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  1. Chemicals, Metals & Pesticides in Food

Survey Data on Perchlorate in Food - 2005-2006 and 2008-2012 Total Diet Study Results

Survey Data on Perchlorate in Food - 2005-2006 and 2008-2012 Total Diet Study Results

Perchlorate Main Page

FDA finds no overall change in perchlorate levels in food between 2005 and 2012

Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and manmade chemical that is present in the environment and occurs in some drinking water systems and in foods. Perchlorate levels may vary widely even within a single food based on where it is grown and the amount of perchlorate in the water.

Between 2008 and 2012, the FDA collected and tested a total of 5,464 food samples for perchlorate and found no overall change in perchlorate levels across foods compared to 937 samples collected between 2005 and 2006. A further analysis of perchlorate levels per year between 2008 and 2012 also found no consistent change in perchlorate levels across foods from year to year.

The 2008 – 2012 dataset contained higher average levels of perchlorate in some foods such as bologna, salami, and collard greens, and lower average levels of perchlorate in other foods such as plain bagels, boxed macaroni and cheese, and milk chocolate, when compared to the 2005 – 2006 dataset. These differences may be due to a number of factors, including variances in the region or season when the samples were collected and/or the increase in sampling in 2008-2012.

The FDA collected these samples as part of its Total Diet Study (TDS), which analyzes samples of about 280 types of foods, including 40 types of baby food, every year from different parts of the country.

The agency used these datasets to conduct exposure assessments, which took into account average perchlorate concentrations within food categories to estimate perchlorate exposure for the populations studied. The results of the exposure assessments were published in two studies; the 2005-2006 data in 2008
(1) and the 2008-2012 data in 2016 (2).

The estimated average intakes of perchlorate for the populations studied in both these exposure assessments were below the EPA’s perchlorate Reference Dose (RfD) of 0.7 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day. For example, the estimated average intake of perchlorate for infants/toddlers based on the 2008-2012 data ranges from 0.36 to 0.48 µg/kg bw/day, approximately half the EPA’s RfD. The RfD is an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is not likely to result in adverse health effects during a lifetime.

(1) Murray CW, Egan SK, Kim H, Beru N, Bolger PM. US Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study: Dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2008: 18:571-580.

(2) Abt E, Spungen J, Pouillot R, Gamalo-Siebers M, Wirtz M. Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study: 2008-2012. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol December 2016 (online).

For additional information, see Perchlorate Questions and Answers

Data

Note that due to the limited number of samples of each food, the results in the table below do not address unit-to-unit or lot-to-lot variation in perchlorate levels in foods nor should the data be used by consumers to determine food choices. Additional TDS samples will be analyzed in 2008 in order to expand this data set.

Notes:
(1) ND = Not Detected
(2) NT = Not Tested
(3) The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 3.00 parts per billion (ppb)
(4) The estimated limit of detection (LOD) is 1.00 ppb
(5) * Estimated value; result was below LOQ but above LOD
(6) ** Samples collected and analyzed in 2006
(7) *** Samples collected and analyzed in 2005

