatoes Hillsborough, New Jersey 16.4
Tomatoes Jamesburg, New Jersey 1.04
Tomatoes Lakewood, New Jersey 2.60
Tomatoes Long Valley, New Jersey 1.30
Tomatoes Monmouth Junction, New Jersey 0.38*
Tomatoes Monroeville, New Jersey ND
Tomatoes, Beefsteak Swedesboro, New Jersey ND
Tomatoes Thorofare, New Jersey ND
Tomatoes Mount Olive, North Carolina 9.97
Tomatoes Evans City, Pennsylvania ND
Tomatoes New Ringgold, Pennsylvania 4.30
Tomatoes Valencia, Pennsylvania 1.10
Tomatoes Yardley, Pennsylvania ND
Tomatoes Yardley, Pennsylvania 1.80
Tomatoes Summerton, South Carolina 4.32
Tomatoes Mexico 22.1
Tomatoes Mexico 27.1
Tomatoes Mexico 29.0
Tomatoes Mexico 174
Tomatoes Mexico 286
Tomatoes Mexico 0.37*
Tomatoes Mexico ND
Tomatoes, Grape Mexico 195

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for tomatoes.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for tomatoes.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 5: Perchlorate Values in Carrot Samples
Type of Carrot Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Carrots Tolleson, Arizona 27.8 ND=LOD 15.86
ND=LOD/2 15.85
ND=0 15.85
Carrots Tolleson, Arizona 36.1
Carrots Tolleson, Arizona 32.9
Carrots Acampo, California 10.0
Carrots, baby Arvin, California 2.24
Carrots Arvin, California 4.53
Carrots Arvin, California 7.01
Carrots Arvin, California 33.0
Carrots, organic Arvin, California 87.6
Carrots Bakersfield, California ND
Carrots Bakersfield, California 11.9
Carrots Bakersfield, California 13.7
Carrots Bell Gardens, California 0.56*
Carrots Camarillo, California 5.24
Carrots Camarillo, California 5.40
Carrots Camarillo, California 14.8
Carrots Camarillo, California 15.5
Carrots Camarillo, California 111
Carrots Carpinteria, California 2.00
Carrots Carson, California 1.17
Carrots Coachella, California 1.39
Carrots Coachella, California 1.39
Carrots Coachella, California 31.5
Carrots Garden Grove, California 1.20
Carrots Goleta, California ND
Carrots, organic Lamont, California 14.2
Carrots Linden, California 13.2
Carrots Long Beach, California 2.39
Carrots Moorpark, California 81.3
Carrots Ontario, California 9.40
Carrots Oxnard, California 3.40
Carrots Santa Maria, California 7.59
Carrots Greeley, Colorado ND
Carrots Lake Park, Georgia 21.7
Carrots Kansas City, Kansas 20.1
Carrots Wichita, Kansas 1.54
Carrots Wichita, Kansas 2.70
Carrots Hudsonville, Michigan 9.23
Carrots Edinburg, Texas 2.36
Carrots Prosser, Washington 0.84*
Carrots Prosser, Washington 5.10
Carrots Prosser, Washington 5.20
Carrots Prosser, Washington 5.30
Carrots Prosser, Washington 7.00
Carrots Prosser, Washington 7.30
Carrots Prosser, Washington 8.00
Carrots Prosser, Washington 9.47
Carrots Prosser, Washington 10.5
Carrots Prosser, Washington 10.9
Carrots Prosser, Washington 11.2
Carrots Prosser, Washington 12.5
Carrots Prosser, Washington 23.8
Carrots Prosser, Washington 27.4
Carrots Prosser, Washington 36.1
Carrots Mexico 8.10
Carrots Mexico 9.23
Carrots Mexico 9.76
Carrots Mexico 17.1
Carrots Mexico 63.1

