Survey Data on Lead in Women's and Children's Vitamins

August 2008

In early 2007, FDA became aware of reports of elevated lead levels in certain vitamins, which became an issue of concern to FDA, Congress, and the public. This survey was conducted to determine the content of lead (Pb) in vitamins labeled for women and children. The Pb content of 324 multivitamin-mineral products purchased over the Internet was determined using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.1 Cryogenic grinding was used to composite soft samples such as oil filled capsules and candy-like products such as gummies and jelly beans. The median and maximum mass fractions were 0.160 and 2.40 mg/kg, respectively. Only four samples exceeded 1 mg/kg.

Estimates of Pb exposures from consumption of products were derived by multiplying the maximum recommended daily serving provided by the label instructions by the Pb mass fractions (i.e., concentrations) determined in this study. The overall median value for Pb exposure was 0.576 µg/day. Five samples would have provided exposures that exceeded 4 µg/day, the highest being 8.97 µg/day. The highest exposure estimate for children's vitamins was 2.88 µg/day. Estimates of exposures were assessed with respect to safe/tolerable exposure levels that have been developed for particular age and sex groups. These safe/tolerable exposure levels are referred to as the provisional total tolerable intake levels (PTTI)2.

Estimates of Pb exposures for all products were below the PTTI levels for the at-risk population groups of children, pregnant and lactating women and adult women. Table 1 lists the PTTI levels and summarizes results for mass fraction and estimated exposure by population group. Median and maximum values were used instead of mean and standard deviation due to the skewed distribution of results toward lower mass fraction and exposure as seen in Figures 1 and 2. Table 2 provides a complete listing of Pb mass fractions and estimated Pb exposure values for the samples.

Table 1. Summary of Pb Results
Population GroupPTTI
(µg Pb/day)
Estimated Exposure
median (µg Pb/day)
Estimated Exposure
max (µg Pb/day)
Mass Fraction *
median (mg Pb/kg)
Mass Fraction *
max (mg Pb/kg)
Young children (0-6 years)60.1232.880.03520.395101
Older children (7+ years)150.3561.780.1460.62323
Pregnant or lactating women250.8458.970.2202.4075
Adult women750.8424.920.2211.20125
* i.e., concentration

Figure 1. Frequency Distribution of Pb Mass Fractions bar graph of Pb Mass fraction in mg/kg

Figure 2. Frequency Distribution of Estimated Pb Exposures bar graph of Pb Exposure in micrograms/day

Table 2. Sample Results Sorted by Population Group and Decreasing Estimated Exposure
ProductFormAvg. Pb Mass Fraction,
mg Pb/kg
Estimated Exposure
µg Pb/day
Population Assessment Group
Nature's Plus Animal Parade ShakePowder0.07992.88Young children (0-6 years)
Superior Multi AgePowder0.2352.24Young children (0-6 years)
Nutraceutical Pedia PowerTablet/Capsule0.1520.895Young children (0-6 years)
Physio Kids Multilogics ChewableTablet/Capsule0.2200.761Young children (0-6 years)
Ola Loa KidsPowder0.05110.700Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Animal ParadeTablet/Capsule0.1910.623Young children (0-6 years)
Vita-Big-KidsTablet/Capsule0.1680.557Young children (0-6 years)
Wonder Laboratories Formula NineteenTablet/Capsule0.07080.535Young children (0-6 years)
Clinicians Choice Chewable Daily MultivitaminsTablet/Capsule0.1740.525Young children (0-6 years)
Dynamic Health Multi for ChildrenLiquid0.04530.525Young children (0-6 years)
Super Nutrition Perfect KidsTablet/Capsule0.3950.522Young children (0-6 years)
All One KidsPowder0.06270.470Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man CompleteTablet/Capsule0.3270.455Young children (0-6 years)
MultiBite plus mineralsTablet/Capsule0.08440.447Young children (0-6 years)
KiddieviteLiquid0.02610.445Young children (0-6 years)
Disney CompleteTablet/Capsule0.2520.342Young children (0-6 years)
Rhino Dippin' PopsCandy-like0.04110.295Young children (0-6 years)
Emer'gen-C Jr. for KidsPowder0.03080.286Young children (0-6 years)