TDS Food Category TDS Food # Food Description Perchlorate Level (ppb)
      Market Basket
1
Market Basket
2
Market Basket
3
Market Basket
4
Dairy**
164 Butter, regular (salted) ND ND NT NT
10 Cheese, American, processed 5.4 11.9 9 8.2
12 Cheese, cheddar, natural (sharp/mild) 3.3 4.7 8 5.3
236 Cheese, Swiss, natural 6.5 5.8 5.1 4.8
332 Cottage cheese, creamed, lowfat (2% milk fat) 8.4 3.9 7.8 6.6
237 Cream cheese 6.5 7.6 4.1 6.2
168 Cream substitute, non-dairy, liquid/frozen ND 1.3* NT NT
167 Half & Half cream 7.5 4.4 7.7 4.4
177 Ice cream, light, vanilla 10.3 6 9 5.7
286 Ice cream, regular, vanilla 7.1 5.6 7.6 8.7
331 Meal replacement, liquid RTD, any flavor ND ND NT NT
7 Milk shake, chocolate, fast-food 9.9 4.4 NT NT
3 Milk, chocolate, lowfat, fluid 9.8 5.8 NT NT
2 Milk, lowfat (2%), fluid 6.4 6.2 NT NT
4 Milk, skim, fluid 8 5.3 NT NT
1 Milk, whole, fluid 8.9 5.3 NT NT
368 Pudding, ready-to-eat, flavor other than chocolate 4.3 3.6 3.7 2.4*
287 Sherbet, fruit-flavored 5.3 1.5* 2.6* 3.7
300 Sour cream 20 20.8 6.1 3.5
333 Sour cream dip, any flavor 27.5 3.5 18 4.4
235 Yogurt, lowfat, fruit-flavored 10.5 5.5 7 4.1
Eggs**
37 Eggs, boiled ND 1.5* NT NT
35 Eggs, scrambled w/ oil 1.3* 1.2* 3 1*
Baby Food***
731 BF, apples w/fruit other than berries ND ND ND 1.2
730 BF, apples with berries ND ND ND ND
225 BF, applesauce ND ND ND 0.5 *
717 BF, apricots w/tap ND 0.7 * 0.9 * 0.7 *
723 BF, arrowroot cookies 0.9 * 2.2 2 1.7
719 BF, banana/apple ND ND ND ND
715 BF, bananas & pineapple ND 2.1 0.5 * NT
313 BF, bananas w/tap ND 0.6 ND ND
727 BF, beef & noodles ND 1.3 3.1 1.5
205 BF, beef and broth/gravy ND ND ND ND
218 BF, carrots 2.6 2.2 2.5 3.2
700 BF, cereal, barley ND 0.6 * 0.9 * 0.9 *
701 BF, cereal, mixed ND 1.3 2.6 0.7 *
323 BF, cereal, oatmeal 1.1 ND 2.3 11.1
324 BF, cereal, rice ND ND ND 0.7 *
325 BF, cereal, rice w/apples ND 2.1 0.6 * 1.6
207 BF, chicken and broth/gravy ND ND ND ND
214 BF, chicken noodle dinner 0.7 * 3.0 2.3 1.8
726 BF, chicken w/ rice 0.6 * 0.7 * 2.0 2.1
232 BF, custard/pudding 2.1 2.9 1.1 2.3
722 BF, dutch apple betty ND ND ND ND
233 BF, fruit dessert/pudding 0.5 * ND 1.4 1.9
219 BF, green beans 3.5 2.8 2.8 1.5
202 BF, Infant formula, milk, hi-Fe ND 2.5 2.0 2.0
203 BF, Infant formula, milk, lo-Fe 1.2 ND 3.6 2.1
309 BF, infant formula, soy ND ND 0.8 * 0.8 *
230 BF, juice, apple ND ND ND ND
703 BF, juice, apple-banana ND 0.8 * 2.6 0.7 *
704 BF, juice, apple-cherry ND 0.8 * 2.0 1.1
705 BF, juice, apple-grape ND 1.4 2.4 3.2
712 BF, juice, grape 1.6 3.5 2.6 3.9
710 BF, juice, mixed fruit ND 11.9 1.5 1.0
231 BF, juice, orange ND ND 0.5 * NT
711 BF, juice, pear ND ND 0.6 * 0.6 *
327 BF, lamb w/gravy ND ND ND ND
729 BF, macaroni & cheese 1.3 1.3 1.7 2.6
215 BF, macaroni, tomato and beef 1.0 1.7 1.0 1.5
