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Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program

Updated December 16, 2011

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From 2005 to 2011, 160 samples of apple juice and apple concentrate were analyzed by FDA. In cases where apple juice concentrate was analyzed, a conversion calculation was used to convert the total arsenic concentration in the apple concentrate to the single strength concentration for the reconstituted apple juice.

On November 21, 2011, FDA posted 82 new total arsenic sample results as well as 8 additional sample results that were not previously reported. On December 16, 2011, FDA posted speciation results for samples that had been speciated as part of the Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program.

Total Arsenic Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-20111
Sample NumberProductSample DescriptionFiscal YearTotal Arsenic ConcentrationCountry of Origin
Original concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2Single strength concentration μ g/kg (ppb)2
230618apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-05ND3NDChile
230738apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-05244Turkey
328812apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-05NDNDSouth Africa
452301apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-0677United States
468644apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-06NDNDChina
436912apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-07NDNDChina 
410772apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-084545*United States
410773apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
410774apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
410775apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
449394apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
449395apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
449396apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
449397apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
449398apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-082727*United States
449399apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-081212United States
449400apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-0899United States
452302apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-082727*United States
456533apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDArgentina
456534apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-0811United States
456535apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
462816apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-084545*Turkey
464615apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-08NDNDUnited States
464616apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-084242*United States
464617apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-081111United States
464683apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-0822Mexico
465001apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-08213China
466889apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-08518China
468285apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-081010China
468406apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-08305China
468614apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-0881China
468644apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-08NDNDChina
471573apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-085<1China
476013apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-087312Turkey
479360apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-0881China
440861apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-092323United States
452300apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-09NDNDUnited States
466909apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-09NDNDChina
473892apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09NDNDTurkey
474408apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09NDNDChina
483691apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-09NDNDTurkey
485186apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-092020United States
485187apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-092525*United States
487030apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09NDNDChina
487925apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09NDNDTurkey
502151apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-0913923China
507178apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-091818United States
519455apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-0966United States
523338apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09356Argentina
523339apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09203Chile
524320apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-09NDNDTurkey
586482apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDChina
594190apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10386Turkey
594202apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1023639*Turkey
594594apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1017829*China
596004apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDChina
602991apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDMexico
635868apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDChina
636399apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDChina
637122apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-10NDNDChina
644387apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10NDNDChina
645417apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-10224Turkey
487852apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
579979apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-11NDNDChina
598658apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11102United States
623999apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
634441apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDUnknown
634442apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
637933apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11244United States
638429apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDUnited States
650743apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDUnited States
652900apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1177United States
657537apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11478China
657538apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11234China
659595apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1122United States
659596apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1155United States
659597apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1177United States
663117apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDUnited States
666428apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
666428apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
683150apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1171China
686103apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11559United States
686104apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-11NDNDUnited States
693219apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
696042apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1155United States
704764apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDBrazil
709179apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11224China
709532apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11244China
709762apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-11NDNDChina
709788apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
709790apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
709986apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11244China
710031apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11396China
710261apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-111111China
710268apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-11NDNDCanada
710395apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11264China
710471apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11488China
710560apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-111111China
710623apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1144United States
710624apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1155United States
710625apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1122United States
710626apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1133United States
710888apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
710911apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1191China
710972apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
710980apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1181China
711102apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711013apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11254China
711099apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1199China
711100apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-1166China
711103apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-111010China
711109apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-111<1China
711110apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711238apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-114<1China
711258apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-116<1China
711274apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1191China
711397apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711399apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711510apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11244China
711520apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11325China
711535apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1171China
711551apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711622apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1191China
711639apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-115<1China
711791apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11427China
711793apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
711803apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
712124apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11193China
712230apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
712300apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1181China
712575apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
712583apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
713347apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11518China
713390apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
713395apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
713409apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11132China
713476apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1181China
713479apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-114<1China
713511apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11132China
714118apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-112929China
714119apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11295China
714123apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11285China
714337apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1161China
714339apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-113<1China
714340apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11173China
714611apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
714617apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1191China
714689apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11285China
714933apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11112China
715045apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
715276apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
715278apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
715448apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11NDNDChina
715996apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-1181China
716167apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11132China
716387apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juiceFY-11NDNDChina
716388apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11122China
716589apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11112China
716658apple, core fruit juices or concentratesapple juice concentrateFY-11152China

*Result was not included in the original version that posted on September 27, 2011.
For the December 16, 2011 posting, the calculations for converting total arsenic concentration in apple juice concentrate to single strength juice were updated to use a µg/kg basis rather than a µg/L basis for the calculation. This resulted in changes for single strength concentrations for 18 of the samples.
1This table does not include the Limit of Detection (LOD) for the test method. This information is being collected and will be added at a later date.
2Updated to reflect μg/kg for the December 16, 2011 posting.
3ND means “Not Detected.”

Calculation of Arsenic Level in Single Strength Apple Juice from Level in Concentrate using Sample Number 230738 as an Example

Apple Juice concentrate: 70oBrix, specific gravity 1.34956, found to contain 24 ppb arsenic

Single strength apple juice: 11.5oBrix, specific gravity 1.04622

  1. To calculate the amount of apple juice solids required to make 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5oBrix).
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622* 0.115 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
  2. To calculate the amount of apple juice concentrate (70oBrix) necessary to provide  100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids:
    X gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956* 0.7 = 100.2022 lbs of apple juice solids
    Solving for X, gives a result of 12.74 gallons
  3. The weight of 12.74 gallons of 70 ºBrix apple juice concentrate is calculated as follows:
    12.74 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.34956 = 143.19 lbs
  4. The weight of 100 gallons of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) into which 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) is used is calculated as follows:            
    100 gallons * 8.3283 lbs/gallon (water) * 1.04622 = 871.32 lbs
  5. The percentage by weight of the apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) in the single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) is calculated as follows:
    143.19 lbs/871.32 lbs * 100 = 16.43%
  6. The amount of arsenic in ppb in 871.32 lbs of single strength apple juice (11.5 ºBrix) due to addition of 143.19 lbs of apple juice concentrate (70 ºBrix) containing 24 ppb arsenic is calculated as follows:
    24 ppb arsenic * 0 .1643 = 4  ppb arsenic

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011

FDA first tests juice samples for total arsenic. The method used does not distinguish between different forms of arsenic. In some cases, FDA tested the samples further to determine the amount of inorganic arsenic (the type of arsenic considered harmful to humans) and two potentially harmful forms of organic arsenic (monomethylarsonic acid, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA) present in the apple juice.[a]  The speciation data is provided below.

Speciation Results from Toxic Elements Apple Juice Samples, 2005-2011
 Analysis Performed by District or Regional LabAnalysis Performed by Forensic Chemistry Center
Sample NumberFiscal YearProductTotal Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg (ppb)Total Arsenic single strength concentration µg/kg
(ppb)   [b]
Inorganic Arsenic single strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)   [c]MMA + DMA Organic Arsenic Speciessingle strength concentrationµg/kg(ppb)
464616FY-08apple juice42_1323
485187FY-09apple juice2585None detected
440861FY-09apple juice231918None detected
594202FY-10apple juice concentrate39_43[d]1

[a] The sum of all arsenic species detected may not add up to 100% of total arsenic due to the inherent experimental variability in the different methods used for the two types of analyses.  
[b] An additional total arsenic analysis was conducted using a slightly modified method with increased sensitivity.
[c] Inorganic arsenic = arsenite + arsenate
[d] Shipment was detained/refused.

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