Science & Research

Selected FDA Publications Related to the Application, Characterization, Effects, and Evaluation of Nanotechnology

The FDA regulatory science program is completing work to foster the responsible development of FDA-regulated products that may contain nanomaterials or otherwise involve the application of nanotechnology. The program establishes the tools, methods, and data to assist in regulatory decision-making, while also providing in-house scientific expertise and capacity that is responsive to nanotechnology-related FDA-regulated products. The publications listed here reflect the scope of work being conducted in FDA laboratories and in collaboration with United States Government Agencies and academia.


Agrawal, A.; Pfefer, T. J.; Gilani, N.; Drezek, R. Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom. Opt. Lett 2010, 35 (13), 2269-2271.

Biris, A. R.; Mahmood, M.; Lazar, M. D.; Dervishi, E.; Watanabe, F.; Mustafa, T.; Baciut, G.; Baciut, M.; Bran, S.; Ali, S.; Biris, A. S. Novel Multicomponent and Biocompatible Nanocomposite Materials Based on Few-Layer Graphenes Synthesized on a Gold/Hydroxyapatite Catalytic System with Applications in Bone Regeneration. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115 (39), 18967-18976.

Dong, J. L.; Song, L. N.; Yin, J. J.; He, W. W.; Wu, Y. H.; Gu, N.; Zhang, Y. Co3O4 Nanoparticles with Multi-Enzyme Activities and Their Application in Immunohistochemical Assay. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (3), 1959-1970.

Duncan, T. V. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. J Colloid. Interface. Sci 2011, 363 (1), 1-24.

Fan, J.; Yin, J. J.; Ning, B.; Wu, X.; Hu, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Anderson, G. J.; Wei, J.; Zhao, Y.; Nie, G. Direct evidence for catalase and peroxidase activities of ferritin-platinum nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2011, 32 (6), 1611-1618.

Fan, Z.; Fu, P. P.; Yu, H.; Ray, P. C. Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 3-17.

Fu, P. P. Introduction to the Special Issue: Nanomaterials Toxicology and medical applications. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 1-2.

He, W. W.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, J. S.; Yin, J. J.; Wu, X. C.; Hu, X. N.; Zhang, K.; Liu, J. B.; Chen, C. Y.; Ji, Y. L.; Guo, Y. T. Au@Pt nanostructures as oxidase and peroxidase mimetics for use in immunoassays. Biomaterials 2011, 32 (4), 1139-1147.

He, W.; Kim, H. K.; Wamer, W. G.; Melka, D.; Callahan, J. H.; Yin, J. J. Photogenerated Charge Carriers and Reactive Oxygen Species in ZnO/Au Hybrid Nanostructures with Enhanced Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activity. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 136 (2), 750-757.

Hong, J. S.; Stavis, S. M.; DePaoli Lacerda, S. H.; Locascio, L. E.; Raghavan, S. R.; Gaitan, M. Microfluidic directed self-assembly of liposome-hydrogel hybrid nanoparticles. Langmuir 2010, 26 (13), 11581-11588.

Jennings, T. L.; Becker-Catania, S. G.; Triulzi, R. C.; Tao, G.; Scott, B.; Sapsford, K. E.; Spindel, S.; Oh, E.; Jain, V.; Delehanty, J. B.; Prasuhn, D. E.; Boeneman, K.; Algar, W. R.; Medintz, I. L. Reactive semiconductor nanocrystals for chemoselective biolabeling and multiplexed analysis. ACS. Nano 2011, 5 (7), 5579-5593.

Kamikawa, T. L.; Mikolajczyk, M. G.; Kennedy, M.; Zhang, P.; Wang, W.; Scott, D. E.; Alocilja, E. C. Nanoparticle-based biosensor for the detection of emerging pandemic influenza strains. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2010, 26 (4), 1346-1352.

