Orientation and Training
Food and Drug Administration
- 13.11.1 Sources of Radiation Exposure
- 13.11.2 Radiobiology of Ionizing Radiation
- 13.11.3 Radiation Instrumentation
- 13.11.4 Properties and Production of X-rays
- 13.11.5 Radiography and X-ray Film Processing
To introduce sources of radiation exposure, both natural and manmade, and to provide a background in radiation protection and safety to the trainee.
The trainer will present information on radiation protection, safety rules and regulations, and various sources of radiation exposure.
The trainee will be expected to read assigned references and be able to apply radiation safety procedures, as instructed.
To familiarize the trainee with the biological effects of ionizing radiation.
The trainer will present the fundamentals of ionizing radiation radiobiology, to include:
- sequence of biological effects,
- determinants of biological effects, and
- carcinogenic, teratogenic, and genetic effects of ionizing radiation exposure.
To introduce the trainee to the various types of instruments for radiation detection and measurement and to provide practical experience in their use.
The trainer will present the various types of instruments, their preferred uses, their limitations, and the corrections needed to read actual (corrected) values for each type. Instrument types to be presented include:
- GM (Geiger Mueller) counters,
- ionization chambers,
- scintillation detectors,
- thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD), and
- film dosimeters.
The trainee will perform measurement and/or calibration exercises assigned by the trainer.
To introduce the trainee to the basic properties and methods of x-ray production.
The trainer will present the fundamental properties of x-rays and the basics of x-ray machines. This presentation will include:
- X-ray machines
- set up
- production of x-rays
- X-ray exposure variation
- X-ray scatter
The trainee will become familiar with the operation, uses, and limitations of x-ray equipment.
To acquaint the trainee with the fundamentals of digital and film radiography, taking a radiograph, processing the film to produce the desired results, and reading film using a densitometer.
The trainer will present the fundamentals of radiography, which may include:
- Radiographic film
- image formation
- Intensifying screens
- Film developing
- automatic processing
- variation with developer temperature
- Film variation
- large vs. small x-ray tube focal spots
- Film densitometers and their use
The trainee will be expected to be capable of producing an acceptable radiograph deciding on exposure technique factors for the objects and developing the film.