Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Ammonium salts

The GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon.

Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate dibasic, ammonium phosphate monobasic, ammonium sulfate

SCOGS Report Number: 34
NTIS Accession Number: PB25453226*
Year of Report: 1974
GRAS SubstanceID Code21 CFR Section
Ammonium bicarbonate1066-33-7184.1135 (1983)
Ammonium carbonate8000-73-5184.1137 (1983)
Ammonium chloride12125-02-9184.1138 (1983)
Ammonium hydroxide1336-21-6184.1139 (1983)
Ammonium phosphate dibasic7783-28-0184.1141b (1983)
Ammonium phosphate monobasic7722-76-1184.1141a (1983)
Ammonium sulfate7783-20-2184.1143 (1983)

SCOGS Opinion:

Ammonia and the ammonium ion are integral components of normal metabolic processes and play an essential role in the physiology of man.

Although there have been no significant feeding studies specifically designed to ascertain the safety threshold of ammonium compounds as food ingredients, numerous metabolic studies have been reported in the scientific literature. Extrapolation of these findings to the concentrations of ammonium compounds normally present in foods does not suggest that there would be untoward effects at such levels.

In the light of the foregoing, the Select Committee concludes that:

There is no evidence in the available information on ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide, mono and dibasic ammonium phosphate, and ammonium sulfate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in future.

*Complete reports containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions and are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 605-6000.

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