Kamikawa, T. L.; Mikolajczyk, M. G.; Kennedy, M.; Lilin, Z.; Pei, Z.; Setterington, E. B.; Scott, D. E.; Alocilja, E. C. Pandemic Influenza Detection by Electrically Active Magnetic Nanoparticles and Surface Plasmon Resonance. Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on 2012, 11 (1), 88-96.

Karanian, J. W.; Peregoy, J. A.; Chiesa, O. A.; Murray, T. L.; Ahn, C.; Pritchard, W. F. Efficiency of drug delivery to the coronary arteries in swine is dependent on the route of administration: assessment of luminal, intimal, and adventitial coronary artery and venous delivery methods. J Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 2010, 21 (10), 1555-1564.

Karmakar, A.; Iancu, C.; Bartos, D. M.; Mahmood, M. W.; Ghosh, A.; Xu, Y.; Dervishi, E.; Collom, S. L.; Khodakovskaya, M.; Mustafa, T.; Watanabe, F.; Biris, A. R.; Zhang, Y.; Ali, S. F.; Casciano, D.; Hassen, S.; Nima, Z.; Biris, A. S. Raman spectroscopy as a detection and analysis tool for in vitro specific targeting of pancreatic cancer cells by EGF-conjugated, single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Appl. Toxicol 2012, 32 (5), 365-375.

Liang, X. J.; Meng, H.; Wang, Y.; He, H.; Meng, J.; Lu, J.; Wang, P. C.; Zhao, Y.; Gao, X.; Sun, B.; Chen, C.; Xing, G.; Shen, D.; Gottesman, M. M.; Wu, Y.; Yin, J. J.; Jia, L. Metallofullerene nanoparticles circumvent tumor resistance to cisplatin by reactivating endocytosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U. S. A. 2010, 107 (16), 7449-7454.

Liu, J. B.; Hu, X. N.; Hou, S.; Wen, T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhu, X.; Yin, J. J.; Wu, X. C. Au@Pt core/shell nanorods with peroxidase- and ascorbate oxidase-like activities for improved detection of glucose. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical 2012, 166, 708-714.

Mahmood, M.; Xu, Y.; Dantuluri, V.; Mustafa, T.; Zhang, Y.; Karmakar, A.; Casciano, D.; Ali, S.; Biris, A. Carbon nanotubes enhance the internalization of drugs by cancer cells and decrease their chemoresistance to cytostatics. Nanotechnology. 2013,  24 (4), 045102.

Mossoba, M. M.; Al-Khaldi, S. F.; Schoen, B.; Yakes, B. J. Nanoparticle probes and mid-infrared chemical imaging for DNA microarray detection. Appl. Spectrosc. 2010, 64 (11), 1191-1198.

Mossoba, M. M.; Chizhikov, V.; Volokhov, D. V.; Martinez-Diaz, M. K.; Schoen, B.; Al-Khaldi, S. F. Identification of Mycoplasmas using a fluorophore-free microarray and infrared chemical imaging (IRCI). J Microbiol. Methods 2011, 86 (3), 383-386.

Narayan, R.; Goering, P. Laser micro- and nanofabrication of biomaterials. MRS Bulletin 2011, 36 (12), 973-982.

Ray, P. C.; Yu, H.; Fu, P. P. Nanogold-based sensing of environmental toxins: excitement and challenges. J Environ Sci Health C. Environ Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 2011,  29 (1), 52-89.

Sapsford, K. E.; Spindel, S.; Jennings, T.; Tao, G.; Triulzi, R. C.; Algar, W. R.; Medintz, I. L. Optimizing two-color semiconductor nanocrystal immunoassays in single well microtiter plate formats. Sensors. (Basel. ) 2011, 11 (8), 7879-7891.

Sharma, H. S.; Ali, S. F.; Dong, W.; Tian, Z. R.; Patnaik, R.; Patnaik, S.; Sharma, A.; Boman, A.; Lek, P.; Seifert, E.; Lundstedt, T. Drug delivery to the spinal cord tagged with nanowire enhances neuroprotective efficacy and functional recovery following trauma to the rat spinal cord. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 2007, 1122 , 197-218.

