Bibliography for Topic 2: Clinical Development of Influenza Vaccines for Pre-pandemic Preparedness.


[1] Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Lourens RM, Wang R, Jin G, Fanning TG.  Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature 2005;437:889-893.


2 Tumpey TM, Basler CF, Aguilar PV, et al.  Characterization of the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic virus.  Science.  2005;310:77-80.


3 Claas ECJ, Osterhaus ADME, van Geck R, et al.  Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.  The Lancet 1998;351:472-477.

4 Ungchusak K, Auewarakul P, Dowell, et al.  Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1).  NEJM 2005;352:333-340.


5 The World Health Organization: Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, which can be found on the World Wide Web at:


6 Englund JA, Walter EB, Fairchok MP, Monto AS, Neuzil KM.  A comparison of 2 influenza vaccine schedules in 6- to 23- month-old children.  Pediatrics 2005;115:1039-1047.


7 Walter EB, Neuzil KM, Zhu Y, et al.  Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in 6- to 23- month-old children: are identical antigens necessary for priming?  Pediatrics 2006;118:570-578.


8 Department of Health and Human Services, NIH News.  Preliminary Results Suggest Priming Boosts Immune Responses to Variant H5N1 Vaccine”, which can be found on the World Wide Web at:

9 Couch RB, Kasel JA.  Immunity to influenza in man.  Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1983;37:529-549.


10 Ohmit SE, Victor JC, Rotthoff JR, et al.  Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.  NEJM 2006;355:2513-2522.


11 Meiklejohn G, Eickoff TC, Graves P, I J.  Antigenic drift and efficacy of influenza virus vaccines, 1976-1977.  Journal Infectious Diseases 1978;138:618-624.


[1]2 Stephenson I, Bugarini R, Nicholson KG, et al.  Cross-reactivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses after vaccination with nonadjuvanted and MF-59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a potential priming strategy.  JID 2005;191:000-000.


[1]3 Prevention and Control of Influenza.  Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  MMWR 2006;55:1-41 and can be found on the World Wide Web at