Floradix Kinder Love Children's MultivitaminLiquid0.01190.284Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkman Children's Multivitamin/mineralTablet/Capsule0.2790.272Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light Nutri StarsTablet/Capsule0.05580.261Young children (0-6 years)
Centrum KidsTablet/Capsule0.1380.250Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkman Children's Chewable WafersTablet/Capsule0.09480.246Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light Kid's One MultistarsTablet/Capsule0.09550.244Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light NutriStartPowder0.1070.232Young children (0-6 years)
Vaxa BuddiesTablet/Capsule0.1430.215Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkland Signature Chewable Children'sTablet/Capsule0.09990.214Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones CompleteTablet/Capsule0.1470.212Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Kids Scooby Doo CompleteTablet/Capsule0.1610.209Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Kids Bugs BunnyTablet/Capsule0.1590.208Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones CompleteTablet/Capsule0.1370.198Young children (0-6 years)
Chewy Sour WormsCandy-like0.02110.196Young children (0-6 years)
Kordial Nutrients Pedia-vitLiquid0.01900.194Young children (0-6 years)
Family Value Multivitamin/Multimineral for KidTablet/Capsule0.1890.191Young children (0-6 years)
Emergen-C Kids Multi-VitaminPowder0.01870.170Young children (0-6 years)
Chewy Bears Multi-vitaminCandy-like0.05610.166Young children (0-6 years)
Pure Encapsulations PediaNutrientsTablet/Capsule0.1150.161Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Factors Children's Chewable MultivitaminTablet/Capsule0.02660.154Young children (0-6 years)
Life Solutions Chidren's Super Multivitamins and MineralsLiquid0.00910.154Young children (0-6 years)
VegLife Vegan Kids MultipleTablet/Capsule0.05940.153Young children (0-6 years)
Carlson for KidsTablet/Capsule0.07730.150Young children (0-6 years)
InVite For KidsTablet/Capsule0.03630.147Young children (0-6 years)
Vita-KidsTablet/Capsule0.03990.145Young children (0-6 years)
For Kids OnlyTablet/Capsule0.06120.139Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Animal Parade GummiesCandy-like0.01610.132Young children (0-6 years)
Chewable Maxi HealthTablet/Capsule0.02040.131Young children (0-6 years)
Gummy Bear EssentialsCandy-like0.01370.130Young children (0-6 years)
Liquid Health Children's MultiLiquid0.00410.126Young children (0-6 years)
Jarrow Formulas KidBear Kids MultiTablet/Capsule0.03100.124Young children (0-6 years)
Greens Today Childrens FormulaTablet/Capsule0.04930.124Young children (0-6 years) Tiger BitesTablet/Capsule0.03520.123Young children (0-6 years)
The Vitamin Shoppe Liquid Children's MultiLiquid0.00690.119Young children (0-6 years)
Vitamin World Animal ChewsTablet/Capsule0.05180.118Young children (0-6 years)
A to Z Naturals Kitties for KidsTablet/Capsule0.03560.116Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man GummiesCandy-like0.02150.113Young children (0-6 years)
Country Life Tall TreeTablet/Capsule0.05490.109Young children (0-6 years)
Hero Yummi BearsCandy-like0.01460.109Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Scooby Doo Plus CalciumTablet/Capsule0.08590.107Young children (0-6 years)
Solaray Children's ChewableTablet/Capsule0.03910.105Young children (0-6 years)
Source Naturals Mega-KidTablet/Capsule0.03680.103Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Groovy Gummy VitesCandy-like0.01920.103Young children (0-6 years)
Vitamin World Children's Multi GummiesCandy-like0.01980.102Young children (0-6 years)
ChildLife Nutrition For KidsLiquid0.00590.100Young children (0-6 years)
NutriBalance Children's FormulaPowder0.01970.0986Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man Multivitamin with Extra CTablet/Capsule0.06500.0850Young children (0-6 years)
Sea Buddies Daily MultipleTablet/Capsule0.04520.0796Young children (0-6 years)
Now Kid Vits Berry BlastTablet/Capsule0.02200.0779Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Plus Bone Building SupportTablet/Capsule0.05910.0733Young children (0-6 years)