Sharma, H. S.; Ali, S. F.; Tian, Z. R.; Patnaik, R.; Patnaik, S.; Sharma, A.; Boman, A.; Lek, P.; Seifert, E.; Lundstedt, T. Nanowired-drug delivery enhances neuroprotective efficacy of compounds and reduces spinal cord edema formation and improves functional outcome following spinal cord injury in the rat. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 2010, 106, 343-350.

Sun, S.; Yang, M.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. ELISA-LOC: lab-on-a-chip for enzyme-linked immunodetection. Lab. Chip.  2010, 10 (16), 2093-2100.

Tang, S.; Zhao, J.; Storhoff, J. J.; Norris, P. J.; Little, R. F.; Yarchoan, R.; Stramer, S. L.; Patno, T.; Domanus, M.; Dhar, A.; Mirkin, C. A.; Hewlett, I. K. Nanoparticle-Based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) for sensitive and early detection of human immunodeficiency type 1 capsid (p24) antigen. J Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. 2007, 46 (2), 231-237.

Tang, S.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Viswanath, R.; Harma, H.; Little, R. F.; Yarchoan, R.; Stramer, S. L.; Nyambi, P. N.; Lee, S.; Wood, O.; Wong, E. Y.; Wang, X.; Hewlett, I. K. Characterization of immune responses to capsid protein p24 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and implications for detection. Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 2010, 17 (8), 1244-1251.

Tang, S.; Hewlett, I. Nanoparticle-based immunoassays for sensitive and early detection of HIV-1 capsid (p24) antigen. J Infect. Dis 2010, 201 Suppl 1, S59-S64.

Teeparuksapun, K.; Hedstrom, M.; Wong, E. Y.; Tang, S.; Hewlett, I. K.; Mattiasson, B. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen using nanofunctionalized surfaces in a capacitive immunosensor. Anal. Chem  2010, 82 (20), 8406-8411.

Trickler, W. J.; Munt, D. J.; Jain, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Dash, A. K. Antitumor efficacy, tumor distribution and blood pharmacokinetics of chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate nanostructures containing paclitaxel. Nanomedicine. (Lond. ) 2011, 6 (3), 437-448.

Xu, Y.; Karmakar, A.; Heberlein, W. E.; Mustafa, T.; Biris, A. R.; Biris, A. S. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for synergistic enhancement of cancer treatment by combinatorial radio frequency thermolysis and drug delivery. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2012, 1 (4), 493-501.

Xu, Y.; Karmakar, A.; Wang, D.; Mahmood, M. W.; Watanabe, F.; Zhang, Y.; Fejleh, A.; Fejleh, P.; Li, Z.; Kannarpady, G.; Ali, S.; Biris, A. R.; Biris, A. S. Multifunctional Fe3O4 Cored Magnetic-Quantum Dot Fluorescent Nanocomposites for RF Nanohyperthermia of Cancer Cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114 (11), 5020-5026.

Yang, M.; Kostov, Y.; Bruck, H. A.; Rasooly, A. Carbon nanotubes with enhanced chemiluminescence immunoassay for CCD-based detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B in food. Anal. Chem 2008, 80 (22), 8532-8537.

Yang, M.; Kostov, Y.; Bruck, H. A.; Rasooly, A. Gold nanoparticle-based enhanced chemiluminescence immunosensor for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in food. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009, 133 (3), 265-271.

Yang, M.; Bruck, H. A.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. Biological semiconductor based on electrical percolation. Anal. Chem 2010, 82 (9), 3567-3572.

Yang, M.; Sun, S.; Bruck, H. A.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. Electrical percolation-based biosensor for real-time direct detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Biosens. Bioelectron. 2010, 25 (12), 2573-2578.

Yang, M.; Sun, S.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. Lab-On-a-Chip for carbon nanotubes based immunoassay detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB). Lab Chip 2010, 10 (8), 1011-1017.

