Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (2005 Revision)

Table of Contents

  • List of Previous Editions of USPHS/FDA Milk Ordinance
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Table of Contents
    • Illustrations
    • Tables  
  • Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (Grade "A" PMO) - 2005
    1. Section 1. Definitions
    2. Section 2. Adulterated or Misbranded Milk or Milk Products
    3. Section 3. Permits
    4. Section 4. Labeling
    5. Section 5. Inspection of Dairy Farms and Milk Plants
    6. Section 6. The Examination of Milk and Milk Products
    7. Section 7. Standards For Grade "A" Milk and Milk Products  
  • Standards For Grade "A" Raw Milk For Pasteurization, Ultra-Pasteurization or Aseptic Processing
    1. Item 1r. Abnormal Milk
    2. Item 2r. Milking Barn, Stable or Parlor - Construction
    3. Item 3r. Milking Barn, Stable or Parlor - Cleanliness
    4. Item 4r. Cowyard
    5. Item 5r. Milkhouse - Construction and Facilities
    6. Item 6r. Milkhouse - Cleanliness
    7. Item 7r. Toilet
    8. Item 8r. Water Supply
    9. Item 9r. Utensils and Equipment - Construction
    10. Item 10r. Utensils and Equipment - Cleaning
    11. Item 11r. Utensils and Equipment - Sanitization
    12. Item 12r. Utensils and Equipment - Storage
    13. Item 13r. Milking - Flanks, Udders and Teats
    14. Item 14r. Protection From Contamination
    15. Item 15r. Drug and Chemical Control
    16. Item 16r. Personnel - Handwashing Facilities
    17. Item 17r. Personnel - Cleanliness
    18. Item 18r. Raw Milk Cooling
    19. Item 19r. Insect and Rodent Control  
  • Standards For Grade "A" Pasteurized, Ultra-Pasteurized and Aseptically Processed Milk and Milk Products
    1. Item 1p. Floors - Construction
    2. Item 2p. Walls and Ceilings - Construction
    3. Item 3p. Doors and Windows
    4. Item 4p. Lighting and Ventilation
    5. Item 5p. Separate Rooms
    6. Item 6p. Toilet-Sewage Disposal Facilities
    7. Item 7p. Water Supply
    8. Item 8p. Handwashing Facilities
    9. Item 9p. Milk Plant Cleanliness
    10. Item 10p. Sanitary Piping
    11. Item 11p. Construction and Repair of Containers and Equipment
    12. Item 12p. Cleaning and Sanitizing of Containers and Equipment
    13. Item 13p. Storage of Cleaned Containers and Equipment
    14. Item 14p. Storage of Single-Service Containers, Utensils and Materials
    15. Item 15p. Protection From Contamination
    16. Item 16p. Pasteurization and Aseptic Processing
    17. Item 16p.(A) Batch Pasteurization
    18. Item 16p.(B) High-Temperature-Short-Time (HTST) Continuous-Flow Pasteurization
    19. Item 16p.(C) Aseptic Processing Systems
    20. Item 16p.(D) Pasteurizers and Aseptic Processing Systems Employing Regenerative Heating
      • Milk or Milk Product-To-Milk or Milk Product Regenerative Heating
      • Milk or Milk Product-To-Water To-Milk or Milk Product Regenerative Heating
    21. Item 16p.(E) Pasteurization and Aseptic Processing Records, Equipment Tests and Examinations
    22. Item 17p. Cooling of Milk and Milk Products
    23. Item 18p. Bottling, Packaging and Container Filling
    24. Item 19p. Capping, Container Closure and Sealing and Dry Milk Product Storage
    25. Item 20p. Personnel - Cleanliness
    26. Item 21p. Vehicles
    27. Item 22p. Surroundings  
  • Section 8. Animal Health  
  • Section 9. Milk and Milk Products Which May Be Sold  
  • Section 10. Transferring; Delivery Containers; Cooling  
  • Section 11. Milk and Milk Products From Points Beyond the Limits of Routine Inspection  
  • Section 12. Plans For Construction and Reconstruction  
  • Section 13. Personnel Health  
  • Section 14. Procedure When Infection or High Risk of Infection is Discovered  
  • Section 15. Enforcement  
  • Section 16. Penalty  
  • Section 17. Repeal and Date of Effect  
  • Section 18. Separability Clause  
  • Footnotes  
  • Appendix A. Animal Disease Control  
  • Appendix B. Milk Sampling, Hauling and Transportation
    1. Milk Sampling and Hauling Procedures
    2. Milk Tank Truck Permitting and Inspection  
  • Appendix C. Dairy Farm Construction Standards and Milk Production
    1. Toilet and Sewage Disposal Facilities
    2. Guideline #45 - Gravity Flow Gutters For Manure Removal In Milking Barns
    3. Convalescent (Maternity) Pens In Milking Barns and Stables
    4. Guidelines For Conventional Stall Barn With Gutter Grates Over Liquid Manure Storage
    5. Dairy - Construction and Operation
      • Milking Barn, Stable or Parlor
      • Milkhouse
      • Milking Methods
      • Reverse Flush Systems
      • Drug Residue Avoidance Control Measures
      • Insect and Rodent Control  
  • Appendix D. Standards For Water Sources
    1. Location of Water Sources
    2. Construction
    3. Disinfection of Water Sources
    4. Continuous Water Disinfection
    5. Water Reclaimed From Milk and Milk Products
    6. Water Reclaimed From Heat Exchanger Processes
    7. Drawings of Construction Details For Water Sources  
  • Appendix E. Examples of 3-Out-of-5 Compliance Enforcement Procedures  
  • Appendix F. Sanitization
    1. Methods of Sanitization
    2. Evaporating, Drying and Dry Product Equipment Cleaning
  • Appendix G. Chemical and Bacteriological Tests
    1. Private Water Supplies and Recirculated Water - Bacteriological
    2. Pasteurization Efficiency - Field Phosphate Test
    3. Phosphatase Reactivation In HTST Pasteurized Products
    4. Detection of Pesticides In Milk
    5. Detection of Drug Residues In Milk
    6. Analysis of Milk and Milk Products For Vitamin A and D3 Content  
  • Appendix H. Pasteurization Equipment and Procedures
    1. HTST Pasteurization
    2. Air For Drying Equipment and Air Under Pressure - Direct Contact With Milk and Milk Products and Milk Product - Contact Surfaces
    3. Culinary Steam - Milk and Milk Products
    4. Thermometer Specifications
    5. Criteria For The Evaluation of Computerized Systems For Grade 'A' Public Health Controls
    6. Criteria For Steam-Block Type FDD Systems
    7. Milk and Milk Products HACCP CCP Models For Pasteurization Equipment  
  • Appendix I. Pasteurization Equipment and Controls - Tests
    1. Testing Apparatus Specifications
    2. Test Procedures  
  • Appendix J. Standards For The Fabrication of Single-Service Containers and Closures For Milk and Milk Products
    1. Preface
    2. Purpose and Scope
    3. Definitions
    4. Bacterial Standards and Examination of Single-Service Containers and Closures
    5. Fabrication Plant Standards
      1. Floors
      2. Walls and Ceilings
      3. Doors and Windows
      4. Lighting and Ventilation
      5. Separate Rooms
      6. Toilet Facilities - Sewage Disposal
      7. Water Supply
      8. Handwashing Facilities
      9. Plant Cleanliness
      10. Locker and Lunchrooms
      11. Disposal of Wastes
      12. Personnel - Practices
      13. Protection From Contamination
      14. Storage of Materials and Finished Product
      15. Fabricating Equipment
      16. Materials For Construction of Containers and Closures
      17. Waxes, Adhesives, Sealants, Coatings and Inks
      18. Handling of Containers and Equipment
      19. Wrapping and Shipping
      20. Identification and Records
      21. Surroundings
    6. Criteria For Listing Certified Single-Service Manufacturers In The IMS List  
  • Appendix K. HACCP Program
    1. The HACCP System Introduction
    2. Implementation of A HACCP System
    3. Training and Standardization
    4. HACCP Audits and Follow-Up Actions  
  • Appendix L. Applicable Regulations, Standards of Identity For Milk and Milk Products and The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act  
  • Appendix M. Reports and Records  
  • Appendix N. Drug Residue Testing and Farm Surveillance
    1. Industry Responsibilities
    2. Regulatory Agency Responsibilities
    3. Testing Program For Drug Residues Established
    4. Established Tolerances and/or Safe Levels of Drug Residues
    5. Approved Methods  
  • Appendix O. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk Products  
  • Appendix P. Performance-Based Dairy Farm Inspection System  
  • Appendix Q. Operation of Automatic Milk Installations For The Production of Grade "A" Raw Milk For Pasteurization  
  • Appendix R. Determination of Time/temperature Control for Safety of Milk and Milk Products  


