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Cynthia B. Stine MS, PhD.

Cynthia Stine, MS, PhD
Cynthia B. Stine MS, PhD.

Division of Applied Veterinary Research


Cynthia Stine earned her master’s degree from the University of Maryland Baltimore, and her doctoral degree from University of Maryland, College Park. Both degrees were in marine-estuarine-environmental sciences with an environmental molecular biology and biotechnology area of specialization. She joined the US FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in 2008 as a member of the inaugural class of the FDA Commissioner’s Fellowship Program and transitioned to a research biologist performing aquaculture research in 2010. She became Director of the Division in 2021.


Dr. Stine’s research activities focused on developing husbandry methods for amphibians, validation of regulatory molecular methods to support drug approvals as well as methods of identification for aquatic pathogens.

Other research activities centered on evaluating toxicity of food and feed ingredients, most notably melamine and cyanuric acid in pet food. She also collaborated on standardizing antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for aquatic bacterial pathogens and developing models of fish disease to study drug effectiveness.

Select Publications

Stine, CB, C Li, TC Crosby, NR Hasbrouck, C Lam, DA Tadesse. 2018. Draft whole-genome sequences of Chryseobacterium piscicola and Chryseobacterium shigense. Genome Announcements, May6(20).

Carter, L, HR Chase, CM Gieseker, NR Hasbrouck, CB Stine, A Khan, LJ Ewing-Peeples, BD Tall, GR Gopinath. 2018. Analysis of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus strains from dried foods using whole genome sequencing, multi-locus sequence analysis and toxin gene prevalence and distribution using endpoint PCR analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Nov 284, 31-9.

Sprando RL, ME Mossoba, T Black, Z Keltner, S Vohra, N Olejnik, H Toomer, C Stine, E Evans, JL Sprando, M Ferguson. 2017. 28-day repeated dose response study of diglycolic acid: Renal and hepatic effects. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 106 (Pt A): 558-567.

Stine, CB, C Li, TC Crosby, NR Hasbrouck, C Lam, DA Tadesse. 2017. Draft whole genome sequences of eighteen Flavobacterium spp. Genome Announcements, Nov 5(46).

Reichley, SR, C Ware, J Stedman, PS Gaunt, JC Garcia, BJ LeFrentz, A Thachil, GC Waldbeiser, CB Stine, N Buján, CR Arias, T Loch, TJ Welch, RC Cipriano, TE Greenway, LH Khoo, DJ Wise, ML Lawrence, MJ Griffin. 2017. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Edwardsiella spp. isolates from different hosts and geographic origins, with an emphasis on isolates formerly classified as E. tarda and an evaluation of diagnostic methods. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(12), 3466-3491.

Gieseker CM, TC Crosby, TD Mayer, SM Bodeis, CB Stine. 2016. Development of similar broth microdilution methods to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 28(1):27–38.

Bandele O, CB Stine, M Ferguson, T Black, N Olejnik, Z Keltner, ER Evans, TC Crosby, R Reimschuessel, R Sprando. 2014. Use of novel urinary renal biomarkers to assess the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 74: 301–308.

Stine CB, R Reimschuessel, Z Keltner, CB Nochetto, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, O Bandele, SM Nemser, A Tkachenko, ER Evans, TC Crosby, O Ceric, M Ferguson, BJ Yakes, R Sprando. 2014. Reproductive toxicity in rats with crystal nephropathy following high doses of oral melamine or cyanuric acid. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 68: 142–153.

Stine CB, CB Nochetto, CM Gieseker, ER Evans, NR Hasbrouck, TD Mayer, L Girard, R Reimschuessel. 2013. Depletion of melamine and cyanuric acid in kidney of catfish Ictalurus punctatus and trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 36(6):617–620.

Nochetto CN, CB Stine, R Reimschuessel. 2013. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of melamine and cyanuric acid in fish kidney by LC-MS/MS. Journal of AOAC International. 96(3):663–669.

Bandele O, L Camacho, M Ferguson, R Reimschuessel, CB Stine, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, G Gamboa da Costa, RL Sprando. 2013. Performance of urinary and gene expression biomarkers in detecting the nephrotoxic effects of melamine and cyanuric acid following diverse scenarios of co-exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 51:106–113.

Sprando RL, R Reimschuessel, CB Stine, T Black, N Olejnik, M Scott, Z Keltner, O Bandele, M Ferguson, SM Nemser, A Tkachenko, E Evans, T Crosby, K Woodling, L Loukotková, G Gamboa da Costa. 2012. Timing and route of exposure affects crystal formation in melamine and cyanuric exposed male and female rats: Gavage vs. feeding. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(12):4389–4397.

Stine CB, CB Nochetto, ER Evans, CM Gieseker, TD Mayer, NR Hasbrouck, R Reimschuessel. 2012. Depletion of melamine and cyanuric acid in serum from catfish Ictalurus punctatus and rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(10):3426-3432.

Stine CB, R Reimschuessel, CM Gieseker, ER Evans, TD Mayer, NR Hasbrouck, E Tall, J Boehmer, G Gamboa da Costa, J Ward. 2011. A no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for pigs fed melamine and cyanuric acid. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 60(3):363–372.

Andersen W, S Turnipseed, C Karbiwnyk, E Evans, N Hasbrouk, T Mayer, C Gieseker, C Nochetto, C Stine, R Reimschuessel. 2011. Bioaccumulation of melamine in catfish muscle following continuous, low-dose, oral administration. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(7): 3111-3117.

Contact Information
Cynthia B. Stine
+1 (240) 402-5406
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