Welcome to FDA Drug Safety Podcasts for health care professionals. This is Lesley Navin, Advanced Practice Nurse from the Division of Drug Information.
On June 14, 2016, FDA strengthened the existing warning about the risk of acute kidney injury for the type 2 diabetes medicines canagliflozin (brand names Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (brand names Farxiga, Xigduo XR). Based on recent reports, we have revised the warnings in the drug labels to include information about acute kidney injury and added recommendations to minimize this risk.
Patients should seek medical attention immediately if they experience signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. Health care professionals should consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury prior to starting them on canagliflozin or dapagliflozin. These include decreased blood volume; chronic kidney insufficiency; congestive heart failure; and taking other medications such as diuretics, blood pressure medicines called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Assess kidney function prior to starting canagliflozin or dapagliflozin and monitor periodically thereafter. If acute kidney injury occurs, promptly discontinue the drug and treat the kidney impairment.
Canagliflozin and dapagliflozin are used with diet and exercise to help lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. They belong to a class of drugs called sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Canagliflozin and dapagliflozin lower blood sugar by causing the kidneys to remove sugar from the body through the urine. From March 2013, when canagliflozin was approved, to October 2015, FDA received reports of 101 confirmable cases of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, with canagliflozin or dapagliflozin use. This number includes only reports submitted to FDA, so there are likely additional cases about which we are unaware. In approximately half the cases, the events of acute kidney injury occurred within 1 month of starting the drug, and most patients improved after stopping it. Some cases occurred in patients younger than 65 years and some patients were dehydrated, had low blood pressure, or were taking other medicines that can affect the kidneys.
Side effects involving canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or other medicines should be reported to FDA’s MedWatch program at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
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- FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA strengthens kidney warnings for diabetes medicines canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR)
- FDA Drug Safety Podcast: FDA strengthens kidney warnings for diabetes medicines canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR)