DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES  

Food and Drug Administration

                                                Center for Devices & Radiological Health

 


Division of General, Restorative, and Neurological Devices

9200 Corporate Boulevard HFZ-410, Rockville, MD  20850

 

Table of Contents                                                                                          Page Number

I.          Introduction                                                                                                      2

 

II.         Device Description                                                                                           2

 

III.       VNS therapy: Regulatory History and Development Plan                                   2

 

IV.       VNS Studies (Description of studies and results)                                               5

 

  A.      Introduction                                                                                                      5

  B.       D01-The Pilot Study                                                                                         5

  C.      D02-The Pivotal Study                                                                         9

  D.      D04-Observational Control Study                                                                     16

  E.       D02, D04 Comparison                                                                         18

  F.       Combined Safety Data Analyses (D01, D02, and D03)                         27

  G.      D03-European Post Marketing Study                                                               29

  H.      D05-Videotape Study of D02 Inter-Rater Reliability                             31

  I.        D06-Sponsor Investigator Study on Bipolar Disorder                            32

 

V.        Summary of Evidence of Safety and Effectiveness                                              34

 

  A.      Introduction                                                                                                      34

  B.       Safety Data                                                                                                      34

  C.      Efficacy Data                                                                                                    34

 

VI.       Conclusions                                                                                                      37

 

VII.      References                                                                                                       38

 

APPENDIX A: Patient Enrollment                                                                               40

APPENDIX B: Safety Review-VNS Therapy for Epilepsy Safety Profile                       44       

APPENDIX C: Safety Review-Cardiovascular Events                                      50

APPENDIX D: draft Labeling Claims                                                              52


I.   Introduction

The following is a review of the Panel-track PMA-Supplement application seeking Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) therapy commercial approval for the proposed indication:

The VNS Therapy System is indicated for the adjunctive long-term treatment of chronic or recurrent depression for patients over the age of 18 who are experiencing a major depressive episode that has not had an adequate response to two or more antidepressant treatments.

 

II.   Device Description

The VNS therapy system, used for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), consists of the implantable VNS Therapy Pulse Generator, the VNS Therapy Lead and the external programming system used to change stimulation settings.  The pulse generator is an implantable, multi-programmable pulse generator that delivers electrical signals via the lead to the left vagus nerve.  The external programming system includes a programming wand, the Model 250 programming software, along with a compatible computer.  The software allows a physician, with the programming wand placed over the implanted pulse generator, to identify, read and change device settings. 

           

Mechanism of Action

VNS therapy presumes the effects of stimulation are mediated by induced action potentials in the left cervical vagus nerve.  No definitive mechanism of action has been reported for anti-seizure effects of VNS or for the proposed indication for the adjunctive long-term treatment of chronic or recurrent depression. 

                                                                                                                                   

III.   VNS Therapy Regulatory History and Development Plan

FDA Approved for Epilepsy: The NeuroCybernetic Prosthesis (NCP®) System

The NeuroCybernetic Prosthesis (NCP®) System (referred to as VNS therapy) was approved by the FDA (July, 1997) for use as an adjunctive therapy in reducing the frequency of seizures in adults and adolescents over 12 years of age with partial onset seizures, which are refractory to anti-epileptic medications.

 

Initiation of the Pilot Study (D01) to Study Depression

Following FDA approval of VNS therapy for Epilepsy in 1997, anecdotal reports of mood alteration were reported for some epilepsy patients.  The Sponsor conducted a 30-patient pilot study in patients with treatment-resistant depression in 1998, and later expanded to 60 patients in 2000.  The results of the nonrandomized, open-label trial with patients serving as their own control demonstrated a 31% (18/59) response rate during the acute study (response defined as > 50% reduction in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D]28 scores from baseline); one-year response rates were 45% (25/55). 

 

The Pivotal Study (D02)

The pilot results led to the development of the D02 clinical study.  The D02 pivotal study (initiated in 2000) included an acute, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase and long-term follow-up study of patients with treatment resistant depression.  During the acute phase, 235 patients were implanted, 119 of whom were randomized to therapy and 116 of whom were randomized to no-stimulation (placebo control group).  All patients could receive stimulation after completion of the acute phase.  After the acute phase, treatment group subjects continued to receive stimulation and had monthly visits for the first 12 months of stimulation.  Sham control subjects followed the same schedule during the acute phase, but did not have devices turned on until the long-term phase. 

 

Unblinding the Acute Phase of D02: A Failed Randomized, Controlled Study

The Sponsor unblinded the acute phase of D02 (IDE G980099) in 2002.  The efficacy results did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between responders (defined as >50% improvement in HAM-D24 total score from baseline to acute phase exit) in the treatment (17/111) arm and sham treatment control (11/110) arm. 

 

Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in D02 to an Observational Study (D04)

Despite the failed randomized, controlled outcome, the Sponsor claimed a pattern of increasing treatment effect over time, and suggested that the full antidepressant effect of VNS Therapy might take longer (for an effect).  The Sponsor proposed to use a non-significant risk study (D04), as a reference group to use for comparing to D02 long-term clinical data.   A chief limitation of the long-term portion of the D02 D04 comparative analysis was that the data were not derived from a randomized subject data set, but rather a comparison of outcomes from an investigational device study and observational control study.  A propensity adjustment strategy was used to reduce potential bias (i.e., patient characteristics, disease characteristics) in the comparative analysis. The Sponsor also provided a secondary reference group, an Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) cohort, for comparative purposes.  On September 3, 2002, the Sponsor submitted their revised statistical plan proposing to 1) use D02 subjects as their own control in a long-term longitudinal statistical analysis and 2) compare the long-term effectiveness results of subjects receiving standard of care (D04) with those of subjects receiving VNS therapy plus standard of care (D02), and also 3) compare VNS therapy plus treatment as usual (D02) to a second group, including an ECT cohort.

 

FDA Response to the D02 D04 Comparative Analysis

In response to the Sponsor’s revised statistical plan (use of observational long-term D04 data to use for comparing to D02 long-term data), FDA advised the Sponsor of their concern regarding the ability of this comparison to demonstrate safety and effectiveness of their device due to lack of randomized subject data. 

 

PMA 970003/S050 Submission Receipt

The Sponsor submitted PMA970003/S050 October 27, 2003.

 

PMA 970003/S050 FDA Decision to File. 

PMA 970003/S050 was filed by FDA after an administrative review.  The filing date was October 27, 2003, the date of CDRH receipt of the PMA supplement.

 

Major Deficiency FDA correspondence letter dated March 1, 2004

On March 1, 2004, the FDA completed an initial scientific review of the PMA Supplement and responded to the Sponsor with a Major Deficiency FDA correspondence letter.

 

FDA Neurological Devices Panel Meeting June 15, 2004

Following issuance of the Major Deficiency FDA correspondence letter, the Sponsor submitted responses to FDA Major Deficiencies.  The FDA Neurological Devices Panel meeting was scheduled for June 15, 2004. 


IV.   VNS Studies (Description of studies and results)

 

A.   Introduction

The development program for the depression indication for VNS Therapy conducted under Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) G980099 comprised two clinical studies: D01 (A pilot study) and D02 (A pivotal study).  D01 is an open-label, uncontrolled feasibility pilot study of VNS therapy in 60 subjects.  The outcomes reported in D01 led to the development of D02.  Study D02 is a pivotal study consisting of two phases, an acute, randomized, sham treatment controlled phase, followed by a non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled long-term phase.  Other trials not conducted under IDE G980099 include D03, D04, D05, and D06.  Study D03 is an ongoing, non-randomized, uncontrolled open-label, post-marketing trial conducted in Europe. Study D04 was a non-significant risk study (D04), to collect long-term clinical, quality of life, productivity and health care utilization data for  patients with depression.  Study D05 was a videotape assessment of the D02 study subjects used as part of the process to assess adequate inter-rater reliability for depression assessments.  Study D06 is an ongoing, open-label, uncontrolled feasibility trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of VNS therapy in bipolar disorder; it is conducted under an investigator-initiated IDE, G000275. 

 

The following section contains a description of all studies that have been submitted to FDA under P970003/S050.  Additionally, a description of the comparative D02 D04 clinical data and results has been provided (the primary method proposed to determine whether long-term outcomes in the VNS therapy group can be attributable to VNS).  The comparative D02 D04 clinical data was provided following a revised statistical plan submitted to FDA (Sept, 2002), and after unblinding the failed, randomized, controlled D02 study.    

 

B.   D01 PILOT STUDY

Objective-A pilot safety and efficacy study of VNS therapy for patients with depression.

 

Design-Open label, non-randomized, single-treatment arm, multi-center, pilot study.

 

Schedule-Subjects who were eligible for study were enrolled and completed up to a 4 week baseline period during which time baseline assessments (Visits 1 and 2) were performed.  The acute phase was 12 weeks (after implantation) followed by a long-term phase.  The acute phase included a 2 week recovery period, 2 week stimulation adjustment period, and 8 week stimulation period when stimulation parameters were held constant.  During the long-term phase, all subjects had follow-up evaluations at months 6, 9, and 12 after implantation and stimulation adjustments were permitted; responders (defined as those with >50% decrease in HAM-D28 at acute phase exit, compared to baseline) identified at acute phase exit had additional follow-up assessments at 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11 months after implantation.  During the acute phase, the HAM-D, Global Assessment of Function (GAF), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Montgomery Ashberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) assessments were as follows: 2 assessments occurred during baseline, 2 assessments occurred during recovery, 2 assessments occurred during stimulation adjustment, and 6 assessments occurred during the acute phase.  During the long-term phase, HAM-D, CGI, BDI, and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR, an assessment added after D01 had commenced) assessments occurred each month for 12 months, and quarterly thereafter.  Also during the long-term phase, MADRS, GAF, and YMRS assessments occurred at months 6, 9, and 12, and quarterly thereafter.  The Medical Outcome Survey 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (MOS-SF 36) assessment during the long-term occurred at 12 months and then was only required at one year intervals after the first year after implantation. 

 

Sample Size-Up to 90 patients in order to implant a total of 60 subjects. 

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Male and female subjects ranging from 18 to 70 years of age; Subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis criteria derived from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID); Subject is in a chronic  (>2 years) current major depressive episode or recurrent (as least four lifetime major depressive episode [MDE]) depression; Subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance) with at least two treatments from different treatment categories during the current MDE; Subjects with bipolar depressive disorder were required to demonstrate a resistance to lithium treatment, or to have a medical contraindication to treatment with lithium, or to be intolerant to lithium; >20 on the HAM-D; <50 on GAF; and subjects having a history of treatment with psychotherapy (current or previous MDE) or at least 6 weeks duration that did not result in a substantial clinical improvement.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression at the time of study entry; Subjects having ever had psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) in any MDE; Subject with a history of schizophrenia, other psychosis, or rapid cycling bipolar disorder; or subjects considered a suicide risk.

 

Concomitant Treatment-Subjects were required to maintain a stable antidepressant and/or mood disorder medication regimen during the acute phase.  ECT was permitted.

 

Primary Efficacy Endpoint-The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects that responded to therapy.  Response was defined as a 50% or more decrease (reported as improvement) in the HAM-D score at post-treatment (acute phase exit), compared with the baseline period (mean of Visit 1 and 2).  Response was also evaluated after one and two years of stimulation.

 

Secondary Efficacy Endpoint Analyses-Secondary efficacy variables included the MADRS, CGI, GAF, BDI II, IDS-SR, YMRS, Subject diary, and MOS SF-36.  Additional analyses were performed comparing HAM-D after 12 months and 24 months of stimulation with baseline period.

 

Safety Assessments-Safety was evaluated by reported adverse events, serious adverse events, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, clinical signs, and symptoms noted during visits, and Holter monitoring. 

