RPT 236
Volume 170-171

Volume 170

Cover Page

Letter from CFSAN dated May 28, 2004

Astaxanthin Information from Ullman, Shapiro, & Ullman, LLP

New Dietary Ingredient Notification for Astaxanthin Extracted from Haematococcus Algae

Letter from CFSAN dated May 21, 2004

75-Day Premarket Notification

Torrlssen, Ole J., Ronald W. Hardy and Karl D. Shearer. Pigmentation of Salmonids - Carotenoid Deposition and Metabolism


Aquaxan Technical Report - Aquaxan HD algal meal use in aquaculture diets

Torrissen, O.J., and R. Christiansen. Requirements for carotenoids in fish diets. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 11 (1995) 225-230.

Roche, Carophyll Pink - Nature identical astaxanthin for aquaculture.

Turujman, Saleh A., Wayne J. Wamer, Rong Rong Wei, Richard H. Albert. Rapid Liquid Chromatographic Method to Distinguish Wild Salmon from Aquacultured Salmon Fed Synthetic Astaxanthin, Journal of AOAC International, Vol 80, No. 3, 1997

A Technical Review of Haematococcus Algae, NatuRose Technical Bulletin #060

Terao, J. Antioxidant Activity of B-Carotene-Related Carotenoids in Solution, Lipids Vol. 24. No. 7 (1989)

Wiki, Wataru. Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids, Pure & Appl Chem Vol. 63. Nc. 1. (1991) 141-146

Tamami, Iwamoto et al. Inhibition of Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Astaxanthin, Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, Vol. 7, No. 4, (Sept. 13, 2000) 216-222

Kurashige, Michi, Eiji Okimasu, Masayasu Inoue and Kozo Utsumi. Inhibition of Oxidative Injury of Biological Membranes by Astaxanthin, Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR. (1990) 22:27-38

Astaxanthin: Human Foor Safety Summary

Edwards, PhD, C.N. Haematococcus Pluvialis - AMES TEST - "Treat and Plate Test"

Edwards, PhD, C.N. Haematococcus Pluvialis - In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test Performed with Mouse Lymohoma Cells (L5178Y)
Cover Page

Acute Toxicity Study in Rats Treated by Oral Route. Sept 7, 1995

RBM Study

Ono, Atsushi et al. A 13-week oral repeated dose subchronic toxicity study in F344 rats feeding mixed with haematococcus color

Stewart, John S. HPP: 13 Week Oral (Dietary Administration) Toxicity Study in the Rat


Volume 171

Murillo, Enrique. Hypercholesterolemic Effects of Canthaxanthin and Astaxanthin in Rats
Spanish Translation

Nishikawa, Yoshiyuki, Yoshiharu Minenaka, Mika Ichirnura. Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Carotenoids (B -Carotene and Astaxanthin) on Rats, Oct. 31, 1997
Japanese Translation

Final Report - Bacterial reverse mutation test of Astaxanthin, Nippon Experimental Medical Research Institute Co., Ltd

Haematococcus Pluvialis and Astaxahin Safety For Human Consumption, Mera Pharmaceuticals, http://www.astafactor.com/techreports/tr3005-001.htm

Iwamoto, Tamami et al. Inhibition of Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Astaxanthin, Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thombosis Vol. 7, No. 4, (Sept. 13, 2000) 216-222

Lignell, Ake. U.S. Patent - Medicament for improvement of duration of muscle function or treatment of muscle disorders or diseases

Haematococcus Pluvialis and Astaxanthin Safety For Human Consumption, http://www.astafactor.com/techreports/tr3005-001.htm

Osterlie, Marianne, Bjorn Bjerkeng, and Synnone Liaaen-Jensen. Plasma appearance and distribution of
astaxanthin E/Z and R/S isomers in plasma lipoproteins of men after single dose administration of astaxanthin

Goldbohm, R. Alexandra, Henny A. M. Brants, Karin F. A. M. Hulshof and Piet A. van den Brandt. The Contribution of Various Foods to Intake of Vitamin A and Carotenoids in the Netherlands, Internat J Vit Nutr Res 68 (1998) 378-383

Heinonen, M. Food Groups as the Source of Retiaoids, Carotenoids, and Vitamin A in Finland, Internat J Vit Nutr Res 61 (1991) 3-9

Faure, H. et al. Les carotenoides: 2. Pathologie et etudes de supplementation, Ann Bio Clin 57 (1999) 273-82

Carotenoids Fact Book

Jyonouchi, Harumi, Sining Sun, and Myron Gross. Effect of Carotenoids on In Vitro Immunoglobulin Production by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid Without Vitamin A Activity, Enhances In Vitro Immunoglobulin Production in Response to a T-Dependent Stimulant and Antigen, Nutr Cancer 23 (1995) 171-183

Jyonouchi, Harumi, Sining Sun, Yoshifumi Tomita, and Myron D. Gross. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid Without Vitamin A Activity, Augments Antibody Responses in Cultures Including T-helper Cell Clones and Suboptimal Doses of Antigen, American Institute of Nutrition (1995) 2483-2492

Spiller, PhD, CNS, Gene A., Antonella Dewell, M.S., R.D. Safety of an Astaxanthin-Rich Haematococcus pluvialis Algal Extract: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Journal of Medicinal Food 6 (2003) 51-56

Sawaki, Keisuke, Hiroshi Yoshigi, Kazubiro Aoki, Natsue Koikawa, Akito Azumane, Kesatoki Kaneko, Masahiro Yamaguchi. Sports Performance Benefits from Taking Natural Astaxanthin Characterized by Visual Acuity and Muscular Fatigue Improvement in Humans, J Trad Med 19 (2002) 170- 173

Nagaki, Yasunori, Seiji Hayasaka, Tetsuya Yamada, Yoriko Hayasaka, Mari Sanada, Takatoshi Uonomi. Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation, critical flicker fusion, and pattern visual evoked potential in visual display terminal workers, J Trad Med 19 (2002) 170-173

Shimada et al. Safety Study of Astaxanthin Consumption in Humans, Fujita University, Japan

United States Patent, Lignell et al

Tajima, Taeko et al. International Research Center for Traditional Medicine, Toyama, Japan

Wang, Xin, Roger Willen, and Torkel Wadstrom. Astaxanthin-Rich Algal Meal and Vitamin C Inhibit
Helicobacter pylori Infection in BALB/cA Mice, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44 (2000) 2452-2457

United States Patent, Wadstrom et al

Maher, PhD, Timothy J. Astaxanthin - Continuing Education Module, August 2000