220 BF, mixed vegetables 4.7 4.7 2.1 2.1
725 BF, oatmeal w/ fruit 0.7 * 0.9 * 2.0 1.4
720 BF, peach cobbler 1.8 1.3 6.6 1.3
226 BF, peaches ND 6.9 2.2 ND
227 BF, pears ND ND ND ND
713 BF, pears & pineapple ND ND ND 0.8 *
223 BF, peas ND 0.5 * ND ND
714 BF, plums with rice/tap ND ND ND 1.6
320 BF, squash 1.3 1.1 1.8 2.5
221 BF, sweet potatoes 1.2 1.0 2.5 2.4
317 BF, teething biscuits 3.9 3.9 6.7 5.2
216 BF, turkey and rice 0.6 * 1.6 0.7 ND
328 BF, turkey w/gravy ND ND ND ND
326 BF, veal w/gravy ND ND ND ND
728 BF, vegetables w/turkey 1.9 1.7 1.5 0.8
211 BF, vegetables and beef 0.7 * 1.2 1.0 1.1
212 BF, vegetables and chicken 1.6 2.6 1.0 1.3
213 BF, vegetables and ham 0.6 * 1.2 1.1 NT
721 BF, yogurt w/ fruit 1.8 2.3 2.2 1.7
724 BF, zwieback toast 1.9 2.9 2.6 5.2
Meat/Poultry/Fish**
14 Beef roast, chuck, oven R ND ND NT NT
334 Beef steak, loin/sirloin, broiled ND ND NT NT
13 Beef, ground, regular, pan-cooked ND 1* NT NT
29 Bologna (beef/pork) 9.9 5.3 5.7 ND
339 Catfish, pan-cooked w/ oil ND ND NT NT
336 Chicken breast, fried, fast-food (w/ skin) 5.6 3.9 ND 1.7*
240 Chicken breast, oven-roasted (skin removed) ND ND NT NT
338 Chicken leg, fried, fast-food (w/ skin) ND 1.4* NT NT
241 Chicken nuggets, fast-food 14.1 4.6 1.7* 2.3*
337 Chicken thigh, oven-roasted (skin removed) ND ND NT NT
34 Fish sticks or patty, frozen, oven-cooked 2.3* 3.6 2.4* 15.7
28 Frankfurter (beef/pork), boiled 11.6 1.1* ND 1.9*
17 Ham, cured (not canned), baked 19 31.3 12.5 5.5
22 Lamb chop, pan-cooked w/ oil ND ND NT NT
27 Liver (beef/calf), pan-cooked w/ oil ND ND NT NT
335 Luncheon meat (chicken/turkey) 6.5 22.5 6.5 1.8*
239 Luncheon meat (ham) 8.3 16.3 6.7 6.2
20 Pork bacon, oven-cooked 30.7 2.8* 38.5 6.3
18 Pork chop, pan-cooked w/ oil ND 1.6* NT NT
21 Pork roast, loin, oven-roasted 3.5 8.7 2.7* 5
19 Pork sausage (link/patty), oven-cooked ND 1.7* NT NT
30 Salami, luncheon-meat type (not hard) 2.8* 1* 2.8* 6.4
318 Salmon, steaks/fillets, baked ND ND NT NT
244 Shrimp, boiled 157.6 21.2 20.3 20.8
340 Tuna, canned in water, drained ND ND NT NT
26 Turkey breast, oven-roasted 12.2 ND ND ND
Legumes**
47 Peanut butter, creamy 1* ND ND ND
48 Peanuts, dry roasted, salted ND 1.4* NT NT
38 Pinto beans, dry, boiled 1.3* ND NT NT
39 Pork and beans, canned ND ND NT NT
341 Refried beans, canned 1.5* ND NT NT
343 Sunflower seeds (shelled), roasted, salted ND ND NT NT
342 White beans, dry, boiled ND ND NT NT
Grains/Starches/Baked Goods**
185 Apple pie, fresh/frozen 27.5 ND ND ND
249 Bagel, plain, toasted 12.4 22.1 15.9 2.5*
61 Biscuits, refrigerated-type, baked 5.9 5.4 4.8 3.9
248 Bread, cracked wheat 4.5 4.2 6.9 2.4*
64 Bread, rye 4.8 2.8* 3.3 1.6*
58 Bread, white, enriched 2.9* 2.9* 9.1 1.9*
62 Bread, whole wheat 6.3 4.8 1.7* 1.4*