Yang, M.; Sun, S.; Bruck, H. A.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. Lab-on-a-chip for label free biological semiconductor analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Lab Chip 2010, 10 (19), 2534-2540.

Yang, M.; Sun, S.; Kostov, Y.; Rasooly, A. A simple 96 well microfluidic chip combined with visual and densitometry detection for resource-poor point of care testing. Sens. Actuators. B Chem 2011, 153 (1), 176-181.

Yin, J. J.; Lao, F.; Meng, J.; Fu, P. P.; Zhao, Y.; Xing, G.; Gao, X.; Sun, B.; Wang, P. C.; Chen, C.; Liang, X. J. Inhibition of tumor growth by endohedral metallofullerenol nanoparticles optimized as reactive oxygen species scavenger. Mol Pharmacol 2008, 74 (4), 1132-1140.

Yin, J. J.; Lao, F.; Fu, P. P.; Wamer, W. G.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, P. C.; Qiu, Y.; Sun, B.; Xing, G.; Dong, J.; Liang, X. J.; Chen, C. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the potential for cell protection by functionalized fullerene materials. Biomaterials. 2009, 30 (4), 611-621.

Zhang, K.; Hu, X.; Liu, J.; Yin, J. J.; Hou, S.; Wen, T.; He, W.; Ji, Y.; Guo, Y.; Wang, Q.; Wu, X. Formation of PdPt alloy nanodots on gold nanorods: tuning oxidase-like activities via composition. Langmuir  2011, 27 (6), 2796-2803.

Zhao, B.; Yin, J. J.; Bilski, P. J.; Chignell, C. F.; Roberts, J. E.; He, Y. Y. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol 2009, 241 (2), 163-172.

Zhao, J.; Tang, S.; Storhoff, J.; Marla, S.; Bao, Y. P.; Wang, X.; Wong, E. Y.; Ragupathy, V.; Ye, Z.; Hewlett, I. K. Multiplexed, rapid detection of H5N1 using a PCR-free nanoparticle-based genomic microarray assay. BMC Biotechnol. 2010, 10, 74.

Zhao, K.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Q.; He, W.; Yin, J. J. Surface Structure-Dependent Molecular Oxygen Activation of BiOCl Single-Crystalline Nanosheets. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135 (42), 15750-15753.

Zidan, A. S.; Sammour, O. A.; Hammad, M. A.; Megrab, N. A.; Hussain, M. D.; Khan, M. A.; Habib, M. J. Formulation of anastrozole microparticles as biodegradable anticancer drug carriers. AAPS PharmSciTech 2006, 7 (3), 61.

Dair BJ; Tyner KM; Sapsford KE Techniques for the characterization of nanoparticle-bioconjugates. In Methods in Bioengineering: Nanoscale Bioengineering and Nanomedicine, Rege, K., Medintz, I. L., Eds.; Artech House: Norwood, MA, 2009.

Guha, S.; Pease, L. F., III; Brorson, K. A.; Tarlov, M. J.; Zachariah, M. R. Evaluation of electrospray differential mobility analysis for virus particle analysis: Potential applications for biomanufacturing. J Virol. Methods 2011, 178 (1-2), 201-208.

He, W. W.; Liu, Y. T.; Wamer, W. G.; Yin, J. J. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the study of nanomaterial-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 49-63.

Jun-Jie, Y.; Baozhong, Z.; Qingsu, X.; Peter, P. F. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy for Studying the Generation and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species by Nanomaterials. In Nanopharmaceutics, WORLD SCIENTIFIC: 2012; pp 375-400.

Keene, A.; Tyner, K. Analytical characterization of gold nanoparticle primary particles, aggregates, agglomerates, and agglomerated aggregates. J Nanopart Res 2011, 13 (8), 3465-3481.

Rahman, Z.; Zidan, A. S.; Khan, M. A. Non-destructive methods of characterization of risperidone solid lipid nanoparticles. Eur. J Pharm Biopharm. 2010, 76 (1), 127-137.