  1. Figure 1. Side Cross Section of a Gravity Flow Gutter
  2. Figure 2. Stepped Gravity Flow Gutter
  3. Figure 3. Cross Section of a Typical Gutter and Grate
  4. Figure 4. Manure Transfer to Storage
  5. Figure 5. Side Cross Section of a Convalescent Pen
  6. Figure 6. Schematic Diagram Showing Suggested Exhaust Fan Locations for a Typical Stall Dairy Barn with Gutter Grates Over Liquid Manure Storage
  7. Figure 7. Schematic Diagram Showing General Pattern of Ventilation Air Movement, Slot Inlet Design and Fan House for Pit Fans
  8. Figure 8. Bored Well with Driven Well Point
  9. Figure 9. Drilled Well with Submersible Pump
  10. Figure 10. Dug Well with Two-Pipe Jet Pump Installation
  11. Figure 11. Pumphouse
  12. Figure 12. Spring Protection
  13. Figure 13. Pond
  14. Figure 14. Schematic Diagram of a Pond Water-Treatment System
  15. Figure 15. Cistern
  16. Figure 16. Typical Concrete Reservoir
  17. Figure 17. Pit-less Adapter with Submersible Pump Installation for Basement Storage
  18. Figure 18. Clamp-on Pit-less Adaptor with Concentric External Piping for "Shallow Well" Pump Installation
  19. Figure 19. Pit-less Unit with Concentric External Piping for Jet Pump Installation
  20. Figure 20. Weld-on Pit-less Adapter with Concentric External Piping for "Shallow Well" Pump Installation
  21. Figure 21. Well Seal for Jet Pump Installation
  22. Figure 22. Well Seal for Submersible Pump Installation
  23. Figure 23. Typical Valve and Box, Manhole Covers, and Piping Installation
  24. Figure 24. Suction Feeder
  25. Figure 25. Positive Displacement Chlorinator
  26. Figure 26. Milk-to-Milk Regeneration - Homogenizer Upstream from Holding Tube
  27. Figure 27. Milk-to-Milk Regeneration - Booster Pump
  28. Figure 28. Milk-to-Milk Regeneration - Homogenizer and Vacuum Chambers Downstream from Flow-Diversion Device
  29. Figure 29. HTST System with a Magnetic Flow Meter Using a Constant Speed Centrifugal Pump and a Control Valve
  30. Figure 30. HTST System with a Magnetic Flow Meter Using an A-C Variable Speed Centrifugal Pump
  31. Figure 31. Controls for Steam Injection Pasteurizer
  32. Figure 32. Individual Compression-Type Air Supply
  33. Figure 33. Central Compression-Type Air Supply
  34. Figure 34. Individual Blower-Type Air Supply
  35. Figure 35. Individual Fan-Type Air Supply
  36. Figure 36. Rotating Mandrel Assembly
  37. Figure 37. Culinary Steam Piping Assembly for Steam Infusion or Injection
  38. Figure 38. Culinary Steam Piping Assembly for Steam Infusion or Injection (Optional Configuration)
  39. Figure 39. Culinary Steam Piping Assembly for Airspace Heating or Defoaming
  40. Figure 40. Logic Diagram: HTST Flow-Diversion Device, Divert Valve Stem
  41. Figure 41. Logic Diagram: HTST Flow-Diversion Device, Leak-Detect Valve Stem
  42. Figure 42. Logic Diagram: HTST Safety Limit Recorder-Controller
  43. Figure 43. Logic Diagram: HTST Timing Pump
  44. Figure 44. Logic Diagram: HTST Booster Pump
  45. Figure 45. Pressure Switch Setting
  46. Figure 46. Vitamin Fortification
  47. Figure 47. Decision Tree for Using pH, aw, or the Interaction of pH and aw to Determine if a Milk or Milk Product Requires Time/Temperature for Safety  