345 Breakfast tart/toaster pastry ND 1.4* NT NT
291 Brownie ND 2.1* NT NT
178 Cake, chocolate w/ icing 1.9* 4.1 1.1* 1.6*
369 Cake, yellow w/ icing 1.2* 2.7* 1.5* 9
183 Chocolate chip cookies 1.1* ND NT NT
71 Corn flakes cereal ND ND NT NT
53 Corn/hominy grits, enriched, cooked ND ND NT NT
67 Corn/tortilla chips 1.3* 1.4* ND ND
60 Cornbread, homemade 3.6* 3.6* 3.5 2.2*
252 Crackers, butter-type 2.8* 1.7* 1.6* ND
251 Crackers, graham 1* ND NT NT
66 Crackers, saltine 1.6* 2.6* ND ND
52 Cream of wheat (farina), enriched, cooked ND ND NT NT
75 Crisped rice cereal ND ND NT NT
290 Doughnut, cake-type, any flavor 5.5 1.7* 5 2.9*
250 English muffin, plain, toasted 72.6 2.4* 4.2 3.6
72 Fruit-flavored cereal, presweetened ND 1.2* NT NT
370 Granola bar, w/ raisins 2.3* 2.3* 2.1* 1.8*
76 Granola w/ raisins 3.7 4.2 3.9 4.3
346 Macaroni salad, from grocery/deli ND 1.2* NT NT
65 Muffin, fruit or plain 1.6* 1.7* ND 1.6*
69 Noodles, egg, enriched, boiled ND ND NT NT
77 Oat ring cereal 5.6 4.2 5.2 3.6
51 Oatmeal, plain, cooked ND 1.4* NT NT
344 Pancakes, frozen, heated 5.6 8.9 2.5* 5.5
372 Popcorn, microwave, butter-flavored ND ND NT NT
294 Pretzels, hard, salted 1.8* 4.1 ND ND
186 Pumpkin pie, fresh/frozen 4.8 4.6 3.8 6.1
74 Raisin bran cereal 2.9* 3.9 1.9* 2.6*
50 Rice, white, enriched, cooked ND ND NT NT
184 Sandwich cookies w/ crème filling ND 1.4* ND 1*
73 Shredded wheat cereal 2.4* 1.2* ND 1.2*
347 Spaghetti, enriched, boiled ND ND NT NT
292 Sugar cookies 1.5* 1.4* ND 1.2*
182 Sweet roll/Danish pastry 2.7* ND NT NT
63 Tortilla, flour 59.4 1.3* 4.6 31.5
Fruits**
78 Apple (red), raw (w/ peel) ND ND NT NT
99 Apple juice, bottled ND 1.6* ND ND
84 Applesauce, bottled ND ND NT NT
348 Apricots, canned in heavy/light syrup 2.2* ND NT NT
97 Avocado, raw 12.3 ND ND ND
80 Banana, raw ND ND NT NT
89 Cantaloupe, raw/frozen 1.4* 70.3 24 1.9*
351 Cranberry juice cocktail, canned/bottled ND ND NT NT
87 Fruit cocktail, canned in light syrup ND ND NT NT
350 Fruit juice blend (100% juice), canned/bottled ND ND NT NT
257 Grape juice, frozen conc, reconstituted ND 4.7 1* 3.3
100 Grapefruit juice, frozen conc, reconstituted 2.3* ND ND ND
92 Grapefruit, raw ND ND NT NT
88 Grapes (red/green), raw 6.6 141 70.6 ND
79 Orange (navel/Valencia), raw ND 2.6* 5.4 2.4*
352 Orange juice, bottled/carton ND ND NT NT
98 Orange juice, frozen conc, reconstituted 12.8 1.9* 6.3 1.5*
254 Peach, canned in light/medium syrup ND ND NT NT
83 Peach, raw/frozen ND 5.1 ND ND
255 Pear, canned in light syrup ND ND NT NT
85 Pear, raw (w/ peel) 2* ND ND ND
256 Pineapple juice, frozen conc, reconstituted 3.8 3.3 ND 7
93 Pineapple, canned in juice 1.4* 1.4* ND 3.3
103 Prune juice, bottled 2.6* 2.5* 1.2* 1.8*
95 Raisins 10.8 5.4 7.4 8.6
86 Strawberries, raw/frozen ND ND NT NT