Sanchez-Pomales, G.; Mudalige, T. K.; Lim, J. H.; Linder, S. W. Rapid Determination of Silver in Nanobased Liquid Dietary Supplements Using a Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61 (30), 7250-7257.

Shah, R. B.; Yang, Y.; Khan, M. A.; Faustino, P. J. Molecular weight determination for colloidal iron by Taguchi optimized validated gel permeation chromatography. Int J Pharm 2008, 353 (1-2), 21-27.

Shah, R. B.; Yang, Y.; Khan, M. A.; Raw, A.; Yu, L. X.; Faustino, P. J. Pharmaceutical characterization and thermodynamic stability assessment of a colloidal iron drug product: iron sucrose. Int J Pharm 2014, 464 (1-2), 46-52.

Shah, R. B.; Zidan, A. S.; Funck, T.; Tawakkul, M. A.; Nguyenpho, A.; Khan, M. A. Quality by design: characterization of self-nano-emulsified drug delivery systems (SNEDDs) using ultrasonic resonator technology. Int J Pharm 2007, 341 (1-2), 189-194.

Tsai, D. H.; Delrio, F. W.; Keene, A. M.; Tyner, K. M.; Maccuspie, R. I.; Cho, T. J.; Zachariah, M. R.; Hackley, V. A. Adsorption and conformation of serum albumin protein on gold nanoparticles investigated using dimensional measurements and in situ spectroscopic methods. Langmuir. 2011, 27 (6), 2464-2477.

Tsai, D. H.; Elzey, S.; Delrio, F. W.; Keene, A. M.; Tyner, K. M.; Clogston, J. D.; Maccuspie, R. I.; Guha, S.; Zachariah, M. R.; Hackley, V. A. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2012, 4 (10), 3208-3217.

Tyner, K. M.; Wokovich, A. M.; Doub, W. H.; Buhse, L. F.; Sung, L. P.; Watson, S. S.; Sadrieh, N. Comparing methods for detecting and characterizing metal oxide nanoparticles in unmodified commercial sunscreens. Nanomedicine (Lond. ) 2009, 4 (2), 145-159.

Zidan, A. S.; Rahman, Z.; Habib, M. J.; Khan, M. A. Spectral and spatial characterization of protein loaded PLGA nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 2010, 99 (3), 1180-1192.

Zook, J. M.; Rastogi, V.; Maccuspie, R. I.; Keene, A. M.; Fagan, J. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation. ACS. Nano 2011, 5 (10), 8070-8079.

Austin, C. A.; Umbreit, T. H.; Brown, K. M.; Barber, D. S.; Dair, B. J.; Francke-Carroll, S.; Feswick, A.; Saint-Louis, M. A.; Hikawa, H.; Siebein, K. N.; Goering, P. L. Distribution of silver nanoparticles in pregnant mice and developing embryos. Nanotoxicology. 2012, 6, 912-922.

Butler, K. S.; Casey, B. J.; Garborcauskas, G. V. M.; Dair, B. J.; Elespuru, R. K. Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle effects in bacteria: Association, uptake, mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and DNA repair inhibition. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2014, 768 (0), 14-22.

Chen, T.; Yan, J.; Li, Y. Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 95-104.

Chiang, H. M.; Xia, Q.; Zou, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Miller, B. J.; Howard, P. C.; Yin, J. J.; Beland, F. A.; Yu, H.; Fu, P. P. Nanoscale ZnO induces cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human cell lines and rat primary neuronal cells. J Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2012, 12 (3), 2126-2135.

Choi, J.; Zhang, Q.; Reipa, V.; Wang, N. S.; Stratmeyer, M. E.; Hitchins, V. M.; Goering, P. L. Comparison of cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with silicon micron-sized particles in RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Appl. Toxicol 2009, 29 (1), 52-60.

Choi, J.; Reipa, V.; Hitchins, V. M.; Goering, P. L.; Malinauskas, R. A. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro hemolysis evaluation of silver nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci 2011, 123 (1), 133-143.