(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for carrots
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for carrots.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 6: Perchlorate Values in Spinach Samples
Type of Spinach Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Spinach Arroyo Grande, California 5.94 115
Spinach, baby Brawley, California 154
Spinach, baby Brawley, California 927
Spinach Carlsbad, California 96.0
Spinach Carson, California 8.83
Spinach Castroville, California 19.9
Spinach Fillmore, California 47.8
Spinach Lompoc, California 13.5
Spinach Long Beach, California 266
Spinach Moorpark, California 16.7
Spinach Moorpark, California 259
Spinach Moss Landing, California 137
Spinach Oceano, California 7.32
Spinach Oceano, California 56.3
Spinach Oxnard, California 14.8
Spinach Oxnard, California 19.9
Spinach Oxnard, California 117
Spinach Oxnard, California 131
Spinach Pico Rivera, California 13.5
Spinach Placentia, California 167
Spinach, Asian Riverside, California 680
Spinach Salinas California 32.8
Spinach Salinas, California 51.5
Spinach Sanata Maria, California 12.2
Spinach Sanata Maria, California 12.7
Spinach Santa Maria, California 38.0
Spinach Santa Maria, California 39.2
Spinach, baby Sanata Maria, California 111
Spinach Santa Paula, California 7.87
Spinach Somis, California 72.0
Spinach East Windsor, New Jersey 8.15
Spinach Vineland, New Jersey 40.9
Spinach, baby Wayne, New Jersey 6.02
Spinach Mexico 145
Spinach Mexico 163
Spinach Mexico 252

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for spinach.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for spinach.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.< /p>

Table 7: Perchlorate Values in Melon Samples
Type of Melon Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Cantaloupes Goodyear, Arizona 37.1 28.62
Cantaloupes Goodyear, Arizona 38.0
Cantaloupes Goodyear, Arizona 57.8
Cantaloupes Goodyear, Arizona 63.3
Cantaloupes Goodyear, Arizona 66.6
Cantaloupes Parker, Arizona 6.72
Cantaloupes Parker, Arizona 9.31
Cantaloupes Parker, Arizona 10.6
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 3.15
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 3.23
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 4.04
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 5.16
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 6.33
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 14.2
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 16.1
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 16.1
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 17.9
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 18.6
Cantaloupes Yuma, Arizona 114
Cantaloupes Brawley, California 11.4
Cantaloupes Brawley, California 19.9
Cantaloupes Blythe, California 4.72
Cantaloupes Blythe, California 7.66
Cantaloupes Blythe, California 8.08
Cantaloupes Huron, California 1.06
Cantaloupes Huron, California 0.95*
Cantaloupes Huron, California 7.47
Cantaloupes Los Angeles, California 6.16
Cantaloupes Los Angeles, California 6.35
Cantaloupes Los Angeles, California 6.36
Cantaloupes Mendota, California 8.83
Cantaloupes Mendota, California 14.1
Cantaloupes Rich Hill, Missouri 0.87*
Cantaloupes Bainbridge, Pennsylvania 3.00
Cantaloupes New Ringgold, Pennsylvania 2.90
Cantaloupes Pleasant, Pennsylvania 0.52*
Cantaloupes Valencia, Pennsylvania 4.90
Cantaloupes Yardley, Pennsylvania 11.5
Cantaloupes Carrizo Springs, Texas 2.06
Cantaloupes Jacksonville, Texas 3.81
Cantaloupes McKinney, Texas 8.86
Cantaloupes Mount Selman, Texas 1.62
Cantaloupes Pecos, Texas 2.57
Cantaloupes Uvalde, Texas 2.02
Cantaloupes Uvalde, Texas 2.62
Cantaloupes Costa Rica 1.34
Cantaloupes Dominican Republic 713
Cantaloupes Costa Rica 0.99*