81 Watermelon, raw/frozen 2.6* 42.6 ND 1.8*
Vegetables**
115 Asparagus, fresh/frozen, boiled 11.8 1.6* ND 4.6
131 Beets, canned ND 3.5 2.6* ND
299 Black olives ND ND NT NT
113 Broccoli, fresh/frozen, boiled 8.3 1.3* 1.5* 4.7
263 Brussels sprouts, fresh/frozen, boiled 6.4 8.1 7.8 ND
110 Cabbage, fresh, boiled 5.1 1.8* 1.3* 2.4*
356 Carrot, baby, raw 7 11.5 NT NT
259 Carrot, fresh, peeled, boiled 3.4 3.5 7.7 7.4
116 Cauliflower, fresh/frozen, boiled ND 1.8* 25.9 ND
114 Celery, raw 1.9* 2.2* 1.5* ND
355 Coleslaw, mayonnaise-type, from grocery/deli 5.1 9.8 1.6* 1.7*
108 Collards, fresh/frozen, boiled 11.4 37.7 13.3 8.5
55 Corn, canned ND ND NT NT
54 Corn, fresh/frozen, boiled ND ND NT NT
123 Cucumber, peeled, raw 8 64 3.8 ND
161 Dill cucumber pickles 5.9 1.2* 1.7* 1.2*
265 Eggplant, fresh, peeled, boiled 3.5 6.3 2.8* 3.8
122 Green beans, canned 4.7 8.1 5.2 2.1
121 Green beans, fresh/frozen, boiled 15.6 12.8 2* 5.3
109 Lettuce, iceberg, raw 1.2* 3.1 3.5 ND
357 Lettuce, leaf, raw 2* 6.7 NT NT
42 Lima beans, immature, frozen, boiled ND ND NT NT
268 Mixed vegetables, frozen, boiled 1.4* ND NT NT
264 Mushrooms, raw ND ND NT NT
267 Okra, fresh/frozen, boiled 1.2* 1* ND 4.3
128 Onion, mature, raw ND ND NT NT
46 Peas, green, frozen, boiled 1.5* ND NT NT
125 Pepper, sweet, green, raw 5.4 26.7 9.5 6.2
138 Potato chips ND 7.3 NT NT
353 Potato salad, mayonnaise-type, from grocery/deli 1* 1.7* 1.4* ND
137 Potato, baked (w/ peel) 1.9* ND NT NT
136 Potato, boiled (w/out peel) ND ND NT NT
258 Potato, french-fried, fast-food 19.6 6.2 5.7 26.4
354 Potato, mashed, prepared from fresh 1* ND NT NT
107 Spinach, fresh/frozen, boiled 11.6 53.5 29 65.9
126 Squash, winter (Hubbard/acorn), fresh/frozen, boiled 3.6 2* 2.7* 1.4*
124 Summer squash, fresh/frozen, boiled 17.5 73.6 13 4.2
358 Sweet potatoes, canned ND ND NT NT
173 Tomato catsup 1.8* ND ND 1*
261 Tomato juice, bottled ND ND NT NT
359 Tomato salsa, bottled 1* 15.4 ND 1.7*
119 Tomato sauce, plain, bottled 1.7* 1.7* ND ND
117 Tomato, raw 81.1 74.9 102 54.1
266 Turnip, fresh/frozen, boiled 2.8* 9.3 7 ND
298 Yellow mustard 1.8* 2.6* ND 1.1*
Mixtures (e.g., casseroles, sandwiches, soups, pizza)**
360 Beef and vegetable stew, canned 2.1* 4.7 3.6 1.3*
269 Beef stroganoff w/ noodles, homemade ND 1.7* NT NT
362 Beef w/ vegetables in sauce, from Chinese carry-out 2.3* 1.7* 3.5 6.8
374 Brown gravy, canned or bottled ND 15.5 ND 3.9
365 Burrito w/ beef, beans and cheese, from Mexican carry-out 2.4* 3.3 5.9 4.6
366 Chicken filet (broiled) sandwich on bun, fast-food 12.2 5.5 3.2 6.2
152 Chicken potpie, frozen, heated 5.3 4.5 3.3 18
363 Chicken w/ vegetables in sauce, from Chinese carry-out 1.9* 77 4.8 6.9
145 Chili con carne w/ beans, canned 1.6* 1.6* 3.9 2.3*
285 Clam chowder, New England, canned, cond, prepared w/ whole milk 6.1 3.4 3.7 2.6*