  1. Table A. Interaction of pH and aw for Control of Spores in Milk and Milk Products Pasteurized to Destroy Pathogenic Vegetative Cells and Subsequently Packaged
  2. Table B. Interaction of pH and aw for Control of Pathogenic Vegetative Cells and Spores in Milk and Milk Products not Pasteurized or Pasteurized but not Packaged
  3. Table 1. Chemical, Physical, Bacteriological, and Temperature Standards
  4. Table 2. Combinations of Causticity, Time and Temperature, of Equal Bactericidal Value, for the Soaker Tank of Soaker-Type Bottle Washers
  5. Table 3. Pasteurization Temperature vs. Time
  6. Table 4. Equipment Tests - Batch, HTST, HHST and Aseptic Processing Systems
  7. Table 5. Removal of Restrictions when Infection or High Risk of Infection is Discovered
  8. Table 6. Slot Size vs. Cattle Age
  9. Table 7. Gravity Flow Gutter Depth vs. Length for Manure from Lactating Animals
  10. Table 8. Step Height vs. Length for Stepped Gravity Flow Gutters
  11. Table 9. Work Water Volume of Various Sized Pipelines
  12. Table 10. Distance of a Well from Sources of Contamination
  13. Table 11. Example of Enforcement Procedures for Pasteurized Milk Laboratory Examinations
  14. Table 12. Example of Enforcement Procedures for Raw Milk Laboratory Examinations
  15. Table 13. Sieve Sizes and Designations
  16. Table 14. Holding Tube Length - HHST Pasteurizers - Indirect Heating
  17. Table 15. Holding Tube Length - HHST Pasteurizers - Direct Heating

Page Last Updated: 06/08/2015
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