Contaminants and Natural Toxicants Subcommittee Meeting

Enterobacter sakazakii Contamination in Powdered Infant Formula

March 18-19, 2003


Reference List




1.  Lai KK.  Enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults.  Medicine 2001;80:113-122.


2.  Nazarowec-White M, Farber JM. Enterobacter sakazakii: a review. Int J Food Microbiol 1997;34:103-13.


Background Publication List


1.  Biering G, Karlsson S, Clark NC, et al. Three cases of neonatal meningitis caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk.  J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27:2054-6.


2.  Block C, Peleg O, Minster N, Bar-Oz B, Simhon A, Arad I, Shapiro M. Cluster of neonatal infections in Jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of Enterobacter sakazakii.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002 Aug;21(8):613-6

3.  Muytjens HL, Kollee LAA. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates: causative role of formula?  Letter to the Editor Ped Infect Dis J 1990;9:372-373.


4.  Muytjens HL, Roelofs-Willemse H, Jaspar G. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriacae.  J Clin Microbiol 1988;26:743-746.

5.  Muytjens HL, Zanen HC, Sonderkamp HJ, et al.  Analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to Enterobacter sakazakii.  J Clin Microbiol. 1983;18:115-120.


6.  Nazarowec-White M, Farber JM. Incidence, survival, and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula.  J Food Protection 1997;60:226-230.


7.  Nazarowec-White M, Farber JM. Thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted dried infant formula.  Lett Appl Microbiol 1997;24:9-13.


8.  Simmons BP, Gelfand MS, Haas M, et al.  Enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1989;10:398-401.


9.  Van Acker J, DeSmet F, Muyldermans G, et al. Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula.  J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:293-97