Puritan's Pride Children's Multi GummiesCandy-like0.01260.0708Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Sour GummiesCandy-like0.01810.0685Young children (0-6 years)
Benny BearsTablet/Capsule0.03970.0683Young children (0-6 years)
Schiff Children's ChewableTablet/Capsule0.02980.0670Young children (0-6 years)
Kid-Vite ChewableTablet/Capsule0.05690.0668Young children (0-6 years)
Disney GummiesCandy-like0.01180.0564Young children (0-6 years)
Complete Children's ChewableTablet/Capsule0.02720.0552Young children (0-6 years)
Wild Vites Children's MultiTablet/Capsule0.02480.0494Young children (0-6 years)
Doctor's Trust Daily One Children's ChewableTablet/Capsule0.04930.0488Young children (0-6 years)
Rhino Gummy Bear VitaminsCandy-like0.00930.0472Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Vita BeansCandy-like0.00700.0376Young children (0-6 years)
Liquimins Kids MultiLiquid0.00650.0373Young children (0-6 years)
Astra-VitesTablet/Capsule0.01400.0334Young children (0-6 years)
Kangaroo Kids Nutra ChewsCandy-like0.00450.0295Young children (0-6 years)
Nutrition Now Rhino Beanie VitesCandy-like0.00550.0273Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Gummy VitesCandy-like0.00530.0265Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronTablet/Capsule0.02660.0230Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Chidren's Vita GelsTablet/Capsule0.03600.0229Young children (0-6 years)
NatraBio Children's MultivitaminLiquid0.00190.0216Young children (0-6 years)
Puritan's Pride Pre-VitesTablet/Capsule0.01970.0201Young children (0-6 years)
Schiff Children's Multivitamin LiquidLiquid0.00160.0195Young children (0-6 years)
Rite Aid Children Chewable Vitamins with IronTablet/Capsule0.01880.0179Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones GummiesCandy-like0.00420.0167Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable MultivitaminsTablet/Capsule0.01920.0164Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Plus Immunity SupportTablet/Capsule0.01140.0119Young children (0-6 years)
Uno Diario NinosTablet/Capsule0.01300.0114Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable Multivitamins Plus Extra CTablet/Capsule0.00970.0100Young children (0-6 years)
My First FlintstonesTablet/Capsule0.01040.0092Young children (0-6 years)
Kids Liquid Dolphin PalsLiquid0.00130.0079Young children (0-6 years)
Windmill Bite-A-MinsTablet/Capsule0.00920.0079Young children (0-6 years)
NF Formulas Liquid PediatricLiquidND---Young children (0-6 years)
Natrol Liquid Kids CompanionLiquidND---Young children (0-6 years)
Twinlab Infant CareLiquidND---Young children (0-6 years)
Kal Enhanced Energy Teen CompleteTablet/Capsule0.5131.78Older children (7+ years)
Clinical Nutrients for Female TeensTablet/Capsule0.1771.14Older children (7+ years)
Clinical Nutrients For Male TeensTablet/Capsule0.1791.07Older children (7+ years)
Doctor's Choice For Male TeensTablet/Capsule0.1630.981Older children (7+ years)
Maxi Teen SupremeTablet/Capsule0.6230.942Older children (7+ years)
Rainbow Light Active Health TEENTablet/Capsule0.1980.936Older children (7+ years)
Nature's Plus Source of Life Power TeenTablet/Capsule0.3130.931Older children (7+ years)
FoodScience Teen's SuperiorTablet/Capsule0.1170.928Older children (7+ years)
Esteem Total TeenTablet/Capsule0.4350.871Older children (7+ years)
Vitanica Women's SymetryTablet/Capsule0.1220.800Older children (7+ years)
Thompson TeenplexTablet/Capsule0.1460.500Older children (7+ years)
Futurebiotics M. V. TeenTablet/Capsule0.2350.356Older children (7+ years)
Maxi Teen Supreme His MultiTablet/Capsule0.2320.348Older children (7+ years)
GNC Mega TeenTablet/Capsule0.1680.339Older children (7+ years)
Futurebiotics Derma TeenTablet/Capsule0.1300.272Older children (7+ years)
Good 'N Natural Ultra TeenTablet/Capsule0.1370.265Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Teen GirlsTablet/Capsule0.1290.262Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Pre-Teen GirlsTablet/Capsule0.1230.248Older children (7+ years)
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min For TeensTablet/Capsule0.1220.240Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Teen BoysTablet/Capsule0.09240.168Older children (7+ years)