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for melons
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for melons
(4) ** =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 8: Perchlorate Values in Fruit Samples
Type of Fruit Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Apples, Gala Acampo, California ND ND=LOD 0.30
ND=LOD/2 0.15
ND=0 0.0
Apples, Gravenstein Sebastopol, California ND
Apples, Gravenstein Sebastopol, California ND
Apples, Gravenstein Sebastopol, California ND
Apples, Pink Pearl Sebastopol, California ND
Apples, Arkansas Black Taylorsville, North Carolina ND
Apples, Granny Smith Hendersonville, North Carolina ND
Apples, Rome Flat Rock, North Carolina ND
Apple, Gala Monroeville, New Jersey ND
Grapes, Green Exeter, California ND ND=LOD 8.58
ND=LOD/2 8.51
ND=0 8.44
Grapes, Red Exeter, California 1.30
Grapes, Red Flame Esparto, California ND
Grapes, Red Seedless Hughson, California ND
Grapes Marysville, California 4.00
Grapes, Concord Avondale, Pennsylvania ND
Grapes, Chardonnay Gap, Pennsylvania 0.94*
Grapes Girard, Pennsylvania ND
Grapes Chile 27.9
Grapes Chile 28.5
Grapes Chile 38.6
Grapes Chile ND
Oranges Riverside, California 1.29 ND=LOD 3.47
ND=LOD/2 3.39
ND=0 3.32
Oranges Redlands, California 3.27
Oranges Redlands, California 23.3
Oranges Riverside, California ND
Oranges Riverside, California ND
Oranges, Valencia Immokalee, Florida ND
Oranges, Valencia Lantana, Florida ND
Oranges, Valencia Titusville, Florida 1.82
Oranges, Valencia Winter Garden, Florida 3.49
Oranges, Valencia Winter Garden, Florida ND
Strawberries Buellton, California 2.68 ND=LOD 2.14
ND=LOD/2 2.11
ND=0 2.08
Strawberries Cardiff, California 1.39
Strawberries Carlsbad, California 1.46
Strawberries Carlsbad, California 1.95
Strawberries Del Mar, California 1.66
Strawberries Escondido, California 2.13
Strawberries Fallbrook, California ND
Strawberries Oceanside, California ND
Strawberries Salinas, California 11.3
Strawberries Watsonville, California 1.51
Strawberries Watsonville, California 1.61
Strawberries Watsonville, California 1.63
Strawberries Watsonville, California 1.83
Strawberries Watsonville, California 2.39
Strawberries Watsonville, California 6.31
Strawberries Watsonville, California ND
Strawberries Watsonville, California ND
Strawberries Watsonville, California 0.80*
Strawberries Watsonville, California 0.80*
Watermelon Gilbert, Arizona 1.00 ND=LOD 1.96
ND=LOD/2 1.91
ND=0 1.85
Watermelon Picacho, Arizona ND
Watermelon Carlsbad, California ND
Watermelon Carlsbad, California ND
Watermelon Coachella, California ND
Watermelon Hemet, California 3.28
Watermelon Lake Elsinore, California 2.96
Watermelon Mendota, California 1.31
Watermelon Newport Beach, California ND
Watermelon Avon Park, Florida 1.65
Watermelon, seedless Dover, Florida 2.71
Watermelon Hawthorne, Florida ND
Watermelon Plant City, Florida 8.34
Watermelon Hessmer Louisiana 1.35
Watermelon Hessmer Louisiana 2.19
Watermelon Lucedale, Mississippi 6.99
Watermelon Port Arthur, Texas ND
Watermelon Unknown 2.29
Watermelon Unknown 1.13

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for fruits.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for fruits.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 9: Perchlorate Values in Fruit Juice Samples
Type of Fruit Juice Purchase Location Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Apple juice La Jolla, California 1.49 2.15
Apple juice from concentrate La Jolla, California 2.52
Apple juice from concentrate San Diego, California 2.35
Apple juice concentrate China 2.19
Apple juice concentrate China 3.45
Apple juice concentrate, clear China 1.28
Apple nectar El Salvador 1.56
Apple nectar El Salvador 3.11
Apple juice nectar Venezuela 1.39
Orange juice Houston, Texas 2.27 2.59
Orange juice Houston, Texas 2.43
Orange juice Houston, Texas 2.53
Orange juice Houston, Texas 2.58
Orange juice Houston, Texas 3.15

