2004S-0170 - Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, Section 1013: Suggest Priority Topics for Research
FDA Comment Number : EC54
Submitter : Ms. Judy Simpson Date & Time: 07/07/2004 05:07:05
Organization : American Music Therapy Association
Health Care Association
Category :
Issue Areas/Comments
The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) appreciates the opportunity to submit research priority topics under the MMA, Section 1013. We respectfully request attention be given to music therapy research and the positive impact of this treatment for Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP beneficiaries.
Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals of all ages. Music therapy is recognized by several federal and state agencies, both public and private, including the U.S. Department of Education, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the American Medical Association, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.
Since 1994, music therapy has been identified as a reimbursable service under Medicare benefits for Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP) under the heading of Activity Therapy, using HCPCS Code G0176. Medicaid coverage for music therapy is currently accessed in at least seven states through waiver programs, providing services for individuals with developmental disabilities and senior adults. Music therapy is pre-approved on a case-by-case basis for private insurance reimbursement when deemed medically or behaviorally necessary to reach the treatment goals of the individual patient.
Despite these agency recognitions and reimbursement successes, music therapy continues to be an underutilized service because of limited attention to existing supportive research and the subsequent lack of federal and state funding for this cost-effective treatment.
The following list of music therapy research outcomes provides evidence of a cost effective, non-invasive treatment service that could improve the quality and efficiency of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP programs. This list offers topics for possible research, demonstration and evaluation projects, which need replication and expansion through longitudinal, multi-site, and large sample size studies. We are seeking support for this research to demonstrate the appropriateness of music therapy services and to increase utilization of music therapy interventions within the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP programs. The corresponding annotated bibliography is available by contacting Judy Simpson, simpson@musictherapy.org.

Music therapy reduces physiological indicators of anxiety and reduces need for sedation and analgesia.
Music Therapy reduces physiological indicators of pre-operative stress.
Music Therapy reduces cortisol in healthy adults.
Music Therapy reduces physiological and psychological indicators of distress in post-operative cardiac patients.
Music Therapy has potential to produce cumulative or sustaining neuroendocrine or immunological effects contributing to well-being.
Music Therapy reduces pain.
Engaging in music therapy sessions enhances immune functioning among cancer subjects.
Participating in music therapy sessions increases comfort and motivates bone marrow transplant patients during treatment.
Music provides an environment for engaging behaviors and decreasing distress behaviors for isolated pediatric oncology patients.
Music experiences can be structured to enhance social/emotional skills, to assist in recall and language skills and to decrease problem behaviors in
individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias.
Music is effective in decreasing the frequency of agitated and aggressive behaviors in individuals in the late stages of dementia.
Music increases tolerance for stimulation and results in earlier discharge for premature infants.
Premature infants are reinforced by music, discriminate the contingent relationship within 2.5 minutes, and significantly increase sucking rate.
Music listening increases oxygen saturation.

Thank you for your consideration of these research topics.