 

Results

Enrollment-A total of 71 subjects enrolled, 11 discontinued prior to implantation, 60 were implanted, and 59 completed the acute phase.  1 subject did not meet continuation criteria within 12 weeks of implantation and was not included in the acute or long-term efficacy analyses, but continued the long-term phase and received stimulation upon worsening depression.  Of the 60 subjects who entered the long-term phase, 52 continue to participate (as of 10/29/02).  Seven (7) of 8 subjects who discontinued VNS stimulation, elected to have their devices explanted.  Five (5) of 8 subjects exited the study due to lack of efficacy (one had a pulse generator explanted after 11 months of stimulation, one explanted after 26 months of stimulation, one explanted after 27 months of stimulation, one explanted after 31 months of stimulation, and one explanted after 38 months of stimulation, respectively), 1 subject exited the study due to a serious adverse event and died (explanted due to lung cancer, 20 months after implantation), 1 subject developed sepsis after colorectal surgery and died (22 months after implantation), and 1 subject withdrew consent (explanted after 26 months of stimulation).  For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Demographics-The mean age was 46.8yrs (N=60), 21/60 subjects were male, 59/60 were of Caucasian origin and 1/60 was of Hispanic origin, 44/60 were diagnosed with unipolar depression and 16/60 diagnosed with bipolar depression, the average length of the current MDE was 9.9yrs, 50/60 subjects reported having chronic (2 or more) current MDE, 16/60 subjects reported failing >2 treatments in current MDE, 7/60 subjects reported failing >3 treatments in current MDE, 12/60 subjects reported failing >4 treatments in current MDE, 4/60 subjects reported failing >5 treatments in current MDE, 5/60 subjects reported failing >6 treatments in current MDE, 3/60 subjects reported failing >7 treatments in current MDE, 7/60 subjects reported failing >8 treatments in current MDE, 4/60 subjects reported failing >9 treatments in current MDE, 1/60 subjects reported failing >10 treatments in current MDE, 1/60 subjects reported failing >14 treatments in current MDE, the mean age of onset of illness was 28.7yrs, and the mean duration of illness was 18yrs.  Current episode mood disorder treatment history included heterocyclics/TCAs (1 or more, 41/60), SSRIs (1 or more, 58/60), MAOIs (1 or more, 29/60), Bupropion (43/60), Venlafaxine (51/60), Mirtazapine (37/60), Nefazodone (29/60), Trazodone (21/60), Lithium (37/60), the mean number of antidepressant medications was 8.6, the mean number of other mood disorder treatments was 4.8, the mean number of anxiolytics was 1.9, the mean number of nonatypical antipsychotics was 0.5, and total antidepressant and other mood disorder treatments was 15.7.  Sixty six percent (40/60) used ECT during lifetime, 32% (19/60) within the past two years, and 5% (3/60) during study.  Twelve (12/60) subjects were categorized as having a transient response to ECT, eleven (11/60) subjects were categorized as having a partial response to ECT, and one (1/60) subject was categorized as having a sustained response to ECT.

 

Concomitant Treatments-Six subjects increased the dose of, or added, antidepressant medication during the 4 weeks prior to the first visit; none were reported to lead to improvements in the HAM-D by more than 4 points during the baseline period.  Eight subjects had minor changes in antidepressant treatments during the acute phase (Visit 1 to Visit 12); none of the medication changes were reported to affect the total strength of treatment by more than one point change.  Four subjects started a new antidepressant medication during the period from Visit 5 to Visit 12 due to worsened depression.  Three subjects with bipolar depressive disorder and two subjects with major depressive disorder received lithium during the acute phase.  No subjects received ECT during the acute phase.  Three subjects received ECT during the long-term study.

 

Protocol Deviations-During the long-term phase, 39 subjects missed quarterly or annual visits, 25 subjects had incomplete vital signs taken at scheduled visits, 17 subjects did not have their devices programmed during a scheduled visit because of telephone interviews, a defective programming wand, or unavailable computer, 11 subjects had one visit’s assessments performed by telephone interview.

 

Adverse events-Subjects were queried for adverse event information at each follow-up visit during the acute phase and the long-term phase.  All adverse events, regardless of relationship to either implantation or stimulation were recorded during the acute phase.  During the long-term phase, only adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to either implantation or stimulation were reported.  All implanted subjects reported at least one treatment-emergent adverse event during the D01 study.  Common adverse events (>10) reported included device site pain, headache, incision pain, neck pain, pain, Dysphagia, increased cough, dyspnea, and voice alteration.

 

Serious Adverse Events-A total of 77 serious adverse events were reported (N=38 patients reporting) after implantation; the majority of serious adverse events were for mood alteration including worsening depression (N=34), suicide attempt or overdose (N=12), mania (N=2), dysphoria, and agitation (N=2).  Other serious adverse events included back pain, hernia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, pain, sepsis, wound infection, aortic stenosis, deep thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, syncope, diarrhea, esophagitis, gastrointestinal disorder (N=2), vomiting (N=2), central nervous system toxicity, convulsion, bronchitis, carcinoma of lung, carcinoma of breast, unintended pregnancy, urinary retention, and ovarian disorder.  There was one death in the long-term phase (Subject underwent jejunostomy with repair of rectal prolapse followed by complicated post-op course with multiple organ failure and life support was withdrawn).  Another subject died (due to small cell lung cancer) following withdrawal from the D01 study.

 

Efficacy-The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects that responded to therapy.  Response (as defined by >50% decrease in the HAM-D score at post-treatment acute phase exit, compared with the baseline period) was also evaluated following 1 and 2 years.  Eighteen of 59 (18/59) were responders at acute phase exit.  Twenty-five of 55 were responders at 1 year, and 18/42 were responders at 2 years.  Complete responders (as defined by HAM-D score < 10) included 9/59 at acute phase exit, 15/55 at 1 year, and 9/42 at 2 years.  Outcomes from secondary efficacy variables including the MADRS, CGI, GAF, BDI II, IDS-SR, YMRS, subject diary, and MOS SF-36 were also reported.


C.   D02 PIVOTAL STUDY

Objective-To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of VNS therapy following a 12-week acute phase and during a 12 month follow-up evaluation period.

 

Design-A two phase study: The acute phase was a 12 week, double blind, randomized, parallel group, sham treatment controlled design, subjects were randomized to either treatment (stimulation) group or control (sham) group and results were compared at week 12.  The acute phase was followed by a long-term phase, an open label, multi-center, 12 month study where subjects in the treatment group continued VNS therapy and stimulation was initiated for subjects in the sham-control group.

 

Schedule, Acute Phase-Subjects who were eligible for study were enrolled and completed two baseline visits (7 to 45 days prior to implantation, visits B1 and B2).  Subjects who met eligibility criteria were then implanted with VNS therapy and randomized to either the treatment or sham-control group after implantation during an acute phase of study.  The acute phase was 12 weeks (after implantation) in length and included 2 weeks of recovery after implantation, followed by 2 weeks of stimulation adjustment and 8 weeks of fixed stimulation parameters for the treatment group after implantation.  During the acute phase, HAM-D28 and MADRS assessments were as follows: 2 assessments during baseline, 1 assessment during recovery, 1 assessment during stimulation adjustment, and 4 assessments during the acute phase; CGI assessments were as follows: 2 assessments during baseline, 1 assessment during recovery, and 1 assessment at acute phase exit; IDS-SR assessments were as follows: 2 assessments during baseline, 1 assessment during recovery, 2 assessments during stimulation adjustment, and 5 assessments during the acute phase; YMRS assessments were as follows: 2 assessments during baseline, 2 assessments during recovery, 2 assessments during stimulation adjustment, and 5 assessments during the acute phase; and MOS SF-36 assessments were as follows: 1 assessment during baseline and 1 assessment at acute phase exit. 

 

Schedule, Long-term Phase-After completing the acute phase, treatment group subjects continued to receive stimulation and had monthly visits for the first 12 months of stimulation.  Sham control subjects followed the same visit schedule during the acute phase, but did not have devices turned on until the long-term phase.  During the long-term phase, sham treatment group subjects repeated the acute phase treatment group visit schedule (weekly visits for 4 weeks and then every other week) through 10 weeks of stimulation (6 months post-implantation).  Sham control subjects then had monthly visits through 12 months of stimulation.  During the long-term phase, all subjects had follow-up evaluations at months 6, 9, and 12, after implantation and stimulation adjustments were permitted; acute responders had additional follow-up assessments. During the long-term phase, HAM-D, MADRS, and IDS-SR assessments included monthly assessments up to 12 months; CGI assessments included monthly assessments beginning at 6 months up to 12 months; and YMRS and MOS SR-36 assessments included a 6 month, 9 month, and 12 month assessment. 

 

Sample Size-Up to 275 patients were to be enrolled in order to implant up to 240 patients to obtain at least 200 completed patients at up to 20 study sites, each implanting approximately 10 total patients. 

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Subject is diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria derived from SCID; Subject is in a chronic  (>2 years) current major depressive episode and/or has had a history of recurrent MDEs (as least four lifetime MDEs including a current MDE); Subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance) with at least two treatments from different treatment categories during the current MDE (separate treatment categories existing for Major Depressive Disorder [MDD] and Bipolar Disorder [BPD]); >20 on the HAM-D24; IQ >70 based on investigator’s judgment; >18 and <80 years of age; Subject with BPD had demonstrated a resistance to lithium treatment or had a medical contraindication to treatment with lithium or was know to be intolerant to lithium; Subject had a history of treatment with psychotherapy (current or previous MDE) or at least 6 weeks duration that did not result in a substantial clinical improvement; Subject was stable on current antidepressant medication regimen of <5 antidepressant medication for >4 weeks prior to baseline or subject was not taking antidepressant medications for >4 weeks prior to baseline.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Subject met DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression at the time of study entry or subject had ever had psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) in any MDE; Subject had a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorders; Subject with BPD had a history of rapid cycling; subject currently had a secondary diagnosis of, or signs of, delirium, dementia, amnestic, or other cognitive disorders per DSM-IV, subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance based on antidepressant resistance rating [ARR] score >3) with >7 antidepressant treatments (regardless of category) during the current MDE; Suicide attempt within the previous 12 months that required medical treatment, or >2 suicide attempts in the past 12 months, or established plan for suicide during study, or was likely to attempt suicide within 6 months; Subject had a history of myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest; Subject had received general anesthesia within 30 days prior to enrollment; subject had taken an investigational drug or within >4 weeks prior to baseline, whichever longer; Subject had a significant cardiac or pulmonary condition currently under treatment resulting in an ASA score>III; or subject had a demand cardiac pacemaker, implantable defibrillator, or other implantable stimulators.

 

Concomitant Treatment, Acute Phase-Subjects were required to maintain a stable mood disorders medication regimen during the acute phase. ECT was not allowed.

 

Concomitant Treatment, Long-Term Phase-Changes to the mood disorder treatments were allowed during the long-term phase, although changes were discouraged.  ECT was permissible during the long-term phase.

 

Primary Efficacy Endpoint, Acute Phase-The proportion of subjects who had >50% decrease (improvement) in the HAM-D24 at Visit 9 (10 weeks of VNS therapy) compared to baseline.  The proportion of responders in the treatment group will be compared to the proportion of responders in the sham-treatment control group. 

 

Long-Term Analysis-Patients exit the acute study and enter long-term study after completion of Visit 9.  The purpose of the long-term analysis is to examine adverse effects that occur after long-term exposure to VNS therapy. 

 

Safety Assessments, Acute Phase-The D02 acute phase assesses safety between treatment and sham-treatment control subjects.  Safety was assessed by evaluation of adverse events, serious adverse events (death, life-threatening event, in-patient hospitalization or prolonged existing hospitalization, persistent or significant disability/capacity), and physical and neurological examinations.  Young mania rating scale was used for evaluating symptomatology of mania.

 

Safety Assessments, Long-Term Phase-The D02 Long-term phase assesses safety for all patients implanted. Safety was assessed by evaluation of adverse events, serious adverse events (death, life-threatening event, in-patient hospitalization or prolonged existing hospitalization, persistent or significant disability/capacity), and physical and neurological examinations.  Young mania rating scale was used for evaluating symptomatology of mania.

 

Protocol Violators-Subjects were considered protocol violators if they did not complete the acute phase and discontinued for reasons other than treatment-related AEs or lack of efficacy, if implanted and had concomitant anti-depressant medication adjustments for at least 7 days during the acute phase, or received ECT during the acute phase.  Protocol violators were not considered evaluable for efficacy analyses during the acute phase.  In contrast, protocol violators could be included in efficacy analyses during the long-term phase. 

 

Results

Enrollment, Acute Phase-A total of 266 subjects enrolled, 31 discontinued prior to implantation, 235 were implanted, and 222 were considered evaluable (of 235 subjects implanted, 9 subjects were Protocol violators and 4 subjects did not meet continuation criteria, leaving 222 evaluable subjects).   Of the 222 evaluable subjects, 119 evaluable subjects were randomized to treatment, and 116 evaluable subjects were randomized to sham-treatment control.  For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Enrollment, Long-term Phase-A total of 266 subjects enrolled (of which 31 subjects discontinued prior to implantation), 235 subjects were implanted (of which 2 subjects did not enter the long-term phase because of serious adverse events, including 1 suicide and 1 infection, and 2 subjects did not meet acute phase continuation criteria because they only had continuation visits, leaving 231 subjects), leaving 231 Intent-To-Treat (ITT) subjects.  Of the 235 subjects who were originally implanted, 3 subjects did not meet continuation criteria, 4 subjects had no HAM-D scores post-acute phase, and 21 delayed treatment subjects had a HAM-D score less than 18, leaving 205 Evaluable subjects.  Of 205 evaluable subjects, 17 subjects discontinued prior to one year, 6 did not have >80% stimulation, and 5 did not have 11 or 12 month assessments, leaving 177 subjects defined as 12 month completers.  Note-The ITT (N=231), evaluable patients (N=205), and 12 month completers (N=177) are reported in subsequent analyses.  For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Demographics-See Table 1.

 

Concomitant Treatment, Acute Phase-9 subjects (four treatment subjects and five sham control subjects) were considered to be protocol violators due to changes in concomitant antidepressant, atypical antipsychotic, or anticonvulsant medications. In addition, 3 subjects had medication increases during the acute phase (no change in ARR reported).  No ECT was reported.