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for fruit juices.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for fruit juices.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 10: Perchlorate Values in Vegetable Samples
Type of Vegetables Location of Grower Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Broccoli Castroville, California 10.3 ND=LOD 8.49
ND=LOD/2 8.47
ND=0 8.44
Broccoli King City, California 9.87
Broccoli Moorpark, California 3.00
Broccoli Oceano, California ND
Broccoli Oxnard, California 23.1
Broccoli Oxnard, California ND
Broccoli Salinas, California 2.48
Broccoli Santa Maria, California 4.82
Broccoli East Windsor, New Jersey 6.96
Broccoli Hackettstown, New Jersey 3.60
Broccoli Buckingham, Pennsylvania 7.68
Broccoli, organic Greensburg, Pennsylvania 40.2
Broccoli Richland, Pennsylvania 4.67
Broccoli Uvalde County, Texas 1.60
Cabbage, green Carlsbad, California 10.9 ND=LOD 8.80
ND=LOD/2 8.74
ND=0 8.68
Cabbage, green Dove Canyon, California 25.6
Cabbage, red Fallbrook, California 24.3
Cabbage, red Long Beach, California 8.07
Cabbage, green Redlands, California 4.10
Cabbage, green Riverside, California 24.7
Cabbage Salinas, California 5.13
Cabbage, red Westminster, California ND
Cabbage Canada 10.1
Cabbage Canada ND
Cabbage Canada ND
Cabbage Canada ND
Cabbage Canada ND
Collard Greens Oxnard, California 39.1 92.4
Collard Greens Watsonville, California 135
Collard Greens Mount Olive, North Carolina 238
Collard Greens Murphy, North Carolina 142
Collard Greens Newton Grove, North Carolina 47.8
Collard Greens Raleigh, North Carolina 39.7
Collard Greens Raleigh, North Carolina 316
Collard Greens Peleion, South Carolina 69.1
Collard Greens Unknown 8.61
Collard Greens Unknown 17.3
Collard Greens Unknown 26.8
Collard Greens Unknown 42.2
Collard Greens Unknown 58.2
Mustard Greens Oxnard, California 114
Cucumbers Buellton, California 3.26 ND=LOD 6.64
ND=LOD/2 6.62
ND=0 6.59
Cucumbers Fillmore, California 27.2
Cucumbers Fountain Valley, California 3.63
Cucumbers Highland, California 0.66*
Cucumbers Oceanside, California 14.1
Cucumbers Oxnard, California 3.08
Cucumbers Pico Rivera, California 18.02
Cucumbers Riverside, California 3.53
Cucumbers Riverside, California 3.69
Cucumbers Riverside, California 14.6
Cucumbers Westminster, California 4.39
Cucumbers Starke, Florida 4.93
Cucumbers Norman Park, Georgia 2.20
Cucumbers Hudsonville, Michigan ND
Cucumbers South Haven, Michigan 3.84
Cucumbers Dominican Republic ND
Cucumbers Dominican Republic 0.30*
Cucumbers Dominican Republic 7.73
Cucumbers, baby Dominican Republic 14.0
Cucumbers, seedless Canada ND
Green Beans Acampo, California 6.62 ND=LOD 6.12
ND=LOD/2 6.09
ND=0 6.05
 