Michael's For Pre-Teen BoysTablet/Capsule0.1150.104Older children (7+ years)
Nutrition Now Zow for TeensCandy-like0.00730.0371Older children (7+ years)
Lil Critters Drop Zone for TeensCandy-like0.00540.0276Older children (7+ years)
After Baby Boost 1Tablet/Capsule2.408.97Pregnant and lactating women
A to Z Naturals Wow! PreNatalTablet/Capsule0.6225.52Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin Source Prenatal CompleteTablet/Capsule0.5284.73Pregnant and lactating women
Prenatal SuperiorTablet/Capsule0.4533.93Pregnant and lactating women
Rainbow Light Complete Prenatal SystemTablet/Capsule0.4403.76Pregnant and lactating women
Buried Treasure Prenatal Plus DHA CompleteLiquid0.1123.76Pregnant and lactating women
DaVinci Laboratories Ultimate PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3693.16Pregnant and lactating women
Life Time Professional Pre-Natal FormulaTablet/Capsule0.3542.63Pregnant and lactating women
Daily Foods Baby & MeTablet/Capsule0.2482.37Pregnant and lactating women
Carol Bond Women's Choice PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3922.24Pregnant and lactating women
Karuna Maxxi-NatalTablet/Capsule0.2632.16Pregnant and lactating women
Solaray Pre-Natal MultiTablet/Capsule0.2761.95Pregnant and lactating women
Tyler PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.2111.92Pregnant and lactating women
KAL Vita Mom AdvancedTablet/Capsule0.1911.83Pregnant and lactating women
Pre Natal mini's EssentialsTablet/Capsule0.3731.65Pregnant and lactating women
GNC Women's Prenatal with IronTablet/Capsule0.5261.63Pregnant and lactating women
Vita-vitamin Prenatal FormulationTablet/Capsule0.2631.63Pregnant and lactating women
Uno Diario PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.4991.60Pregnant and lactating women
Innate Prenatal Trimester I & IITablet/Capsule0.1991.59Pregnant and lactating women
Now Prenatal CapsTablet/Capsule0.2781.50Pregnant and lactating women
Vitanica Maternal SymmetryTablet/Capsule0.2471.50Pregnant and lactating women
Carlson PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.2141.47Pregnant and lactating women
After Baby Boost 3Tablet/Capsule0.4481.42Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Source of Life PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.4181.39Pregnant and lactating women
Clinical Nutrients Prenatal FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1691.39Pregnant and lactating women
Doctor's Choice Prenatal FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1651.37Pregnant and lactating women
Super Nutrition Prenatal BlendTablet/Capsule0.1521.34Pregnant and lactating women
Rite Aid Prenatal TabletsTablet/Capsule1.131.31Pregnant and lactating women
Herb Free Baby & Me Daily FoodsTablet/Capsule0.1511.22Pregnant and lactating women
Feel Good Naturally Prenatal PlusTablet/Capsule0.2161.19Pregnant and lactating women
Clinicians Choice Prenatal CompleteTablet/Capsule0.2201.15Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi Pre-NatalTablet/Capsule0.1601.10Pregnant and lactating women
Vegan PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.6301.03Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Way Prenatal MultiTablet/Capsule0.2151.02Pregnant and lactating women
NutraOrigin Nutra MotherTablet/Capsule0.09320.950Pregnant and lactating women
Source Naturals Mother's Choice TabletsTablet/Capsule0.1300.924Pregnant and lactating women
Daily Wellness Mother's BlendTablet/Capsule0.3380.915Pregnant and lactating women
Rainbow Light Prenatal OneTablet/Capsule0.4600.845Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Life Prenatal MultipleTablet/Capsule0.1320.844Pregnant and lactating women
Solgar Prenatal NutrientsTablet/Capsule0.1190.810Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Way Completia Prenatal MultivitaminTablet/Capsule0.1280.792Pregnant and lactating women
Early Promise Prenatal MultimineralTablet/Capsule0.1430.776Pregnant and lactating women
Nutri-west Pre/post Natal MineralsTablet/Capsule0.1450.768Pregnant and lactating women
Puritan's Pride Prenatal complexTablet/Capsule0.2740.750Pregnant and lactating women