 

Concomitant Treatment, Long-Term Phase-Changes to the mood disorder treatments were allowed during the long-term phase, although changes were not recommended.  A total of 14 subjects received ECT during the D02 long-term phase through 12 months of VNS therapy.  All 14 subjects were evaluable (7% of the evaluable population), while 8 of 14 subjects were 12 month completers (5% of the 12 month completer population).

 

Implantation Related Adverse Events, Acute Phase-Adverse events reported at a > 5% incidence among all implanted patients (N=235) considered to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to implantation were incision pain, voice alteration, incision site reaction (redness or swelling at the incision site), device site pain, device site reaction (soreness, swelling or tenderness near the generator site), pharyngitis, dysphagia, hypesthesia, dyspnea, nausea, headache, neck pain, pain, paresthesia, and increased cough.  The duration of implantation related adverse events reported in at least 10% of all subjects included device site pain, device site reaction, incision pain, dysphagia, hypesthesia, pharyngitis, voice alteration, and incision site reaction and most resolved within 30 days.  The adverse event of hypesthesia resolved within 90 days. 

 

Stimulation Related Adverse Events, Acute Phase-Events reported at a > 5% incidence among treatment patients (N=119) were asthenia, back pain, chest pain, device site pain, device site reaction, headache, incision pain, neck pain, pain, viral infection, wound infection, palpitation, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, depression, dizziness, hypesthesia, insomnia, paresthesia, cough increase, dyspnea, laryngismus, pharyngitis, rhinitis, voice alteration, and incision site reaction.  The duration of stimulation related adverse events reported in at least 10% of all subjects included increased cough, dyspnea, voice alteration, laryngismus, neck pain, dysphagia, and paresthesia, and most resolved within duration of 60 days. 

 

Late Emerging Events Related to Stimulation, Long-Term Phase-During the long-term phase, the late emerging events analysis captured new adverse events related to stimulation reported after the first three months of stimulation (e.g., if a new adverse event was reported after the first three months, but had previously been reported during the first three months, the event was not captured in this analysis).  The adverse events reported in this analysis included back pain, flu syndrome, sudden unexplained death, viral infection, hypotension, syncope (N=3), colitis (N=2), gastritis (N=2), weight gain (N=2), weight loss, arthralgia, joint disorder, myalgia, speech disorder, vocal cord paralysis, stridor, amblyopia, and deafness (N=2).

 

Serious Adverse Events, Acute Phase-A total of 39 serious adverse events (events that required hospitalization or prolonged hospitalization, resulted in death, considered life threatening, a persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or other) were reported (N=27 patients reporting) during the acute phase.  Thirty of 39 serious adverse events occurred after implantation, including suicide, wound infection, asystole, bradycardia, cholecystitis, dehydration (N=2), myasthenia, confusion, depression (N=12, 5 in the treatment group, 7 in the sham control group), thinking abnormal, vocal cord paralysis, aspiration pneumonia, pneumonia, voice alteration, device site reaction (N=2), acute renal failure, and urinary retention.  The most common serious adverse event was worsening depression.

 

Serious Adverse Events, Long-term Phase-A total of 96 serious adverse events were reported (N=51 patients reporting) during the long-term phase, including abdominal pain, accidental injury, chest pain, overdose, peritonitis, sudden unexplained death, suicide attempt (N=7), surgical procedure, wound infection, syncope (N=4), cholecystitits, Cholelithiasis, constipation, gastrointestinal disorder (N=2), dehydration, convulsion (N=2), depression (N=62), dizziness, drug dependence, manic depressive reaction, somnolence, thinking abnormal, breast carcinoma, and enlarged uterine fibroid. 

 

Serious Adverse Events, After Cut-Off Date of 10/10/02-A total of 34 total serious adverse events were reported (N=28 patients reporting) after cut-off date of 10/10/02 including accidental injury, cellulitis, death, headache, infection, overdose, pain chest, suicide attempt (N=2), fibrillation atrial, syncope, diarrhea, hemorrhage, obstruction intestine, tendon disorder, depression (N=13), paralysis vocal cord, paresthesia, pneumonia, carcinoma skin, enlarged uterine fibroid, and infection urinary tract. 

 

Hypomanic, Manic Reactions-Twenty-five patients in D02 had a baseline diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Three subjects had adverse events of manic reaction (both acute phase) or manic depressive reaction (long-term phase) reported during the study.  Another three subjects had YMRS scores >15 during the long-term phase without an adverse event being reported.  A total of six subjects experienced a manic/hypomanic reaction during the study based on either clinical diagnosis (N=3) or YMRS scores (N=3). 

 

Evaluation of Suicidal Ideation, Acute Phase-Evaluation of suicidal ideation reported increases in HAM-D scores of at least 2 points.  The sham control group had 3/116 (3%) subjects increase their item 3 score by at least two points (0 to 2 or higher, 1 to 3 or higher, or 2 to 4).  The treatment group had two of 119 (2%) subjects increase their item 3 score by at least two points.    

 

Evaluation of Suicidal Ideation, Long-Term Phase-The long-term phase suicidal ideation was also assessed at 12 months of stimulation.  An examination of suicidal ideation upon item 3 of the HAM-D for D02 observed 3% (5/181) of subjects increased by at least two points.  Twenty-seven percent (48/181) of subjects examined decreased by at least two points. 

 

Deaths-4 deaths were reported during the D02 study; one occurred before implantation (esophageal cancer) and was not related to VNS therapy.  The other deaths occurred during VNS therapy.  The second death was a reported suicide, during the acute phase (subject was randomized to treatment).  The third death occurred during the long-term phase and was listed as undetermined by the medical coroner.  The fourth death was reported after the long-term phase and was compatible with acute brain injury, nonspecific in nature, with poor prognosis, and was allowed to expire.

 

A. Efficacy Results, Outcomes as defined in the Original Protocol (June, 2000)

Primary Efficacy Endpoint, Randomized, Controlled, Acute Phase (HAM-D)-The primary efficacy endpoint was an analysis of the percent responders (response defined as >50% decrease in HAM-D score from baseline to acute phase exit) between the treatment and sham control groups.  17/111 treatment subjects responded and 11/110 sham treatment control subjects responded; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.238).  In a Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) analysis of responders, the treatment group (17/112) was not statistically significantly greater (p=0.251) than the number of responders in the sham treatment control group (11/110).

 

Secondary Endpoints, Acute Phase (IDS-SR, CGI, SF-36)-The percentage change in scores for the other depression assessments between the treatment and control groups were compared in secondary efficacy analyses.  In the IDS-SR, 19/109 treatment subjects responded and 8/106 sham treatment control subjects responded; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.032).  In the CGI, no statistical differences were reported.  In the SF-36, no statistical differences were observed.  In the MADRS, no statistical differences were reported.  

 

Secondary Endpoint, Long-term Phase (HAM-D)-Subjects were assigned to clinical outcomes including >75% improvement in HAM-D, 50% to <75% improvement in HAM-D, 25% to <50% improvement in HAM-D, 0% to <25% improvement in HAM-D, or worsened.  In the D02 12 month completer population, 56/177 (32%) met criteria characterized as >25% improvement in HAM-D at 3 months and 97/174 (56%) of subjects met criteria characterized as >25% improvement in HAM-D at 12 months. 

Note-In the D01 evaluable population, 55% of subjects (30/55) met criteria characterized as >25% improvement in HAM-D at 12 months.

 

B. Efficacy Results, Outcomes as defined in the Revised Statistical Plan (Sept 2002)

In the revised statistical plan, several additional analyses were provided.

 

Long-term Phase Analysis of the HAM-D-The primary efficacy analysis was a repeated measures linear regression analysis performed on the raw HAM-D scores during the first 12 months after initiation of stimulation on the 12 month completer population.  The primary efficacy endpoint for the repeated measures model was the average change in HAM-D per month over the first 12 months of stimulation, calculated as the average of the slopes across the four quarters, with each quarter having equal weight.  There was a statistically significant improvement in the average change in HAM-D over 12 months of VNS therapy in the 12 month completer population (N=177, slope =-0.47 per month, p<0.001), evaluable population (N=205, slope =-0.45 per month, p<0.001), and ITT (N=231, slope =-0.40 per month, p<0.001) population.

 

Long-term Phase Analysis of the IDS-SR-The IDS-SR was the primary scale used for the D02 D04 comparative analysis (employed as a secondary efficacy variable for the acute and long-term phase D02 analyses).  The HAM-D was the primary efficacy variable for the acute and long-term phase D02 analyses (employed as a secondary efficacy variable for the D02 D04 comparative analysis).  There was a statistically significant improvement in the average change in IDS-SR over 12 months of VNS therapy for the 12 month completer population (N=177, slope =-0.55 per month, p<0.001), evaluable population (N=205, slope =-0.52 per month, p<0.001), and ITT (N=231, slope =-0.45 per month, p<0.001) population.

 

Secondary Endpoint, Long-term Phase (HAM-D Categorical Clinical Outcomes)-Subjects were assessed after 12 months of VNS therapy to ascertain which subjects had a response (proportion of subjects with >50% improvement in score compared with baseline) and complete response (proportion of subjects with a score less than or equal to 9).  Of the 12 month completer population, 52/174 (30%) met response criteria, and 29/174 (17%) met complete response criteria.

 

Secondary Endpoint, Long-term Phase (IDS-SR Categorical Clinical Outcomes)-

Subjects were assessed after 12 months of VNS therapy to ascertain which subjects had a response (proportion of subjects with >50% improvement in score compared with baseline) and complete response (proportion of subjects with a score less than or equal to 14).  Of the 12 month completer population, 38/173 (22%) met response criteria, and 26/173 (15%) met complete response criteria.

 

Secondary Endpoint, Long-term Phase (HAM-D Categorical Criteria Outcomes)-D02 12 month completer subjects were assessed over the last four visits of the first year of VNS therapy (months 9, 10, 11, 12) to ascertain which subjects had at least one visit with 50% or greater response and at least an additional two visits with at least a 40% or greater response.  Of the 12 month completer population, 47/177 (27%) met this criteria.

 

Secondary Endpoint, Long-term Phase (IDS-SR Categorical Criteria Outcomes)-Subjects were assessed for response (response defined as >50% improvement at last two measured quarters, 9- and 12-months).  Of the 12 month completer population, 13% (27/174) met this criteria.

 

Additional Analyses, Long-term Phase, D02 ECT Comparison-The proportion of D02 subjects responding to therapy was compared to ECT use at seven community hospitals in the New York City metropolitan region.  The comparison employed a subset of the study subjects who received ECT (N=172/347) who demonstrated both similarities and differences with the D02 long-term evaluable patient population (N=205).  For comparative analyses, response was defined as a >50% HAM-D improvement from baseline and remission was defined as a >60% HAM-D improvement from baseline to a score of 10 or less (D02 used remission criteria of a score of 9 or less).  In D02, 29/205 (14%) evaluable patients were responders (14/205 met complete response criteria) at 3 months and 55/205 (27%) were responders (30/205 met complete response criteria) at 12 months.  In the ECT cohort, 100/172 (58%) were responders at 3 months (76/172 or 44% met complete response criteria at 3 months) and 71/172 (41%) were responders at 6 months (34/172 or 20% met complete response criteria at 6 months).

 

D.   D04 OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Objective-To collect long-term clinical, quality of life, productivity and health care utilization data for patients with depression. 

 

Design-A long-term, observational, prospective, multi-center study to collect data regarding depression and health care utilization outcomes during usual standard of care treatment for treatment-resistant depression.    Standard of care was defined as whatever treatment strategy the physician and subject chose to follow.  The D04 study was a non-significant risk study, and was conducted under local IRB jurisdiction.

 

Schedule-Clinical, quality of life, and economic outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months. During the first 12 months (for comparison to D02) the MADRS, CGI, IDS-SR, YMRS, and MOS SF-36 assessments were performed at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months.  HAM-D24 assessments were performed at baseline and 12 months.

 

Sample Size-Up to 130 patients enrolled in order to ensure data on 80 subjects at one-year, with a goal of 100 subjects with 12-months of observational data across 15 sites.

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Subject diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria derived from SCID; Subject is in a chronic  (>2 years) current major depressive episode and/or has had a history of recurrent MDEs (as least four lifetime MDEs including a current MDE); Subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance) with at least two treatments from different treatment categories during the current MDE (separate treatment categories existing for MDD and BPD); >20 on the HAM-D24; IQ >70 based on investigator’s judgment; >18 and <80 years of age; and subject with BPD had demonstrated a resistance to lithium treatment or had a medical contraindication to treatment with lithium or was know to be intolerant to lithium.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Subject met DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression at the time of study entry or subject had ever had psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) in any MDE; subject had a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorders; subject with BPD had a history of rapid cycling; subject currently had a secondary diagnosis of, or signs of, delirium, dementia, amnestic, or other cognitive disorders per DSM-IV, subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance based on ARR score >3) to less than 2 but greater than 6 antidepressant treatments (regardless of category) during the current MDE; and suicide attempt within the previous 12 months that required medical treatment, or >2 suicide attempts in the past 12 months, or established plan for suicide during study, or was likely to attempt suicide within 6 months.

