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Understanding How Flavors and Nicotine are Used in Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Advertising (Phase 2)

Principal Investigator: Ryan Kennedy (CTP contact: Dannielle Kelley)

Funding Mechanism: Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation Grant (CERSI)

ID number: 3U01FD005942-03S1

Award Date: 9/1/2019

Institution: Johns Hopkins University 


This work represents an extension of earlier CERSI-funded analysis of the content of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) advertising. The goal of Phase 2 of this research is to understand how ENDS design features including flavors are presented in advertising content, as well as how nicotine and its concentration/volume/mass and type (nicotine or nicotine salts, for example) are depicted/communicated in ads. Researchers will purchase ENDS advertisements and their associated spend data (i.e., cost per ad) for 2018-2020 from a media tracking service. The sample will include ENDS ads from magazines (consumer and business-to-business), newspapers, radio, television, out-of-home (e.g., billboards, point-of-sale), and electronic media (e.g., direct-to-consumer emails, online displays, banner ads). Researchers will then content-code the ads for features, focusing on how flavors and nicotine are presented, including written and visual content; ads will also be coded for the prevalence and content of health warnings. Results across all ad years of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 study periods (2015-2020) will be combined. Researchers will analyze the depiction of flavor and nicotine content by advertisement medium over time, the depiction of flavor and nicotine content by medium audience, and marketing investments by manufacturer, brand, advertising medium, and products (including flavor and nicotine features). Researchers will also assess the presence and content of health warnings now required in ENDS advertisements. Findings of this study may be used to inform future regulatory activities related to ENDS marketing. 

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