Metagenics Fem PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.09990.720Pregnant and lactating women
A to Z Naturals Prep For BabyTablet/Capsule0.1030.682Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Basics Prenatal MultiTablet/Capsule0.1010.673Pregnant and lactating women
Perry PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.5200.667Pregnant and lactating women
Kordial Nutrients Prenatal CompleteTablet/Capsule0.2410.656Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Ultra PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.1350.641Pregnant and lactating women
Super Nutrition Simply One PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3060.638Pregnant and lactating women
Thompson Prenatal formulaTablet/Capsule0.3630.633Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.1070.607Pregnant and lactating women
Jarrow FormulasTablet/Capsule0.06970.599Pregnant and lactating women
Spring Valley PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.4850.591Pregnant and lactating women
Twinlab Prenatal CareTablet/Capsule0.2190.578Pregnant and lactating women
Prenatal ComplexTablet/Capsule0.1890.546Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.2740.509Pregnant and lactating women
Progressive Woman Prenatal MultipleTablet/Capsule0.1900.505Pregnant and lactating women
Nature Made Multi PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3480.499Pregnant and lactating women
PureGels PreNatal MultiTablet/Capsule0.08040.469Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin Power Pre-natal formulaTablet/Capsule0.4330.467Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin World Prenatal VitaminsTablet/Capsule0.2820.406Pregnant and lactating women
GNC Women's Prenatal FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1250.383Pregnant and lactating women
NewChapter Organics Perfect PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.1340.371Pregnant and lactating women
Natural Wealth PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3230.366Pregnant and lactating women
Stuart PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.3310.353Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Bounty PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.2840.324Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi Health One PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.1290.264Pregnant and lactating women
Pure Encapsulations PreNatal NutrientsTablet/Capsule0.09950.224Pregnant and lactating women
Pregnancy PlusTablet/Capsule0.2230.189Pregnant and lactating women
Natrol PreNatal CareTablet/Capsule0.05150.164Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Prenatal LiquidLiquid0.00330.116Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Sunshine Nature's PrenatalTablet/Capsule0.08350.0948Pregnant and lactating women
After Baby Boost 2Tablet/CapsuleND---Pregnant and lactating women
NutriBiotic Ultimate MatrixTablet/Capsule1.204.92Adult women
Super Nutrition Women's BlendTablet/Capsule0.4534.58Adult women
Esteem Total WomanTablet/Capsule0.8613.61Adult women
Garden of Life Living Multi OptimalTablet/Capsule0.3673.53Adult women
GenSpec VF-1 for African American FemalesTablet/Capsule0.5623.40Adult women
For Women OnlyTablet/Capsule0.1713.27Adult women
Garden of Life Living MultiTablet/Capsule0.3913.24Adult women
DaVinci Laboratories Spectra WomanTablet/Capsule0.3192.91Adult women
Women's SuperiorTablet/Capsule0.3162.88Adult women
GenSpec VF-3 para Mujeres HispanasTablet/Capsule0.4462.64Adult women
Nature's Secret Morning MultiPLUSTablet/Capsule0.3442.60Adult women
Nature's Plus Woman's nutra PacksTablet/Capsule0.2702.56Adult women
NF Formulas Women's ForteTablet/Capsule0.2132.44Adult women
GenSpec VF-5 For Caucasian FemalesTablet/Capsule0.4022.41Adult women
Buried Treasure Women's FormulaLiquid0.06552.24Adult women
Bronson Laboratories Performance EdgeTablet/Capsule0.3632.18Adult women
Women's Plus MultiStartTablet/Capsule0.2222.00Adult women
More Than A MultipleTablet/Capsule0.3431.97Adult women
Apex FIT Multivitamin Women'sTablet/Capsule1.161.91Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra Mega ActiveTablet/Capsule0.5291.87Adult women
Whole Source Complete formula For WomenTablet/Capsule0.5691.81Adult women
Women's Maintenance AMTablet/Capsule0.2411.78Adult women
Rainbow Light Women's AnswerTablet/Capsule0.1881.75Adult women
Pharm-Max Women's Extra FormulaTablet/Capsule0.2251.69Adult women
Pioneer Chewable Vitamin MineralTablet/Capsule0.1301.69Adult women
Women's Maintenance AM without IronTablet/Capsule0.2331.69Adult women
Nature's Basics Women's MultiTablet/Capsule0.3161.56Adult women
Longetivity Women's FormulaTablet/Capsule0.2141.50Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra MegaTablet/Capsule0.3551.49Adult women
Nature's Plus Ultra Source of LifeTablet/Capsule0.2371.48Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra Mega Time ReleaseTablet/Capsule0.3771.40Adult women
HarmonicInnerprizes Lady's PQTablet/Capsule0.4651.40Adult women
Preferred Plus Women's DailyTablet/Capsule0.7491.31Adult women
Women's DailyFoodsTablet/Capsule0.2611.30Adult women
A to Z Naturals Wow! Women's MultiTablet/Capsule0.2621.29Adult women
NewChapter Organics Every Woman IITablet/Capsule0.1811.29Adult women
Solgar Female MultipleTablet/Capsule0.1851.24Adult women
NutraOrigin Nutra WomanTablet/Capsule0.08221.21Adult women
Women's One DailyTablet/Capsule0.6111.21Adult women
Lady MaxTablet/Capsule0.3381.15Adult women
Active Woman's MultiTablet/Capsule0.2171.13Adult women
True Fit Women's Immune System BoostTablet/Capsule0.2881.13Adult women
Doctor's Trust Ideal Multi For WomenTablet/Capsule0.3401.12Adult women
Women's Twice Daily Essential PacketsTablet/Capsule0.08011.08Adult women
Women's Fitness FTW Menstrual PakTablet/Capsule0.07271.07Adult women
EveTablet/Capsule0.2221.07Adult women
Uno Diario MujeresTablet/Capsule0.6501.05Adult women
Douglas Laboratories Ultra FemTablet/Capsule0.1341.04Adult women
Nature's Purest Ultra WomanTablet/Capsule0.3061.03Adult women Women's MultiTablet/Capsule0.2041.01Adult women
Nature's Plus Source of Life WomenTablet/Capsule0.2310.980Adult women
Futurebiotics Multivitamin Energy PlusTablet/Capsule0.2700.978Adult women
NewMark Women's Synbiotic NutrientsTablet/Capsule0.2130.975Adult women
Irwin Naturals Women's Living GreenTablet/Capsule0.1650.933Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita Min For WomenTablet/Capsule0.2250.918Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's Health BasicsTablet/Capsule0.1740.908Adult women
Optimal Nutrition Opti-WomenTablet/Capsule0.4240.902Adult women
Clinical Nutrients For WomenTablet/Capsule0.1460.901Adult women
Kal Vitality For WomenTablet/Capsule0.2880.899Adult women
Only Natural For Women OnlyTablet/Capsule0.3260.894Adult women
Scitec Nutrition Vita X for WomenTablet/Capsule0.2620.885Adult women
FertilAid for WomenTablet/Capsule0.2670.844Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's AM MultivitaminsTablet/Capsule0.4200.842Adult women
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min High PotencyTablet/Capsule0.2050.832Adult women
VitaSpecifix Women's CompleteTablet/Capsule0.2420.830Adult women
Twinlab Women's Ultra DailyTablet/Capsule0.1800.830Adult women
Country Life Maxine Daily Multiple for WomenTablet/Capsule0.2070.781Adult women
Good 'N Natural Ultra WomanTablet/Capsule0.1910.777Adult women
Every Woman's Inner BeautyTablet/Capsule0.2570.774Adult women
One 'n' Only Women's FormulaTablet/Capsule0.4460.766Adult women
Natrol My Favorite Multi For WomenTablet/Capsule0.1800.761Adult women
Swanson Women's MultiTablet/Capsule0.2990.753Adult women
Women's Fitness FTW PakTablet/Capsule0.06520.728Adult women
Health Xpress Women's MegaTablet/Capsule0.2210.722Adult women
Priority One Women's FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1120.703Adult women
True Fit Women's Weight ManagementTablet/Capsule0.1970.688Adult women
Rainbow Light Food For WomenTablet/Capsule0.1630.688Adult women
Nature's Plus Especially YoursTablet/Capsule0.1410.687Adult women
Solaray ProvideTablet/Capsule0.1490.683Adult women
VitaminLab Active Woman's MultiTablet/Capsule0.1330.682Adult women
True Fit Women's Joint ReleifTablet/Capsule0.1860.666Adult women
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min Iron FreeTablet/Capsule0.1640.650Adult women
A to Z Naturals Womenwise MultiTablet/Capsule0.1240.646Adult women
VitomegawomenTablet/Capsule0.1970.642Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate WomanTablet/Capsule0.1560.640Adult women
GNC SolodayTablet/Capsule0.4140.615Adult women
Good 'N Natural Ultra Woman Iron FreeTablet/Capsule0.1540.611Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Liquid MultiLiquid0.01830.604Adult women
Country Life Maxine A Daily Multiple for Women (Iron-Free)Tablet/Capsule0.1560.582Adult women
21st Century Mega Multi For WomenTablet/Capsule0.1620.578Adult women
Country Life Maxine Multi-Vitamin & MineralTablet/Capsule0.1510.574Adult women
Olay daily energy packTablet/Capsule0.1710.574Adult women
Good 'N Natural Women's Exclusive FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1600.554Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita Min For Women Iron FreeTablet/Capsule0.1360.541Adult women
One A Day Women'sTablet/Capsule0.2700.513Adult women
Thompson Multi Formula for WomenTablet/Capsule0.3590.511Adult women
Prevention Multivitamin & Mineral for WomenTablet/Capsule0.2130.491Adult women
Solaray Twice Daily Multi EnergyTablet/Capsule0.2350.488Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate Woman No IronTablet/Capsule0.1210.483Adult women
Greens Today Energy BoostersTablet/Capsule0.09670.480Adult women
Rainbow Light Women's OneTablet/Capsule0.2570.466Adult women
Puritan's Pride Women's Exclusive FormulaTablet/Capsule0.1340.464Adult women
BiovayeTablet/Capsule0.3370.449Adult women
For WomenTablet/Capsule0.1130.443Adult women
Nature's Bounty Multi-Day Women'sTablet/Capsule0.2460.427Adult women
Innate Women's One DailyTablet/Capsule0.2560.423Adult women
Olay complete multivitaminTablet/Capsule0.2430.416Adult women
Daily Foods Women's One DailyTablet/Capsule0.2490.411Adult women
Sundown Women's One DailyTablet/Capsule0.2230.391Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's PM MultivitaminsTablet/Capsule0.2570.372Adult women
Super Nutrition Simply One WomenTablet/Capsule0.1670.344Adult women
Jarrow Formulas Women's MultiTablet/Capsule0.1350.338Adult women
Nature Made Multi For HerTablet/Capsule0.1830.305Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita-MinTablet/Capsule0.1560.286Adult women
Liquid Health Women's MultiLiquid0.00780.244Adult women
NewChapter Organics Every Woman's One DailyTablet/Capsule0.1320.239Adult women
Viactiv Flavor GlidesTablet/Capsule0.1580.239Adult women
21st Century One Daily Women'sTablet/Capsule0.1410.238Adult women
Food Force Women's ForceTablet/Capsule0.1210.217Adult women
Vitabase Woman's MultiLiquid0.00660.209Adult women
Kirkman EveryDayTablet/Capsule0.2780.174Adult women Women's Basic MultiTablet/Capsule0.1550.158Adult women
Family Value Multivitamin/Multimineral for WomanTablet/Capsule0.1210.126Adult women
Viactiv Multivitamin Milk ChocolateCandy-like0.01490.0847Adult women
FemOneTablet/Capsule0.01580.0146Adult women


  1. Average Pb mass fraction (concentration) based on replicate determinations (n = 2 to 7) of sample composite. ND: Not detected (below limit of detection of 0.0011 mg/kg and 0.0027 mg/kg assuming a 1 g and 0.4 g analytical portion for liquid and dry solid matrices, respectively).
  2. Estimated maximum daily Pb exposure from consumption of non-liquid product = [(average Pb mass fraction found, mg Pb/kg) x (unit weight of product in kg (powder = 1)) x (maximum recommended daily serving in quantity/day)]. Estimated maximum daily Pb exposure from consumption of liquid product = [(average Pb mass fraction found, mg Pb/kg) x (liquid density in kg/L) x (maximum recommended daily serving in L/day)].
  3. Assignment of population assessment group based on product description, label information and instructions for use.


  1. 1Mindak, W. R., Cheng, J., Canas, B. J., Bolger, P. M. Lead in women's and children's vitamins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 6892-6896.
  2. 2Carrington, C. D., Bolger, P. M. An assessment of the hazards of lead in food. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1992, 16, 265-272.

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