 

Concomitant Treatment-Standard of care was defined as whatever treatment strategy the physician and subject chose to follow.

 

Clinical Assessments-Assess clinical, quality of life, productivity, and health care utilization outcomes in treatment-resistant depression patients.  Assessment tools included the HAM-D, MADRS, CGI, IDS-SR, YMRS, MOS SF-36, and survey of mood medications.  The IDS-SR, MOS SF-36, and mood medications were assessed quarterly after baseline, while the HAM-D and CG-I were assessed at one year only, and quarterly thereafter.

 

Safety Assessments-No safety data was collected.

 

Results

Enrollment-A total of 138 subjects enrolled, 11 subjects discontinued, 127 subjects provided some data, 124 subjects were included as evaluable subjects (of 127 subjects, 3 subjects only provided baseline values), and 112 subjects were 12 month completers (of the 124 subjects, 11 subjects withdrew before the 12 month assessment and 1 patient did not complete the 12 month visit).  For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Demographics-See Table 1.

 

Concomitant Treatment-Medication adjustments and ECT were permissible.

 

Safety Outcomes-None.

 

Clinical Analyses-A repeated measures linear regression analysis was performed on the raw IDS-SR scores during the first 12 months on evaluable subjects (N=124) for comparison to D02.  Subjects were assessed for a 50% improvement or better at the last two measured quarters (for this analysis IDS-SR 9- and 12-month scores were chosen, as described in Rush et al., in press).  Of the 12 month completer population, 4% (N=5/109) reportedly met the proposed criteria.  Additional clinical analyses included the CGI and MOS-SF36.  Using the CGI, 12% (12/101) of D04 evaluable population was rated as much improved or very much improved at 12 months.  The SF36 had numerically greater changes in vitality, social functioning, role functioning-emotional, and mental health (no statistical analyses provided).


E.   D02, D04 COMPARISON

Objective-To compare outcomes reported in D02 (VNS therapy plus standard of care) and D04 (standard of care alone).

 

Design, Schedule, Sample Size, Concomitant Treatment-Please see Section C (D02) and Section D (D04). 

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Both studies included the following: Subject diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria derived from SCID; Subject is in a chronic  (>2 years) current major depressive episode and/or has had a history of recurrent MDEs (as least four lifetime MDEs including a current MDE); Subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance) with at least two treatments from different treatment categories during the current MDE (separate treatment categories existing for MDD and BPD); >20 on the HAM-D24; IQ >70 based on investigator’s judgment; >18 and <80 years of age; Subject with BPD had demonstrated a resistance to lithium treatment or had a medical contraindication to treatment with lithium or was know to be intolerant to lithium. 

 

Additional D02 Inclusion Criteria Only-Only D02 subjects had a history of treatment with psychotherapy (current or previous MDE) of at least 6 weeks duration that did not result in a substantial clinical improvement; Subject was stable on current antidepressant medication regimen of not more than 5 antidepressant medication for >4weeks prior to first baseline visit or subject was not taking antidepressant medications for >4 weeks prior to first baseline visit; and subject was stable on current atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsant medications for >4 weeks prior to first baseline visit or subject was not taking atypical antipscyhotics and anticonvulsant medications for >4 weeks prior to first baseline visit.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Both studies excluded the following: Subject met DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression at the time of study entry or subject had ever had psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) in any MDE; Subject had a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorders; Subject with BPD had a history of rapid cycling; subject currently had a secondary diagnosis of, or signs of, delirium, dementia, amnestic, or other cognitive disorders per DSM-IV, subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance based on ARR score >3) with >7 antidepressant treatments (regardless of category) during the current MDE; suicide attempt within the previous 12 months that required medical treatment, or >2 suicide attempts in the past 12 months, or established plan for suicide during study, or was likely to attempt suicide within 6 months. 

 

Additional D02 Exclusion Criteria Only-Only D02 subjects were excluded if they had a history of myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest; subject had received general anesthesia within 30 days prior to enrollment; Subject had taken an investigational drug within a clearance duration of five times the half-life of the investigational drug or within >4 weeks prior to first baseline visit, whichever longer; Subject had a significant cardiac or pulmonary condition currently under treatment resulting in an ASA score >III; and subject had a demand cardiac pacemaker, implantable defibrillator, or other implantable stimulators.

 

Concomitant Treatment-During the D02 acute phase, subjects were required to maintain a stable mood disorders medication regimen during the acute phase and ECT was not allowed.  During the D02 long-term phase, changes to mood disorder treatments and ECT were permissible.

 

Primary Efficacy Endpoint-A repeated measures linear regression analysis performed on raw IDS-SR scores of D02 and D04 patients.  The HAM-D, the primary efficacy assessment tool for D02 during the acute and long-term phase, was only included as a baseline D04 assessment and later was amended as a 12 month time point in D04, and therefore was not adequate for D02 D04 comparative analyses. The IDS-SR served as the primary assessment tool for comparison of D02 and D04. 

 

Safety Assessments –The D02 study did collect safety data.  The D04 study did not systematically collect safety data, and therefore no prospective comparison was available.

 

Results

Enrollment-During the D02 study, a total of 266 subjects enrolled, 31 subjects discontinued prior to implantation, 235 subjects were implanted, 233 subjects entered the long-term phase (of 235 subjects, 2 subjects did not enter the long-term, leaving 233 subjects), 231 subjects were included in the intent to treat analyses (of 233 subjects, 2 subjects did not meet acute phase continuation criteria, leaving 231 subjects), 205 subjects were included as evaluable subjects (of 233 subjects, 3 subjects did not meet continuation criteria, 4 subjects had no HAM-D scores post-acute phase, and 21 delayed treatment subjects had a HAM-D score less than 18, leaving 205 subjects), and 177 subjects were 12 month completers (of the 205 subjects, 17 subjects discontinued prior to one year, 6 did not have >80% stimulation, and 5 did not have 11 or 12 month assessments, leaving 177 subjects). 

 

In D04, a total of 138 subjects enrolled, 11 subjects discontinued, 127 subjects provided some data, 124 subjects were included as evaluable subjects (of 127 subjects, 3 subjects only provided baseline values, leaving 124 subjects), and 112 subjects were 12 month completers (of the 124 subjects, 12 subjects did not have a 12 month assessment, leaving 112 12month completers).

 

Demographics-

Table 1: D02, D04 Comparison of Demographics

Table combines data presented in P970003/S050, Tables 10.2.1-1, 10.2.1-2, 10.2.1-3, 10.2.1-4, 10.2.1-5

Parameter

Statistic

D02 (N=205)

D04 (N=124)

p-value

Baseline Demographics

Age (years)

Mean

46.3

45.5

0.484

Gender

 

 

 

 

   Male

N (%)

74(36)

39(31)

0.390

   Female

N (%)

131(64)

85(69)

 

Ethnic Origin

 

 

 

 

   Caucasian

N (%)

198(97)

111(90)

0.018

   African-American

N (%)

3(1)

5(4)

 

   Asian

N (%)

0

0

 

   Hispanic

N (%)

3(1)

2(2)

 

   Other

N (%)

1(>1)

6(5)

 

Psychiatric History-Current Episode Diagnosis

Diagnosis

N

205

124

0.581

Unipolar

N (%)

185(90)

109(88)

 

Bipolar

N (%)

20(10)

15(12)

 

Unipolar Type

N

185

109

0.726

Recurrent

N (%)

161(87)

93(85)

 

Single Episode

N (%)

24(13)

16(15)

 

Summary of Baseline Psychiatric Characteristics

Length of Current MDE (mos)

Mean (S.D.)

49.9(52.1)

68.6(91.5)

0.290

Subjects Having Chronic (2 or more) Current MDE

 

N (%)

 

140(68)

 

85(68)

 

>0.999

# Failed Adequate Trials in Current MDE

 

Mean (S.D.)

 

3.5(1.3)

 

3.5(1.3)

 

0.824

# Failed Adequate Trials in Current MDE per year of MDE

 

Mean (S.D.)

 

1.6(1.4)

 

2.4(5.4)

 

0.342

Received ECT Lifetime

N(%)

108(53%)

32(26%)

<0.001

Received ECT, Current MDE

N(%)

72(35%)

15(12%)

<0.001

Age at Onset of First Depression, Mania, Hypomania

Mean (S.D.)

21.8(11.9)

Note, N=204

20.8(11.5)

 

0.435

Age of Definitive Diagnosis of Any Mood Disorders

Mean (S.D.)

30.8(10.5)

Note, N=204

29.4(11.0)

 

0.254

Duration of Illness (yrs)

Mean (S.D.)

25.5(11.9)

Note, N=204

25.8(13.2)

 

0.846

Length of Time Since Definitive Diagnosis

Mean (S.D.)

16.5(9.9)

Note, N=204

17.1(9.8)

 

0.451

Length of time between Onset and Definitive Diagnosis

Mean (S.D.)

10.0 (10.7)

Note, N=203

9.6(10.8)

 

0.451

Number of Lifetime episodes of Depression

 

N

 

205

 

124

 

<0.001

   0-2

N(%)

50(24)

31(25)

 

   3-5

N(%)

69(34)

36(29)

 

   6-10

N(%)

56(27)

18(15)

 

   >10

N(%)

19(9)

32(26)

 

   Unknown

N(%)

11(5)

7(6)

 

Number of Suicide Attempts in Lifetime

 

N(%)

 

205

 

124

 

 

0

N(%)

140(68)

80(65)

0.426

1

N(%)

34(17)

16(13)

 

2

N(%)

15(7)

11(9)

 

3

N(%)

8(4)

10(8)

 

4

N(%)

3(2)

3(2)

 

5

N(%)

4(2)

2(2)

 

10

N(%)

1(<1)

0

 

12

N(%)

0

1(<1)

 

18

N(%)

0

1(<1)

 

Number of Suicide Attempts Within Past 12mos

 

N(%)

 

203(>99)

 

120(96.8)

 

0.239

1

N(%)

2(<1)

3(2.4)

 

2

N(%)

0

0

 

3

N(%)

0

0

 

4

N(%)

0

1(<1)

 

Treatment induced Hypomania or Mania

 

N(%)

 

16(8)

 

6(5)

 

0.366

Prior Hospital Admissions for Mood Disorders in Lifetime

 

Mean (S.D)

 

2.7(5.4)

 

2.1(2.9)

 

0.290

Current Episode Mood Disorder Treatment History

Heterocyclics/TCAs

N(%)

103(50)

48(39)

 

SSRIs

N(%)

185(90)

114(92)

 

MAOIs

N(%)

50(24)

21(17)

 

Other Antidepressants

N(%)

192(94)

120(97)

 

Anticonvulsants

N(%)

106(52)

58(47)

 

Benzodiazepines

N(%)

148(72)

64(52)

 

Stimulants

N(%)

89(43)

28(23)

 

Atypical Antipsychotic

N(%)

85(41.5)

43(35)

 

Nonatypical Antipsychotic

N(%)

22(11)

5(4)

 

Other

N(%)

93(45)

49(39.5)

 

Summary of ECT Treatment History

ECT Treatment During Lifetime

N(%)

108(53)

32(26)

<0.001

ECT Treatment Within past 2yrs

N(%)

54(26)

19(15)

 

Ever had a transient response

 

 

 

 

   % Relative to ECT Lifetime

N(%)

73(68)

23(72)

 

   % Relative to Total Evaluable

N(%)

73(36)

23(19)

 

Ever Had a Sustained Response

N(%)

 

 

 

   % Relative to ECT Lifetime

N(%)

15(14)

8(25)

 

   % Relative to Total Evaluable

N(%)

15(7)

8(6)

 

 

Concomitant Treatment-D02 reported safety and efficacy outcomes for VNS Therapy, while patients also received standard of care.  During the acute phase of study, D02 subjects were required to maintain a stable mood disorders medication regimen and ECT was not allowed.  During the long-term phase, changes to the mood disorder treatments and ECT were permissible.  In D04, standard of care was defined as whatever treatment strategy the physician and subject chose to follow. 

 

Safety Outcomes-The D04 study did not systematically record safety variables, and therefore no formal safety comparison was available.

 

A. Efficacy Results, Outcomes as defined in the Revised Statistical Plan (Sept 2002)

The IDS-SR, a patient self-assessment rating scale, was the primary assessment tool used in the revised statistical plan (D02, D04 comparative clinical analysis of outcomes).  The HAM-D, a clinician assessment rating scale, was employed as a secondary endpoint. 

 

D02, D04 Primary Analysis Comparisons-A repeated measures linear regression analysis served as the primary comparative measure of outcomes (raw IDS-SR raw scores during the first 12 months after initiation of stimulation on the 12 month completer population) between D02 and D04.  A statistically significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the estimated IDS-SR raw scores per month between D02 and D04 at 12 months (-0.397 estimated average difference per month).