Green Beans Arvin, California 8.88
Green Beans Carlsbad, California 5.09
Green Beans Carlsbad, California 9.73
Green Beans Carlsbad, California 10.2
Green Beans Fountain Valley, California 25.9
Green Beans Linden, California 5.34
Green Beans Long Beach, California ND
Green Beans Sacramento, California 1.36
Green Beans Sacramento, California 3.29
Green Beans Sacramento, California 4.63
Green Beans Sacramento, California 5.39
Green Beans Sacramento, California 7.46
Green Beans Westminster, California 4.82
Green Beans Canada 7.18
Green Beans Canada 9.17
Green Beans Canada ND
Green Beans Canada ND
Green Beans (string beans) Canada ND
Onions, red Carlsbad, California 0.32* ND=LOD 0.53
ND=LOD/2 0.42
ND=0 0.31
Onions, red Fallbrook, California ND
Onions, red Ramona, California 1.79
Onions, red Valley Center, California ND
Onions, sweet Columbus, New Mexico ND
Onions, white Lancaster, California ND
Onions, yellow Five Points, California ND
Onions, yellow Deming, New Mexico ND
Onions, yellow Hatch, New Mexico ND
Onions, yellow Las Cruces, New Mexico ND
Green Onions Moorpark, California ND
Green Onions w/o bulbs Oxnard, California 1.56
Potatoes, white, Shepody Mountain Home, Idaho ND ND=LOD 0.30
ND=LOD/2 0.15
ND=0 0.00
Potatoes, white, Shepody E Declo, Idaho ND
Potatoes, Russet Clear Lake, Minnesota ND
Potatoes, white Clear Lake, Minnesota ND
Potatoes, Yukon Gold Clear Lake, Minnesota ND
Potatoes, red Hoople, North Dakota ND
Sweet Potatoes Atwater, California 0.85* ND=LOD 1.24
Sweet Potatoes Atwater, California 1.47
Sweet Potatoes Pauma Valley, California 0.97*
Sweet Potatoes Unknown 1.00
Sweet Potatoes Unknown 1.07
Sweet Potatoes Unknown 2.07

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 1.00 ppb for vegetables.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 0.30 ppb for vegetables.
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 11: Perchlorate Values in Grain Samples
Type of Grain Purchase Location Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Corn masa mix, instant Yakima, Washington ND ND=LOD 1.16
ND=LOD/2 0.68
ND=0 0.20
Corn meal Wichita, Kansas ND
Corn meal Houston, Texas ND
Corn meal, Polenta type Phoenix, Arizona 4.46
Corn meal, Polenta type San Francisco, California ND
Corn meal, 100% stone ground Phoenix, Arizona ND
Corn meal, white Phoenix, Arizona ND
Corn meal, white Oakland, California ND
Corn meal, white Des Moines, Iowa ND
Corn meal, white Omaha, Nebraska ND
Corn meal, yellow Phoenix, Arizona ND
Corn meal, yellow Phoenix, Arizona ND
Corn meal, yellow Davenport, Iowa ND
Corn meal, yellow Helena, Montana ND
Corn meal, yellow Helena, Montana ND
Corn meal, yellow Dallas, Texas ND
Corn meal, yellow San Antonio, Texas ND
Corn meal, yellow San Antonio, Texas ND
Corn meal, yellow Yakima, Washington ND
Corn meal, yellow Yakima, Washington ND
Corn meal, yellow, organic San Antonio, Texas ND
Grits (cornmeal) Pacifica, California ND
Oatmeal Little Rock, Arkansas 1.88* ND=LOD 3.96
ND=LOD/2 3.85
ND=0 3.74
Oatmeal Little Rock, Arkansas 4.11
Oatmeal Little Rock, Arkansas 6.42
Oatmeal Phoenix, Arizona 2.58*
Oatmeal Phoenix, Arizona 12.2
Oatmeal Phoenix, Arizona ND
Oatmeal Phoenix, Arizona ND
Oatmeal Alameda, California 4.16
Oatmeal Oakland, California ND
Oatmeal Pacifica, California 8.85
Oatmeal Pacifica, California ND
Oatmeal San Francisco, California 4.12
Oatmeal Boise, Idaho 1.68*
Oatmeal Boise, Idaho 3.45
Oatmeal Cedar Rapids, Iowa 8.22
Oatmeal Des Moines, Iowa ND
Oatmeal Wichita, Kansas 3.54
Oatmeal Omaha, Nebraska 8.36
Oatmeal Mill Creek, Washington 2.21*
Oatmeal Mill Creek, Washington 3.71
Oatmeal cereal for baby Phoenix, Arizona 1.67*
Oat flakes, baby San Francisco, California 5.03
Rice, Brown Chicago, Illinois ND ND=LOD 1.00
ND=LOD/2 0.50
ND=0 0.00
Rice, Brown Chicago, Illinois ND
Rice, Brown Indianapolis, Indiana ND
Rice, Brown Indianapolis, Indiana ND
Rice, Brown, instant Chicago, Illinois ND
Rice, Brown, instant, whole grain Chicago, Illinois ND
Rice, Brown, instant Chicago, Illinois ND
Rice, Brown, instant Indianapolis, Indiana ND
Rice, Brown, instant Indianapolis, Indiana ND
Rice, Brown, instant Indianapolis, Indiana ND
Rice, white Wichita, Kansas ND ND=LOD 1.00
ND=LOD/2 0.50
ND=0 0.00
Rice, white Omaha, Nebraska ND
Rice, white Grandview, Missouri ND
Rice, white Kirkwood, Missouri ND
Rice, white Medina, Ohio ND
Rice, white Medina, Ohio ND
Rice, white Stronsville, Ohio ND
Rice, white, instant Medina, Ohio ND
Rice, white, instant Medina, Ohio ND
Whole Wheat Flour Chicago, Illinois 3.78 ND=LOD 4.27
ND=LOD/2 4.09
ND=0 3.90
Whole Wheat Flour Chicago, Illinois 5.18
Whole Wheat Flour Chicago, Illinois 5.61
Whole Wheat Flour Chicago, Illinois 9.39
Whole Wheat Flour Chicago, Illinois ND
Whole Wheat Flour Wichita, Kansas 7.75
Whole Wheat Flour Grandview, Missouri 6.68
Whole Wheat Flour Kirkwood, Missouri ND
Whole Wheat Flour Helena, Montana ND
Whole Wheat Flour Helena, Montana ND
Whole Wheat Flour Omaha, Nebraska 7.64
Whole Wheat Flour Medina, Ohio 6.51
Whole Wheat Flour Medina, Ohio ND
Whole Wheat Flour Stronsville, Ohio ND
Whole Wheat Flour Stronsville, Ohio ND
Whole Wheat Flour Beaverton, Oregon 2.98*
Whole Wheat Flour Beaverton, Oregon 5.39
Whole Wheat Flour Beaverton, Oregon 8.35
Whole Wheat Flour, white Medina, Ohio 4.91

Notes:
(1) ND = not detected
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for grains.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for grains
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD. 

Table 12: Perchlorate Values in Fish and Seafood Samples
Type of Fish or Seafood Purchase Location Perchlorate (ppb) Mean
Perchlorate (ppb)
Catfish, whole Clarksdale, Mississippi ND ND=LOD 1.02
ND=LOD/2 0.60
ND=0 0.17
Catfish, whole Itta Bena, Mississippi ND
Catfish, whole Itta Bena, Mississippi ND
Catfish, whole Sunflower, Mississippi 1.17*
Catfish Ayden, North Carolina ND
Catfish Roper, North Carolina ND
Catfish Williamston, North Carolina ND
Salmon, aquaculture Bucks Harbor, Maine ND ND=LOD 1.06
ND=LOD/2 0.65
ND=0 0.24
Salmon, aquaculture Eastport, Maine ND
Salmon, aquaculture Canada ND
Salmon, aquaculture Canada ND
Salmon, aquaculture Canada ND
Salmon, aquaculture Canada ND
Salmon, aquaculture Chile 1.23*
Salmon fillets, aquaculture Chile 1.42*
Salmon fillets, aquaculture Chile ND
Salmon fillets, aquaculture Chile ND
Salmon, wild California ND
Shrimp India ND ND=LOD 19.83
ND=LOD/2 19.63
ND=0 19.43
Shrimp, Black Tiger India 23.2
Shrimp Indonesia ND
Shrimp Thailand 23.5
Shrimp Vietnam 50.5

Notes:
(1) ND = non-quantifiable
(2) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 ppb for fish and seafoods.
(3) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb for fish and seafoods
(4) * =Estimate, Below LOQ and above LOD.


(1) Bottled water was not included among the 27 types of foods and beverages because only 2 out of 51 samples were found to contain perchlorate levels near the limit of quantitation (i.e., 0.5 parts per billion) and therefore was not included in estimating human exposure.

Page Last Updated: 08/10/2015
Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.