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Cynthia B. Stine MS, PhD.

Cynthia Stine, MS, PhD
Cynthia B. Stine MS, PhD.

Division of Applied Veterinary Research


Cynthia Stine earned her master’s degree from the University of Maryland Baltimore, and her doctoral degree from University of Maryland, College Park. Both degrees were in marine-estuarine-environmental sciences with an environmental molecular biology and biotechnology area of specialization. She joined the US FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in 2008 as a member of the inaugural class of the FDA Commissioner’s Fellowship Program and transitioned to a research biologist performing aquaculture research in 2010.


Dr. Stine’s research activities currently focus on developing husbandry methods for amphibians, validation of regulatory molecular methods to support drug approvals as well as methods of identification for aquatic pathogens.

Other research activities center on evaluating toxicity of food and feed ingredients, most notably melamine and cyanuric acid in pet food. She also collaborates on standardizing antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for aquatic bacterial pathogens and developing models of fish disease to study drug effectiveness.

Select Publications

Gieseker CM, TC Crosby, TD Mayer, SM Bodeis, CB Stine. 2016. Development of similar broth microdilution methods to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 28(1):27–38.

Bandele O, CB Stine, M Ferguson, T Black, N Olejnik, Z Keltner, ER Evans, TC Crosby, R Reimschuessel, R Sprando. 2014. Use of novel urinary renal biomarkers to assess the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 74: 301–308.

Stine CB, R Reimschuessel, Z Keltner, CB Nochetto, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, O Bandele, SM Nemser, A Tkachenko, ER Evans, TC Crosby, O Ceric, M Ferguson, BJ Yakes, R Sprando. 2014. Reproductive toxicity in rats with crystal nephropathy following high doses of oral melamine or cyanuric acid. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 68: 142–153.

Stine CB, CB Nochetto, CM Gieseker, ER Evans, NR Hasbrouck, TD Mayer, L Girard, R Reimschuessel. 2013. Depletion of melamine and cyanuric acid in kidney of catfish Ictalurus punctatus and trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 36(6):617–620.

Nochetto CN, CB Stine, R Reimschuessel. 2013. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of melamine and cyanuric acid in fish kidney by LC-MS/MS. Journal of AOAC International. 96(3):663–669.

Bandele O, L Camacho, M Ferguson, R Reimschuessel, CB Stine, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, G Gamboa da Costa, RL Sprando. 2013. Performance of urinary and gene expression biomarkers in detecting the nephrotoxic effects of melamine and cyanuric acid following diverse scenarios of co-exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 51:106–113.

Sprando RL, R Reimschuessel, CB Stine, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, Z Keltner, O Bandele, M Ferguson, SM Nemser, A Tkachenko, E Evans, T Crosby, K Woodling, L Loukotková, G Gamboa da Costa. 2012. Timing and route of exposure affects crystal formation in melamine and cyanuric exposed male and female rats: Gavage vs. feeding. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(12):4389–4397.

Stine CB, CB Nochetto, ER Evans, CM Gieseker, TD Mayer, NR Hasbrouck, R Reimschuessel. 2012. Depletion of melamine and cyanuric acid in serum from catfish Ictalurus punctatus and rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(10):3426-3432.

Stine CB, R Reimschuessel, CM Gieseker, ER Evans, TD Mayer, NR Hasbrouck, E Tall, J Boehmer, G Gamboa da Costa, J Ward. 2011. A no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for pigs fed melamine and cyanuric acid. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 60(3):363–372.

Andersen W, S Turnipseed, C Karbiwnyk, E Evans, N Hasbrouk, T Mayer, C Gieseker, C Nochetto, C Stine, R Reimschuessel. 2011. Bioaccumulation of melamine in catfish muscle following continuous, low-dose, oral administration. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(7): 3111-3117.

Contact Information
Cynthia B. Stine
+1 (240) 402-5406
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