 

Concomitant Medications and ECT

Both the protocol for the D02 long-term phase and the protocol for the D04 study permitted the use of antidepressant therapies (drugs and ECT) other than VNS therapy; neither study specified any criteria for the added or increased use of concomitant (i.e., non-VNS) antidepressant treatments over long-term follow-up (12 months), other than permitting its use.  To further examine the impact of concomitant antidepressant treatments upon long-term outcomes, the Sponsor provided an asymmetric analysis (Clinical Executive Summary, Vol 19) using the primary repeated measures linear regression analysis of IDS-SR scores after censoring the D-02 subjects’ scores for concomitant antidepressant treatment changes (i.e., the subject’s last IDS-SR score before the concomitant antidepressant treatment change was used for subsequent assessment points, a last-observation-carried-forward approach).  The results (not specified in the Sponsor’s original clinical protocol or the Sponsor’s revised clinical protocol) reported the following:

 

D02, D04 Primary Analysis Comparisons, After Censoring Scores for Concomitant Antidepressant Treatment Changes-If a subject added or increased a concomitant antidepressant treatment (D02 only; D04 standard of care was defined as whatever treatment strategy the physician and subject chose to follow), and their subsequent IDS-SR scores were not used (i.e., a censored analysis employing a last-observation-carried-forward approach) in a revised repeated measures linear regression analysis (Table 2), the difference observed in the estimated IDS-SR raw scores per month between the D02 and D04 evaluable populations at 12 months (-0.183), i.e., the average amount of improvement in the IDS-SR score per month in D02 and D04, was not statistically significantly different from standard of care (p>0.05). 

 

Table 2: D02, D04 IDS-SR Primary Efficacy Analysis Comparison

Table combines data presented in P970003/S050, Section 10.3 and data referenced in the Clinical Executive Summary, Censored Analysis discussion

 

D02 D04

P-Value

Estimated Average Difference Per Month between D02 and D04 at 12 months

0.397

0.001

Censored Estimated Average Difference Per Month between D02 and D04 at 12 months

0.183

0.052

 

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Endpoint, Responder and Complete Responder Analysis (IDS-SR)-In a responder analysis (percentage of subjects showing a response defined as >50% in the IDS-SR raw score between baseline and 12 months), 22% (39/180) of the D02 evaluable population at 12 months reported a response and 12% (13/112) of the D04 evaluable population at 12 months (Table 3) reported a response; the difference was statistically significant.  In a complete responder analysis (percentage of subjects reporting an IDS-SR raw score of less than 14 at 12 months), 15% (27/180) of the D02 evaluable population at 12 months reported a complete response and 4% (4/112) of the D04 evaluable population at 12 months (Table 3) reported a complete response; the difference was statistically significant.

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Endpoint, Responder and Complete Responder Analysis (IDS-SR), After Censoring Scores for Concomitant Antidepressant Treatment Changes-In a censored responder analysis (Table 3), 18% (32/180) subjects of the D02 long term evaluable population at 12 months reported a response and 12% (13/112) of the D04 long term evaluable population at 12 months reported a response (Table 3, highlight text); the difference was not statistically significant.   In a censored complete responder analysis, 6% (12/180) subjects of the D02 long term evaluable population at 12 months reported a response and 4% (4/112) of the D04 long term evaluable population at 12 months (Table 3); the difference was statistically significant.   

 

Table 3: D02, D04 IDS-SR Categorical Clinical Outcomes Comparisons

Table combines data presented in P970003/S050, Table 10.3.2-1 and Amendment 4, Table 11.3

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

180

112

 

No. of Responders

39

13

0.029

No. of Complete Response

27

4

0.006

No. of Responders

after D02 censoring

32

13

0.085

No. of Complete Response

after D02 censoring

12

4

0.048

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Endpoint, Responder and Complete Responder Analysis (HAM-D)-In a responder analysis (percentage of subjects reporting a response defined as >50% decrease in the HAM-D raw score between baseline and 12 months), 30% (54/181) of the D02 12 month completer subjects reported a response and 13% (13/104) of the D04 12 month completer subjects reported a response (Table 4); the difference between D02 and D04 was statistically significant.  In a complete responder analysis (percentage of subjects reporting a HAM-D raw score of 9 or less at 12 months), 17% (31/181) of the D02 12 month completer subjects reported a response and 7% (7/104) of the D04 12 month completer subjects (Table 3) reported a response; the difference was statistically significant. 

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Endpoint, Responder and Complete Responder Analysis (HAM-D), After Censoring Scores for Concomitant Antidepressant Treatment Changes-In both a censored responder and censored complete responder HAM-D analysis (Table 4, highlight text), the difference between D02 and D04 responders and complete responders was not statistically significant.


Table 4: D02, D04 HAM-D Categorical Clinical Outcomes Comparisons

Table combines data presented in P970003/S050, Table 10.3.2-2 and Amendment 4, Table 11.3

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

181

104

 

No. of Responders

54

13

0.003

No. of Complete Response

31

7

0.031

No. of Responders

after D02 censoring

36

13

0.118

No. of Complete Response

after D02 censoring

15

7

0.757

 

D02 D04 Unipolar and Bipolar Patients Analyzed Separately-Separate analyses for unipolar and bipolar depressed patient groups were provided (IDS-SR primary efficacy analysis, HAM-D secondary efficacy endpoint, and categorical clinical outcome analyses).  Data is presented for unipolar (Tables 5 IDS-SR, 6 HAM-D) and bipolar (Tables 7 IDS-SR, 8 HAM-D) patients in similar format as presented for all patients combined (See Table 10.3.2-1 and Table 10.3.2-2 in the original submission).

 

Table 5: Comparative D02, D04 IDS-SR Scores, Unipolar Patients Only

Data presented in P970003/S050, Amendment 4,  Table 7.1.

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

163

97

 

Average Change (improvement)

-9.5

-4.7

0.001

LOCF Average Change

(improvement)

-8.8 (N=184)

-5.1 (N=109)

0.011

No of Responders

34

12

0.084

No of Complete Response

25

4

0.014

 

Table 6: Comparative D02, D04 HAM-D Scores, Unipolar Patients Only

Data presented in P970003/S050, Amendment 4,  Table 7.2.

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

181

104

 

Average Change (improvement)

-8.1

-4.8

0.013

LOCF Average Change

-7.1 (N=185)

-4.8 (N=91)

0.070

No. Responders

49

11

0.005

No. Complete Response

27

7

0.096

 


Table 7: Comparative D02, D04 IDS-SR Scores, Bipolar Patients Only

Data presented in P970003/S050, Amendment 4,  Table 7.3.

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

17

15

 

Average Change (improvement)

-12.6

-3.7

0.703

LOCF Average Change

-13.8 (N=20)

-3.7 (N=15)

0.976

No of Responders

5

1

N too small

No of Complete Response

2

0

N too small

 

Table 8: Comparative D02, D04 HAM-D Scores, Bipolar Patients Only

Data presented in P970003/S050, Amendment 4,  Table 7.4.

 

D02

D04

P-Value

N

17

13

 

Average Change (improvement)

-9.5

-5.6

0.376

LOCF Average Change

-9.7 (N=20)

-5.6 (N=13)

0.340

No of Responders

5

2

N too small

No of Complete Response

4

0

N too small

 

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Endpoint, Categorical Clinical Analysis (IDS-SR)-Subjects were assessed with the IDS-SR for a 50% improvement or better at the last two measured quarters of the first year of VNS therapy, for this analysis 9- and 12-months).  In the D02 12 month completer population (N=177), 15% (N=27) met this criteria and 5% (N=5) of the D04 12 month completer population (N=112) met this criteria; the difference was statistically significant.  In the D02 evaluable population (N=205), 13% (N=27) met this criteria and 4% (N=5) of the D04 evaluable population (N=124) met this criteria; the difference was statistically significant. 

 

D02, D04 Comparison Secondary Efficacy Endpoint Analysis (HAM-D)-For the HAM-D raw scores 12 month analysis, 12 month completer D02 and D04 subjects were compared for improvement from baseline to 12 months (Table 9).  12 month completer D02 subjects (N=180) reported a greater average decrease from baseline (-8.2) than did D04 subjects (-4.9) (N=104); the difference was statistically significant.  In an LOCF analysis comparison of D02 (N=205) and D04 (N=124), D02 subjects also showed a statically significant greater decrease from baseline (-7.4) than D04 subjects (-5.0).

 

Additional Analyses (CGI, MOS-SF36)-Subjects were assessed with other rating scales to assess the effects of VNS therapy upon depression including the CGI and MOS-SF36.  Using the CGI, 37% of the D02 evaluable population (66/181) was rated as much improved, while in the D04 12% of the evaluable population (12/101) was rated as much improved (Last Observation Carried Forward analysis D02 34% [68/200], D04 12% [12/101]).  The MOS-SF36 had numerically greater changes in vitality, social functioning, role functioning-emotional, and mental health.  No statistical comparisons were performed between D02 and D04.

 

Other Comparative Issues: Enrollment-The majority of D04 subjects enrolled after D02 was closed.  However, overlapping sites usually screened and offered patients enrollment into D02 prior to enrollment into D04 (D02 offered a new treatment as opposed to standard of care).  Although both Study D-02 and D-04 were available to enroll subjects at similar time periods, almost all D-04 subjects enrolled into the study after D-02 was closed for enrollment.  Only 10 D-04 subjects enrolled while D-02 was open; sites were more focused on the treatment study (D-02) rather than the naturalistic, observational study (D-04).  During the period of time when nine overlapping sites (sites able to simultaneously enroll D-02 and D-04 subjects) are analyzed, the Sponsor estimates there were 49 enrolled D-02 subjects who could have enrolled into the D-04 study.  Patients who did not meet D02 entry criteria or who decided they were not interested in D02 were then offered entry into D04.  After D02 closed, clinical sites had a pool of subjects interested in D02 that were also eligible for D04.  Subjects that could not enroll in D02, these are the subjects that were typically enrolled into D04.  Thus patient expectation for participating in an investigational study for a new therapy may have been greater than the expectation of participating in an observational, control study.

 

Other Comparative Issues: Concordance of IDS-SR and HAM-D-The original submission references high concordance between IDS-SR and HAM-D (Biggs et al., 2000; Guillion and Rush, 1998; Rush et al., 1996).   The data submitted provides an analysis of the estimated correlation coefficient and its 95% confidence interval (CI), the estimated regression intercept and slope and 95% CI, and the unadjusted (for degrees of freedom) R-Square (R2), which measures the proportion of total variation about the mean HAM-D from each individual patient.  The R2 values evaluates how well the IDS-SR score predicts the HAM-D score.  R2  ranged from 0% (worst prediction fit) to 100% (perfect fit).  The histogram of R2 reports a mean R2 of 0.55, ranging from 0 to1, for 235 evaluable patients from D02.  The average simple Pearson correlation coefficient reports 0.7 with 95% CI (0.67, 0.73) between IDS-SR and HAM-D.  Additional discussion of IDS-SR and HAM-D concordance is provided in the following Statistical Review Memo.

 

F.   COMBINED SAFETY DATA (D01, D02, D03)

A chief limitation of the long-term D02, D04 comparative analysis is that the data are not derived from a randomized subject data set.  Considering the lack of systematically collected safety data in the observational control study, for comparison to the investigational study, FDA requested further analyses of available clinical data (completed and attempted suicide rate analyses, manic and hypomanic reactions, serious adverse events) for all implanted patients (D01, D02, D03).  D06 clinical data (rapidly cycling bipolar disorder) was not included in subsequent combined safety data analyses in the submission and was reported as a separate disease entity inappropriate for pooling along with D01, D02, and D03 clinical investigational studies. 

 

Completed and Attempted Suicide Rates-Completed and attempted suicides were reported during the course of several studies (D01 0 Completed Suicides, 12 Attempted Suicides; D02 1 Completed Suicide, 11 Attempted Suicides; D03 2 Completed Suicides, 1 Attempted Suicide; D06 1 Completed Suicide, 3 Attempted Suicides), and more detailed completed and attempted suicide rates and suicidality analyses for all implanted patients were requested (the D04 control group was excluded from further analyses because D04 did not collect safety data).  The incidence of suicide attempts per patient year for the D02 randomized, controlled phase and for all patients combined in D01, D02, and D03 (along with published literature comparative clinical data) is presented in Table 10. 

 

Table 10: D-02 Completed and Attempted Suicide Rates

Table combines data presented in P970003/S050, Amendment 7, Table 1.1 (Acute phase clinical data) and Amendment 4,  Table 1a.2 (Long-term phase clinical data)

ACUTE PHASE Data

 

N

Incidence of Suicide Attempts

N (%)

Incidence of Suicide

N (%)

Patient years

Incidence of Suicide Attempt/

patient year

Incidence of Suicide /

patient year

Treatment Group

119

0 (0%)

1 (0.8%)

23

0%

4.3%

Sham Control

116

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

22

0%

0%

COMPARATIVE Data

D01, D02, D03 Combined

342

24(7%)

3(0.9%)

689

3.5%

0.4%

D02

235

11(5%)

1(0.4%)

437

2.5%

0.2%

Investigational Drug-Khan

12,879

90(0.7%)

27(0.2%)

3,206

2.8%

0.8%

Active Comparator-Khan

3,681

25(0.7%)

5(0.1%)

729

3.4%

0.7%

Placebo-Khan

3,079

15(0.5%)

2(0.06%)

556

2.7%

0.4%

 

Manic And Hypomanic Reaction Rates-In D01, a total of 7 events (manic depressive reaction/manic reaction or YMRS > 15) in 6 bipolar subjects (total 16 bipolar subjects, 44% incidence) and 4 events in  2 unipolar subjects (total 44 unipolar subjects, 9% incidence), in D02, a total of 3 events (manic depressive reaction/manic reaction or YMRS > 15) in 3 bipolar subjects (total 25 bipolar subjects, 12% incidence) and 3 events in 3 unipolar subjects (incidence not defined), and in D03, a total of 1 event (manic depressive reaction/manic reaction or YMRS > 15) in 1 bipolar subjects (total 9 bipolar subjects, 11% incidence) and a total of 1 event in  1 unipolar subject (incidence not defined).  The incidence of manic reaction or manic depressive reaction or patients having Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores >15 was 44% in D01, 12% in D02, 11% in D03, and for all bipolar patients combined 22%.  Additional references of incidence of manic reactions or manic depressive reactions were provided (Ghaemi et al., 2004; Henry et al., 2001; Altshuler et al., 1995; and Peet et al., 1994). 

 

Serious Adverse Events-One of the most common serious adverse events was worsening depression during the D-02 acute phase of study, D-02 long-term phase, and D-02 after cut-off date of 10/10/02.  Most of the serious adverse events described were not considered to be related to VNS Therapy. 

 

Suicidality Analyses-A comparative analysis of the D02, combined D01, D02 and D03, and the D04 data examining the results of the scores on parts 1 and 3 of the HAM-D questionnaire was provided.  A comparison of the number of patients who experienced an increase in depressed mood and suicidal ideation (items 1 and 3 on the HAM-D) from a level of 0-1 to a level of 3-4 at 12 month follow-up did not differ significantly between the D02 and D04 populations.  In contrast, a comparison of the number of patients experiencing any increase in item 3 (suicidal ideation) showed 2 fold higher rate (11% vs 24%) of an increase in score in patients treated with VNS compared to the selected control population (D02 vs. D04).  Examination of all three treatment groups (D01, D02 and D03) combined compared to D04 revealed nearly the same result (11% vs 21%).

 

Other Safety Analyses-Other safety events have been reported during post-market study of VNS Therapy for Epilepsy (indicated for use as an adjunctive therapy in reducing the frequency of seizures in adults and adolescents over 12 years of age with partial onset seizures which are refractory to antiepileptic medications).  A summary of safety events of VNS Therapy for Epilepsy is provided in Appendix B.  Additionally, a summary of cardiovascular safety events of VNS Therapy for D01, D02, and D03 is provided in Appendix C. 

 

G.   D03 EUROPEAN POST-MARKETING STUDY

Objective-Phase IV European Post-Marketing study.

 

Design-Initially an open label, non-randomized, single-arm, longitudinal study.  The VNS therapy was approved for commercial distribution in the European Union countries on March 6, 2001.  Enrollment and implantation in this study continued as a Phase IV European post-marketing study.

 

Schedule-The D03 study includes an acute treatment phase and long-term follow up phase.  The acute treatment phase has up to a 6-week baseline period during which subjects diagnosed with depression have weekly depression assessment and clinic evaluations performed.  Qualifying subjects proceed with VNS implantation, followed by a two 2 week recovery period.  Subjects are evaluated weekly as both inpatients and outpatients during an acute phase, 8-week stimulation treatment period.  A long-term follow up phase includes evaluations at 6, 9, and 12 months.  Subjects that meet the criteria for response had additional assessments at 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11 months after implantation.  During the acute phase, HAM-D24, CGI, IDS-SR, MADRS, and YMRS assessments were as follows: 2 assessments during baseline, 2 assessments during recovery, 2 assessments during stimulation adjustment, and 5 assessments up until acute phase exit.  During the long-term phase, HAM-D, CGI, and IDS-SR assessments occurred each month for 12 months, and quarterly thereafter.  Also during the long-term phase, MADRS and YMRS assessments occurred at 6, 9, 12 months, and quarterly thereafter.  Quality of life and cost assessments during the long-term phase occurred at 12 months and quarterly thereafter. 

 

Sample Size-The Post-Marketing study plans to implant and treat up to 94 subjects at up to 10 study sites. 

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Subject is diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria derived from SCID; Subject is in a chronic  (>2 years) current major depressive episode and/or has had a history of recurrent MDEs (as least four lifetime MDEs including a current MDE); Subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance) with at least two treatments from different treatment categories during the current MDE (separate treatment categories existing for MDD and BPD); Subject had a score >20 on the HAM-D24; IQ>70 based on investigator’s judgment; >18 and <80 years of age; Subject with BPD had demonstrated a resistance to lithium treatment or had a medical contraindication to treatment with lithium or was know to be intolerant to lithium; Subject had a history of treatment with psychotherapy (current or previous MDE) or at least 6 weeks duration that did not result in a substantial clinical improvement; and subject was stable on current antidepressant medication regimen of <5 antidepressant medication for >4weeks prior to baseline or subject was not taking antidepressant medications for >4 weeks prior to baseline.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Subject met DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression at the time of study entry or subject had ever had psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) in any MDE; Subject had a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorders; Subject with BPD had a history of rapid cycling; subject currently had a secondary diagnosis of, or signs of, delirium, dementia, amnestic, or other cognitive disorders per DSM-IV, subject did not have an acceptable clinical response due to failure (resistance based on ARR score >3) with >7 antidepressant treatments (regardless of category) during the current MDE; suicide attempt within the previous 12 months that required medical treatment, or >2 suicide attempts in the past 12 months, or established plan for suicide during study, or was likely to attempt suicide within 6 months; Subject had a history of myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest; Subject had received general anesthesia within 30 days prior to implantation; Subject had taken an investigational drug or within <4 weeks prior to baseline, whichever longer; Subject had a significant cardiac or pulmonary condition currently under treatment resulting in an ASA score>III; and subject had a demand cardiac pacemaker, implantable defibrillator, or other implantable stimulators.

 

Concomitant Treatment-During the acute phase, antidepressants were allowed (<5) as long as medications were stable.  Antidepressant treatments were to remain stable during the acute phase and subjects were considered protocol violators if these medications were added or increased by one or more increment of the antidepressant resistance rating score.  During the long-term phase, antidepressant treatment changes were allowable.  ECT was not allowed during the acute study phase.  ECT was allowed during the long-term phase.

 

Primary Efficacy Endpoint-Proportion of subjects that respond to VNS therapy.  Response defined as a 50% or more decrease in the HAM-D score from baseline compared to post-treatment (12weeks).

 

Safety Assessments-Safety assessments included collecting all adverse events, serious adverse events, unanticipated adverse device effects, life-threatening adverse events, disability adverse events, treatment emergent adverse events, device complications, and death.

 

Results

Enrollment-As of May 30, 2003, 63 subjects were enrolled into the study, however, six subjects discontinued prior to implantation and 10 subjects have been enrolled but not yet implanted.  47 subjects have been implanted and entered into the acute phase of study.  Of the 47 implanted subjects, 3 subjects are still in the acute phase, 3 subjects withdrew, and 41 subjects have completed the acute phase and entered into the long-term study phase.   Of the 41 subjects who have entered into the long-term study phase, 4 discontinued and 2 died by suicide.  For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Demographics-Not included in submission.

 

Concomitant Treatment-None specified.

 

Protocol Violations-None specified.

 

Safety Outcomes-A total of 13 serious adverse events (events including death, a life threatening event, in-patient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, a persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or a congenital anomaly or birth defect) were reported (N=47 patients reported) during the long-term phase including overdose accidental, accidental injury, suicide (2), bacterial infection, syncope, cholelithiasis, depression (4), pulmonary embolism, kidney pain, and kidney calculus.

 

Efficacy-At the time of the submission, the D03 summary did not include data from all 47 implanted patients.  Data consisted of only 34 subjects from the 3 month period, 19 subjects from the 6 month period, and 17 subjects from the 12 month period.  At 3 months, 14/34 met responder criteria (>50% reduction in HAM-D) and 10/34 met complete responder criteria (<10 at post-treatment).  At 6 months, 8/19 met responder criteria and 7/19 met complete responder criteria.  At 12 months, 7/17 met responder criteria and 5/17 met complete responder criteria.

 

H.   D-05 VIDEOTAPE STUDY

Study D-05 was not an actual clinical study; it was a videotape assessment of the D02 study to examine inter-rater reliability for the depression assessments.

 

I.   D06 SPONSOR-INVESTIGATOR STUDY

Objectives-Pilot study of VNS in Subjects with Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder.

 

Design-Open label, non-randomized, single arm, longitudinal, pilot, feasibility study.

 

Schedule-The study includes a 2 month baseline period, a 2 week implantation and recovery period, a 2 week stimulation period, and a 40 week treatment period.  Following the 40-week treatment phase, subjects can continue to receive quarterly follow-up evaluations for as long as the device is implanted, termination of the study, or an approval decision. 

 

Sample Size-The study plans to enroll up to 30 patients, of which 20 patients will be implanted across two sites. 

 

Key Inclusion Criteria-Subject is diagnosed with rapid cycling bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV diagnosis criteria; Subject has failed or is intolerant to both lithium and valproate, and at least 2 of the following: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine or clozamine; Subject is stable on current psychotropic medication regimen for >4 weeks prior to baseline visit; Subject has been ill at least 50% of the time in the past 1 year as assessed by the Life Charting Method, despite ongoing treatment; IQ>70 based on investigator’s judgment; >18 and <70 years of age; Subject is able to comply with all testing and follow-up visit requirements defined by the study protocol; and Subject has voluntarily signed an informed consent in accordance with institutional policies.

 

Key Exclusion Criteria-Subject has a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorders; Subject currently has a secondary diagnosis of, or signs of, delirium, or delusional disorders; Subject has made a suicide attempt with the previous 12 months that required medical treatment or has made > two suicide attempts in the past 12 months or has a clear cut plan for suicide and states that he/she cannot guarantee that he/she will call his/her psychiatrist or the Investigator if the impulse to implement the plan becomes substantial during the study or is likely to attempt suicide within the next 6 months in the Investigator’s opinion; Subject has had alcohol or substance dependence within the previous 12 months or abuse within the previous six months other than nicotine dependence or abuse; Subject has a history of myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest; Subject has other progressive neurological disease, significant central nervous system disease or injury, or cervical fracture that makes implantation of the device difficult; Subject had received general anesthesia within 30 days prior to enrollment; Subject had taken an investigational drug  within a clearance duration of five times the half-life of the investigational drug or within >4 weeks prior to baseline, whichever time period is greater; Subject is currently enrolled in another investigational treatment study; Subject is currently using another investigational device; Subject has a significant cardiac or pulmonary condition currently under treatment resulting in an ASA score>III; Subject has a history of or evidence of significant brain malformation or significant head injury or clinically apparent cerebral vascular events, or prior brain surgery such as cingulotomy; Subject has a demand cardiac pacemaker, implantable defibrillator, or other implantable stimulators; Subject is likely to require a whole body MRI after implantation; Subject plans to relocate or move to a location distant from the Study site within 1 year of enrollment; or Subject was previously enrolled in this or another VNS study.

 

Concomitant Treatment-Regarding mood disorder treatments, psychotropic medications must be stable for at least 4 weeks prior to the baseline visit.  If medications are changed during this period, baseline visits are repeated after medications are stable for at least 4 weeks.  All other psychiatric treatments should remain stable and should not be added during the study.  Regarding concomitant medications such as antibiotics, decongestants, or analgesics given for acute mild intercurrent illnesses are allowed.  Investigational drugs or devices for any indication are not allowed during the study.  ECT is not allowed during the study.  Any patient that receives ECT during the acute study is a protocol violator.

 

Primary Efficacy Endpoint-The Life Chart will be used to prospectively evaluate the amount of time ill and overall severity of illness by using an area under the curve analysis.  The YMRS and MADRS will assess mania and depression symptoms over time.  Analyses will use random regression techniques to evaluate relative change on the above measures over the course of the study.  The term will be standard random regression equations.  The slope will be derived by taking clinical ratings on the YMRS and MADRS across multiple visits.  If there is overall improvement there will be a negative number reflecting a monthly decrease in rating scales.  The significance of this term will show whether subjects improve at a faster rate on treatment.

 

Safety Assessments-The statistical assessment of safety of the patients will include analysis of the incidence of adverse events as well as an analysis of laboratory data.  Adverse events will be tabulated and/or analyzed, including both within each separate body system as well as across body systems.  Data from all visits will be considered.

 

Results

Enrollment-As of October, 2003, 11 subjects were enrolled.  However, 4 subjects discontinued prior to implant.  7 subjects have been implanted. For additional information on patient enrollment, see APPENDIX A.

 

Demographics-Not reported.

 

Concomitant Treatment-Not reported.

 

Safety Outcomes-A total of 7 serious adverse events were reported after implantation including suicide, suicide attempt, depression (worsening depression), depression (depression/Anxiety), suicide attempt, suicide attempt, and manic reaction (exacerbation of mania).  One death was reported; one subject was reported to have committed suicide approximately 6 months following VNS therapy stimulation.

 

Efficacy-2 subjects completed the study.  The study is on-going.


V.   Summary of Evidence of Safety and Effectiveness

 

A.   Introduction

Pilot D01 outcomes led to the development of the pivotal D02 clinical study, a pivotal study that included an acute phase, double-blind, randomized, sham treatment controlled study with treatment resistant depression, followed by an open label, long-term phase.  The randomized, controlled study failed.  The Sponsor continued the pivotal D02 study and employed a non-significant risk, long-term (D04) study for purposes of comparing patient outcomes (who received standard of care) to D02 patient outcomes (who received VNS therapy and standard of care).  The comparative analysis was not derived from a randomized subject data set.  A propensity adjustment strategy was incorporated to control for the effect of any differences in measured baseline characteristics.

 

B. Safety Data

Lack of systematically collected safety data in the observational control study, for comparison to the investigational study is an issue in determining whether the clinical data in P970003/S050 provide reasonable assurance that the device is safe. 

 

C.   Efficacy Data

FDA has identified several concerns regarding whether the clinical data in P970003/S050 provides reasonable assurance that VNS is effective.  FDA concerns include (a) a failed, randomized, controlled study, (b) placebo effects during the D02 study, (c) use of concomitant treatments with VNS, and (d) unmeasured patient variables.  Each concern is further discussed below.

 

(a)  A Failed Randomized, Controlled Study-The primary efficacy endpoint for the D02 study was the percent responders based on the HAM-D score from baseline to acute phase exit in the evaluable population (Section IV, C-The Pivotal Study D02).  Of the 111 observed treatment group subjects, 17 (15%) were responders at acute phase exit (Visit 9), compared with 11 of 110 observed sham treatment control subjects (10%).  The number of responders in the treatment group was not significantly greater (p=0.238) than the number of responders in the sham treatment control subjects (Table 11). 

 

 

The LOCF analysis of responders in the treatment group was also not significantly greater (p=0.251) than the number of responders in the sham treatment control.  This study did not demonstrate effectiveness of VNS therapy.

 

(b)  The Placebo Effect-Published literature acknowledges the importance of placebo controls in mood disorder studies (Baldwin et al., 2003; Charney et al., 2002; Fritze and Moller, 2001; Walsh et al., 2002).  The first consensus statement reported from the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association Consensus panel indicates patients with mood disorders have inherently high placebo response rates, and without a placebo (control), most study findings are difficult to interpret (Charney et al., 2002).  The Sponsor provided additional information to support the D02, D04 comparative data in support of effectiveness.  The Sponsor noted literature (Thase and Rush, 2000) reporting placebo responses rates in treatment resistant depression between 0-10%.  The Sponsor reported that placebo responses occur early during treatment and diminish rapidly (Quitkin et al., 1987).  The Sponsor also noted that improvement attributable to a potential placebo response in the acute phase was diminished when baseline scores were reset (‘rebaselining’ the sham treatment control population), and claims that placebo responses lasting for the duration of long-term follow-up were unlikely. 

 

Data provided in PMA 970003/S050 identified the following:

 

 

Quitkin et al. (1987) provides evidence contrary to the Sponsor’s claims that placebo effects characteristically occurs early in treatment and diminishes rapidly.  The placebo effect in sham treatment control subjects was also at least 10%, the maximum anticipated 0-10% placebo response rate for treatment resistant depression as reported in Thase and Rush (2000).  Patient expectation of participating in an investigational study for a new therapy (D02 study) may have also been greater than the expectation of participating in a control study as noted in the discussion on enrollment on p27 of this review memo.  Lastly, periodic adjustments to VNS stimulation during the course of long-term treatment may have precipitated subsequent placebo responses, thus prolonging a placebo effect during long-term follow-up.

 

(c) Use of Concomitant Treatments-Both D02 (long-term phase) and D04 permitted the use of concomitant antidepressant treatment.  The primary efficacy analysis between D02 and D04 outcomes reported a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) in the estimated IDS-SR raw scores per month between D02 and D04 at 12 months (-0.397 estimated average difference per month). If a subject added or increased a concomitant antidepressant treatment (medication or ECT), and their subsequent IDS-SR scores were not used (a censored analysis employing a last-observation-carried-forward approach), the difference observed in the estimated IDS-SR raw scores per month between the D02 and D04 was not statistically significantly different (p>0.05) from standard of care (Table 2).

 

 

Similarly, all categorical clinical outcomes (responder, complete responder) based on the HAM-D and the responder categorical clinical outcomes based on the IDS-SR, failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between VNS therapy and standard of care.

 

(d) Patient Variables-A chief limitation of the long-term D02, D04 comparative analysis is that the data are not derived from a randomized subject data set, but rather a comparison of outcomes from an investigational device study and observational control study.  A propensity adjustment strategy was used to reduce potential bias (i.e., patient characteristics, disease characteristics) in the comparative analysis. This type of strategy is not able to address the problems of potential bias due to other unmeasured patient variables (e.g., past thyroid dysfunction, neurotic pre-morbid personality, familial predisposition for affective disorder, multiple loss events, or socio-cultural level). 

 

 

Data provided in a Major Deficiency response letter suggested the impact of unmeasured patient variables on the outcomes between D02 and D04 were minimal due to the D02 inclusion/exclusion criteria, overlapping study sites, comparison of measured covariates, and the results of the propensity analysis (D02 and D04 were well matched and the differences between groups had little effect on the comparative analyses and subsequent outcomes).  In addition, the claim that comorbid personality disorder did not affect overall treatment response (Mulder et al., 2002) was reported. 

 

Although the Sponsor reported how many D02 and D04 patients had taken thyroid medication, the Sponsor did not provide any information upon unmeasured patient variables including past thyroid dysfunction, familial predisposition for affective disorder, multiple loss events, and socio-cultural level.  In a review of Mulder et al, 2002, and the effects of specific personality traits and axis II diagnoses on outcomes in clinical trials of depression treatment, the study reported that in well controlled, randomized trials with short outcome measures (6-12 weeks), there was no correlation between treatment effect and personality disorder.  In contrast, almost all of the long term (12 month follow-up) studies referenced in Mulder et al. (2002) found the presence of high neuroticism to be predictive of worse outcome. These conclusions demonstrate two important points. The first is the power of a randomized, controlled trial to better account for differences in co-variables and the second that the presence of certain personality traits can be predicative of worse outcome, and thus should be measured and controlled for particularly in longer-term studies. It should also be noted, there were important patient variables that were significantly different between D02 and D04, such as ECT use.  Although these patient variables were included in the analyses, there still could have been other important differences not captured in the analyses.


VI.    Conclusions

The management of treatment resistant depression is a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Many such patients continue to lack adequate treatment options.  However, any proposed mood disorder therapy would need to have evidence to establish efficacy and safety.    

 

FDA has proposed the following questions to the Advisory Panel.

 

1.      A chief limitation of the long-term D02, D04 comparative analysis is that the data are not derived from a randomized subject data set, but rather a comparison of outcomes from an investigational device study and observational control study.  A propensity adjustment strategy was used to reduce potential bias (i.e., patient characteristics, disease characteristics) in the comparative analysis. This type of strategy is not able to address the problems of potential bias due to other unmeasured patient variables (e.g., past thyroid dysfunction, neurotic pre-morbid personality, familial predisposition for affective disorder, multiple loss events, or socio-cultural level).  Please discuss the impact of a comparative analysis of non-randomized subject data, comparison of outcomes from an investigational study and observational study, and unmeasured patient variables upon efficacy outcomes in the PMA.

 

2.      The Sponsor believes D02 long-term outcomes are not due to a placebo effect.  Data provided in the PMA includes a placebo effect rate (20%) in sham-treatment control subjects (21/106) at acute phase exit (12 weeks) as defined by a HAM-D score less than 18.  Patient expectation of participating in an investigational study for a new therapy (D02 study) may have also been greater than the expectation of participating in an observational, control study.  Please discuss the placebo effect and impact upon clinical outcomes presented in the PMA.

 

3.      Concomitant medications and ECT use were not standardized in either the D02 long-term study or the D04 observational, control study.  Please discuss the impact of concomitant medications and ECT use on interpretation of the efficacy of VNS therapy for treatment resistant depression. 

 

4.      21 CFR 860.7(d)(1) states that there is a reasonable assurance that the device is safe when it can be determined that the probable benefits to health from use of the device for its intended uses, when accompanied by adequate instructions for use and warnings against unsafe use, outweigh any probable risks.  Do the clinical data in P970003/S050 provide reasonable assurance that the device is safe?

5.      21 CFR 860.7(e)(1) states that there is a reasonable assurance that a device is effective when it can be determined, based on valid scientific evidence, that in a significant portion of the target population, the use of the device for its intended uses and conditions of use, when accompanied by adequate directions for use and warnings against unsafe use, will produce clinically significant results.  Considering your responses to questions 1, 2, and 3, do the clinical data in P970003/S050 provide reasonable assurance that the device is effective?


VI.   REFERENCES

Altshuler et al., Antidepressant-induced mania and cycle acceleration: A controversy revisited. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1995; 152:1130-1138.

 

Baldwin et al., Placebo-controlled studies in depression: Necessary, ethical, and feasible. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 2003; 253:22-28.

 

Biggs et al., A comparison of alternative assessments of depressive symptom severity: A pilot study. Psychiatry Res, 2000, 95(1):55-65.

 

Charney et al., National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association Consensus Statement on the Use of Placebo in Clinical Trials of Mood Disorders.  Arch Gen Psych, 2002 Mar; 59:262-270.

 

Fritze and Moller, Design of Clinical Trials of Antidepressants. CNS Drugs. 2001; 15(10): 755-764.

 

Ghaemi et al., Antidepressant treatment in bipolar versus unipolar depression. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2004, 161:163-165.

 

Guillion and Rush, Toward a generalizable model of symptoms in major depressive disorder. Biology Psychiatry, 1998; 44(10):959-72.

 

Harden et al., A Pilot Study of Mood in Epilepsy Patients Treated with Vagus Nerve Stimulation.  Epilepsy Behav. 2000 Apr; 1(2): 93-99.

 

Henry, Therapeutic mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation. Neurology, 2002; 59(Supp4):S3-S14.

 

Henry et al., Antidepressant-induced mania in bipolar patients: Identification of Risk Factors. J. Clin Psychiatry, 2001; 62:249-255.

 

Khan et al., Symptom reduction and suicide risk in patients treated with placebo in antidepressant clinical trials. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2000; 57:311-317.

 

Peet, Induction of mania with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1994; 164:549-550.

 

Quitkin et al., Use of pattern analysis to identify true drug response. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1987; 44:259-264.

 

Rush et al., One-Year Clinical Outcomes of Depressed Public Sector Outpatients: A Benchmark for Subsequent Studies.  In press, Biological Psychiatry.

 

Rush et al., The inventory of depressive symptomatology (IDS): Psychometric properties. Psychol Med, 1996; 26(3):477-86.

 

Souery et al., Treatment Resistant Depression: Methodological Overview and Operational Criteria. Eur Neuropsych 1999; 9:83-91.

 

Thase and Rush, Treatment-resistant depression. Psychpharmacology, 1995; Chapter 92:1081-1097.

 

Walsh et al., Placebo Response in Studies of Major Depression.  JAMA, 2002 Apr; 287(14): 1840-1847.


APPENDIX A: PATIENT ENROLLMENT

D01 Pivotal Study

Table 1: D01 Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

90

Actual Enrollment

71

      Discontinued pre-Implant

11

Implanted

60

Acute Phase

60

     Discontinued Acute Phase

1

(still included

 long-term)

End of Acute Phase

59

Long-term Phase

60

     Discontinued Long-term Phase

6

     Deaths

2

End of Long-term Phase

52

Evaluable Subjects

60

 

D02 Pivotal Study (Acute Phase)

Table 2a: D02 Acute Phase Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

275

Actual Enrollment

266

      Discontinued pre-Implant

 31

Implanted

235

Acute Phase

 

     Discontinued Acute Phase

13*

(See table below)

End of Acute Phase

222

Randomized Subjects

222

     Treatment Group

112

     Sham-Control Group

110

13* Subjects Not Evaluable in Acute Phase

 

 

Total

 

Reasons

 

Did not meet Visit 2 continuation criteria

4

Protocol Violators

9

Total

13


D02 Pivotal Study (Long-term Phase)

Table 2b: D02 Long-term Phase Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

275

Actual Enrollment

266

      Discontinued pre-Implant

31

Implanted

235

Acute Phase

235

     Discontinued Acute Phase

2

End of Acute Phase

233

Long-term Phase

233

     Not Evaluable

28*

 (See table below)

Evaluable Subjects

205

     Not 12 Month completers

28**

12 Month Completer Subjects

177

28* Subjects Discontinued in Long-term Phase

 

Delayed-Treatment

 

Treatment

 

Total

 

Reasons

Number of Subjects

Number of Subjects

 

No efficacy (assessments) data collected at any long-term visit

0

4

4

Did not meet acute phase continuation criteria

0

3

3

Did not have an acute exit HRSD24 score ≥ 18 (if in the delayed treatment (sham-control) group

21

0

21

Total

21

7

28

28** Subjects who did not complete 12 months of study

Reason

 

Not 12 Month Completers

28


D03 European Study

Table 3: D03 Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

94

Actual Enrollment

63

      Discontinued pre-Implant

6

      Waiting to be implanted

10

Implanted

47

Acute Phase

47

     Discontinued Acute Phase

3

     Still enrolled in Acute Phase

3

End of Acute Phase

41

Long-term Phase

41

     Discontinued Long-term Phase

4

     Suicide

2

End of Long-term Phase

35

Evaluable Subjects

35

 

D04 Open Label Study

Table 4: D04 Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

130

Actual Enrollment

138

      Discontinued

11

      Baseline data only

3

Evaluable Subjects

124

     Not 12 Month completers

12

12 Month Completer Subjects

112

 

D05 Study

The D05 study is a videotape assessment of the D02 study subjects used to examine inter-rater reliability for depression assessments.

 


D06 Study

Table 5: D06 Subject Tracking

Target Enrollment

30

Actual Enrollment

11

      Discontinued pre-Implant

4

Implanted

7

Acute Phase

7

      Discontinued Acute Phase

2

      Still enrolled in Acute Phase

2

      Suicide

1

End of Acute Phase

2

Long-term Phase

2

End of Long-term Phase

2

Evaluable Subjects

2


APPENDIX B: SAFETY REVIEW-VNS THERAPY FOR EPILEPSY

Indications for Use

The VNS Therapy System is indicated for use as an adjunctive therapy in reducing the frequency of seizures in adults and adolescents over 12 years of age with partial onset seizures which are refractory to antiepileptic medications. 

 

Safety Profile of VNS during the Clinical Trial

The following tables of adverse events are based on the five clinical studies performed using the VNS system on patients with partial onset seizures which are refractory to antiepileptic medications.   EO1 and EO2 were pilot studies.  EO3 and EO5 were randomized controlled studies; the patients were randomized to a high stimulation group which was considered to be an active treatment versus a low stimulation group which was considered to be a sham treatment; after 3 months of treatment all patients received active treatment.   EO4 was a compassionate use study in which patients who did not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the randomized trials could receive treatment for their partial onset seizures which are refractory to antiepileptic medications. 

Table 1. Treatment Emergent AE’s By Severity

 

AE’s Reported During Baseline and Stimulation

Treatment Emergent AE’s by Severity (% of reports)

Adverse Event

E05 HIGH Group

Severity Ratings

 

Baseline A

Treatment A

p value c

Mild

Moderate

Severe

Cough

28.4%

52.6%

.0001

74%

23%

3%

Dyspepsia

5.3%

21.1%

.0011

76%

24%

0%

Dyspnea

4.2%

27.4%

<.0001

46%

54%

0%

Hypesthesia

0.0%

5.3%

.0253

100%

0%

0%

Infection

4.2%

14.7%

.0184

70%

30%

7%

Insomnia

1.1%

5.3%

.0455

75%

25%

0%

Pain, Nonspecific

20.0%

33.7%

.0124

63%

33%

4%

Paresthesia

1.1%

24.2%

<.0001

82%

18%

0%

Throat Pain & Laryngismus/Pharyngitis

15.8%

42.1%

<.0001

55%

43%

2%

Voice Alteration/Hoarseness

6.3%

72.6%

<.0001

73%

27%

0%

Vomiting

8.4%

17.9%

.0389

76%

24%

0%

AE’s that are >10% in E05 HIGH stimulation group and were statistically significantly different from baseline are included.

 

Since the E03 and E05 Studies were active controlled studies as opposed to the traditional placebo controlled studies, a comparison of adverse events to baseline is required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the differential effects of VNS therapy.  A within group analysis of AEs for both HIGH and LOW groups in the E03 and E05 Studies in comparison to baseline AE rates is shown in the table above.  Ninety nine percent of the side effects were rated as mild or moderate.

Table 2.  Treatment Emergent Signs and Symptoms (>2%)

Study Number

E01

E02

E04

E03

E05

XE01 04

XE5

Group

 

 

 

HIGH 1

LOW 2

HIGH

LOW

1 YR

2 YR

9 MO

N

11

5

123

57

57

95

103

244

166

41

BODY AS A WHOLE

Asthenia

 

 

 

 

 

7.4

1.9

 

 

12.2

Chills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Cyst

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

1.0

 

 

4.9

Edema Face

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

2.4

Fever

 

 

7.3

3.5

1.8

11.6

18.4

0.8

1.2

2.4

Flu Syndrome

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

3.9

 

 

2.4

Headache

60

20

8.9

5.3

7.0

24.2

23.3

4.5

1.8

17.1

Infection

 

 

 

3.5

3.5

11.6

11.7

2.1

1.2

4.9

Injury Accident

 

 

5.7

 

 

12.6

12.6

2.1

1.2

14.6

Malaise

 

 

 

 

 

1.0

0.0

 

 

4.9

Overdose

 

 

 

 

 

0

2.9

 

 

 

Pain

30

 

 

8.8

1.8

28.4

30.1

0.4

1.2

31.7

Pain Abdominal

20

 

4.1

3.5

3.5

6.3

6.8

2.1

0

9.8

Pain Back

 

 

 

0

1.8

0

3.9

0

0

9.8

Pain Chest

20

 

 

1.8

0

9.5

12.6

0.8

0

4.9

Pain Neck

30

 

 

 

 

3.2

1.0

 

 

4.9

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Arrhythmia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

0

2.4

Arrhythmia Vent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Fibrillate Atria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Hemorrhage

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

3.9

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

4.2

1.0

0

0

7.3

Phlebitis

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

0

 

 

 

Tachycardia

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

2.9

0.4

0

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Appetite Increase

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anorexia

10

 

 

 

 

1.1

1.9

1.2

0

4.9

Constipation

 

20

2.4

0

0

2.1

7.8

0.4

0

2.5

Diarrhea

20

 

4.1

3.5

0

6.3

24.3

1.2

1.2

12.2

Dyspepsia

 

 

 

 

 

17.9

12.6

 

 

9.8

Dysphagia

20

60

4.9

3.5

0

2.1

6.8

2.1

1.2

2.4

Gingivitis

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.9

 

 

 

Nausea

10

 

2.4

7.0

1.8

14.7

20.4

0.8

1.2

2.4

Vomit

10

 

4.9

0

1.8

17.9

13.6

1.6

1.8

4.9

HEMIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Anemia

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

2.4

Ecchymosis

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

3.9

 

 

7.3

METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS

Cyanosis

 

 

 

 

 

0

2.9

 

 

 

Edema

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

6.8

 

 

2.5

Edema Periph

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

2.4

Weight Decrease

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

2.9

 

 

2.4

MUSCULO SKELETAL SYSTEM

Arthralgia

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.0

0.4

0

 

Bone Fract Spontan

 

 

 

 

 

5.3

2.9

 

 

4.9

Myalgia

30

 

6.5

 

 

2.1

1.0

1.2

0

4.9

Myasthenia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Agitation

 

 

 

0

1.8

1.1

2.9

1.6

0

 

Anxiety

10

 

 

 

 

1.1

1.0

 

 

2.4

Ataxia

10

 

 

0

0

4.2

3.9

0.4

0.6

9.8

Coordination Abnormality

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Convulsions

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

3.9

 

 

 

Depression

10

 

0.8

1.8

1.8

3.2

0

0

0.6

12.2

Diplopia

 

 

 

 

 

5.3

2.9

0.4

0.6

 

Dizziness

 

 

 

0

3.5

5.3

3.9

3.3

0.6

4.9

Dream Abnormality

10

 

 

 

 

1.1

0.0

 

 

 

Emotional liability

 

 

2.4

 

 

1.1

1.9

1.2

0

 

Euphoria

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gait Abnorm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Hallucin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.4

0

2.4

Hostility

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

1.0

 

 

2.4

Hypesthesia

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

0

 

 

2.4

Insomnia

10

20

2.4

5.3

1.8

4.2

4.9

0

0.6

2.4

Movement Dis

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

0.0

 

 

2.4

Neuralgia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Nervousness

 

 

3.3

 

 

1.1

1.9

1.6

0

2.4

Neurosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Paresthesia

 

 

5.7

5.3

3.5

17.9

25.2

0.8

2.4

41.5

Person Disorder

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

0.0

 

 

2.4

Somnolence

 

 

 

5.3

3.5

2.1

1.9

1.2

0

2.4

Tremor

 

 

2.4

1.8

1.8

3.2

2.9

0

1.2

2.4

Twitch

50

20

3.3

1.8

0

3.2

1.0

0.8

0

9.8

Vertigo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Asthma

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

3.9

 

 

2.4

Cough Increased

 

 

17.1

8.8

8.8

45.3

42.7

2.9

3.0

17.1

Dyspnea

30

20

3.2

7.0

0

25.3

10.7

2.5

0

9.8

Hiccup

10

 

 

 

 

3.2

0

 

 

 

Hyperventilate

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.0

 

 

 

Laryngismus

 

 

 

 

 

7.4

1.0

 

 

2.4

Lung disorder

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

3.9

 

 

4.9

Pharyngitis

10

40

4.9

12.3

10.5

34.7

25.2

4.1

1.2

19.5

Respiratory Disorder

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

0

 

 

 

Rhinitis

 

 

11.4

0

3.5

7.4

14.6

1.6

1.2

4.9

Sinusitis

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

2.9

 

 

4.9

Voice Alteration

100

80

13

36.8

10.5

66.3

30.1

7.8

5.4

75.6

SKIN AND APPENDAGES

Application Site Reaction

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

2.9

 

 

2.4

Alopecia

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

2.4

Pruritis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.9

Rash

10

 

 

 

 

5.3

1.9

0

0

4.9

Rash Vesis Bull

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.0

 

 

 

SPECIAL SENSES

Amblyopia

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.9

0.4

0.6

 

Conjunctivitis

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

1.0

 

 

2.4

Glaucoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Pain Ear

 

20

 

0

1.8

4.2

3.9

1.2

0.6

 

Parosmia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

Taste Pervers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

0

2.4

Tinnitus

 

 

 

3.5

1.8

4.2

5.8

0

0

 

UROGENITAL SYSTEM

Dysmenorrhea

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

3.9

 

 

 

Dysuria

 

 

 

 

 

0

2.9

0.4

0

 

Hematuria

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

2.4

Incontin Urine

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

0.0

 

 

2.4

Infection, Urin Tract

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

6.8

 

 

 

Menstrual Disorder

 

 

 

3.5

0

1.1

0

0

0

 

Merorrhagia

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

1.9

 

 

 

Urination Frequency

 

 

 

 

 

0.0

1.0

 

 

4.9

1 = HIGH  Stimulation parameters generally believed to provide maximum efficacy

2 = LOW  Stimulation parameters generally believed to provide sensation of stimulation but less effective.

 

Deaths And Other Serious Adverse Events

A total of 17 deaths have been reported in 950 clinical and commercial patients followed for 1650 patient years.  Nine deaths were judged to be possible/probable/definite Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP).  Additionally, one patient died of SUDEP during the pre-implant baseline period, and two patients have died after discontinuation of treatment.  Based on the 17 deaths, there was a mortality of 10.3/1000 patient-years and a SUDEP incidence of 3.0/1000 patient-years for definite/probable and 5 for definite/probable/possible SUDEPs.

Table 3.  Deaths and Other Serious Adverse Events

Study

N

No. of Deaths 1

Other Serious AEs

E01

11

0

1  vocal cord paralysis due to surgery, resolved.

E02

5

0

0

E03

114

1  preimplant

1  vocal cord paralysis, permanent, device failure
 1   infection, hospitalization complete recovery
1    MI

E04

123

0

2  Infections; 1  hospitalization for transient increase in seizures; 1 poor appetite; 1  fever; 1  coughing.

E05

198

0

Surgery & device related  3 infections which ultimately were explanted; 1 vocal cord paralysis; 1 left facial paralysis; 1 post operative fever; 1 localization of fluid around generator; and 1 left recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. 

Therapy related: 1 near syncope; 1 Cheyenne Stokes respiration, and 1 bleeding duodenal ulcer.

XE14

229

7