278 Egg, cheese, and ham on English muffin, fast-food 7.9 2.9* 4.3 7.8
276 Fish sandwich on bun, fast-food 3.9 3.3 2.5* 2.2*
364 Fried rice, meatless, from Chinese carry-out 1.6* 2.3* 2.9* ND
361 Lasagna w/ meat, frozen, heated 1.9* 3.6 2.5* 2.7*
146 Macaroni and cheese, prepared from box mix 6.6 5.9 4.7 7.1
148 Meatloaf, beef, homemade ND 1.2* NT NT
281 Pizza, cheese and pepperoni, regular crust, from pizza carry-out 4.2 3 3.3 3.9
275 Quarter-pound cheeseburger on bun, fast-food 4.5 2.7* 4.6 1.8*
147 Quarter-pound hamburger on bun, fast-food 1.3* 3 1.4* 1.3*
283 Soup, bean w/ bacon/pork, canned, cond, prepared w/ water 1.3* ND NT NT
155 Soup, chicken noodle, canned, cond, prepared w/ water ND 8.2 ND 1.4*
367 Soup, Oriental noodles (ramen noodles), prepared w/ water ND 1.1* NT NT
156 Soup, tomato, canned, cond, prepared w/ water ND ND NT NT
157 Soup, vegetable beef, canned, cond, prepared w/ water 3.5 14.1 5.4 1.9*
142 Spaghetti w/ meat sauce, homemade ND ND NT NT
279 Taco/tostada w/ beef and cheese, from Mexican carry-out 2.1* 27.5 11.5 1.1*
272 Tuna noodle casserole, homemade 2.2* 3.6 2.8* 2.7*
Candy/Sweets/Sugars/Syrups**
371 Candy bar, chocolate, nougat, and nuts 2.1* 2.3* 2.4* 2.4*
187 Candy bar, milk chocolate, plain 10.1 11.6 11.9 12.1
293 Candy, hard, any flavor ND ND NT NT
190 Gelatin dessert, any flavor ND ND NT NT
172 Honey 1.2* 1.8* 2.7* 4.8
296 Jelly, any flavor 1.2* 1.3* ND 5.7
169 Sugar, white, granulated NT NT NT NT
373 Sweet & sour sauce 8.5 1* 2* 1*
295 Syrup, chocolate ND ND NT NT
170 Syrup, pancake ND ND NT NT
Fats/Oils**
162 Margarine, regular (salted) ND ND NT NT
166 Mayonnaise, regular, bottled 1* ND NT NT
378 Olive oil ND ND NT NT
376 Salad dressing, creamy/buttermilk type, low-calorie 5.7 2.1* ND 2.1*
375 Salad dressing, creamy/buttermilk type, regular 6.1 2.3* ND 2.3*
377 Salad dressing, Italian, regular ND ND NT NT
379 Vegetable oil ND ND NT NT
Beverages**
198 Beer ND ND NT NT
380 Bottled drinking water (mineral/spring), not carbonated or flavored ND ND NT NT
194 Carbonated beverage, cola, low-calorie 2.5* ND NT NT
191 Carbonated beverage, cola, regular ND ND NT NT
306 Carbonated beverage, fruit-flavored, regular ND ND NT NT
305 Coffee, from ground ND ND NT NT
381 Decaffeinated coffee, from ground ND ND NT NT
382 Decaffeinated tea, from tea bag ND ND NT NT
307 Fruit drink (10% juice), canned or bottled ND ND NT NT
193 Fruit drink, from powder ND ND NT NT
105 Lemonade, frozen conc, reconstituted ND ND NT NT
288 Popsicle, fruit-flavored ND ND NT NT
197 Tea, from tea bag ND ND NT NT
199 Wine, dry table, red/ white 3.1 4.6 3.9 4.6

TDS Perchlorate Data for Fiscal Year 2008-2012 is available for download in PDF or Excel.

EXCEL (234KB)  PDF (515KB)