De Paoli, S. H.; Diduch, L. L.; Tegegn, T. Z.; Orecna, M.; Strader, M. B.; Karnaukhova, E.; Bonevich, J. E.; Holada, K.; Simak, J. The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets. Biomaterials 2014, 35 (24), 6182-6194.

Dobrovolskaia, M. A.; Patri, A. K.; Simak, J.; Hall, J. B.; Semberova, J.; De Paoli Lacerda, S. H.; Mcneil, S. E. Nanoparticle size and surface charge determine effects of PAMAM dendrimers on human platelets in vitro.  Mol Pharm 2012, 9 (3), 382-393.

Fu, P. P.; Xia, Q.; Hwang, H. M.; Ray, P. C.; Yu, H. Mechanisms of nanotoxicity: Generation of reactive oxygen species. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 64-75.

Gao, Y.; Gopee, N. V.; Howard, P. C.; Yu, L. R. Proteomic analysis of early response lymph node proteins in mice treated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. J Proteomics. 2011, 74 (12), 2745-2759.

Ge, C. C.; Li, Y.; Yin, J. J.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. M.; Zhao, Y. L.; Chen, C. Y. The contributions of metal impurities and tube structure to the toxicity of carbon nanotube materials. Npg Asia Materials 2012, 4.

Gelderman-Fuhrmann, M. P.; Simakova, O.; Carter, L. B.; Simak, J. Evaluation of immunophenotypes and activities of cell membrane microparticles in apheresis platelets: Impact of seven day storage. Blood 2005, 106 (11), 537A-538A.

Gelderman-Fuhrmann, M. P.; Schiffmann, R.; Simak, J. Elevated counts of circulating endothelial microparticles in pediatric Fabry patients decreased after enzyme replacement therapy. Blood 2006, 108 (11), 515A.

Gelderman, M. P.; Carter, L. B.; Simak, J. High counts of potentially pathogenic cell membrane microparticles in Apheresis platelets. Blood 2004, 104 (11), 988A-989A.

Gelderman, M. P.; Simakova, O.; Clogston, J. D.; Patri, A. K.; Siddiqui, S. F.; Vostal, A. C.; Simak, J. Adverse effects of fullerenes on endothelial cells: fullerenol C60(OH)24 induced tissue factor and ICAM-I membrane expression and apoptosis in vitro. Int J Nanomedicine. 2008, 3 (1), 59-68.

Genter, M. B.; Newman, N. C.; Shertzer, H. G.; Ali, S. F.; Bolon, B. Distribution and systemic effects of intranasally administered 25 nm silver nanoparticles in adult mice. Toxicol Pathol 2012, 40 (7), 1004-1013.

Gonzalez, C.; Salazar-Garcia, S.; Palestino, G.; Martinez-Cuevas, P. P.; Ramirez-Lee, M. A.; Jurado-Manzano, B. B.; Rosas-Hernandez, H.; Gaytan-Pacheco, N.; Martel, G.; Espinosa-Tanguma, R.; Biris, A. S.; Ali, S. F. Effect of 45 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) upon the smooth muscle of rat trachea: role of nitric oxide. Toxicol Lett. 2011, 207 (3), 306-313.

Gopee, N. V.; Roberts, D. W.; Webb, P.; Cozart, C. R.; Siitonen, P. H.; Warbritton, A. R.; Yu, W. W.; Colvin, V. L.; Walker, N. J.; Howard, P. C. Migration of intradermally injected quantum dots to sentinel organs in mice. Toxicol Sci 2007, 98 (1), 249-257.

Gopee, N. V.; Roberts, D. W.; Webb, P.; Cozart, C. R.; Siitonen, P. H.; Latendresse, J. R.; Warbitton, A. R.; Yu, W. W.; Colvin, V. L.; Walker, N. J.; Howard, P. C. Quantitative determination of skin penetration of PEG-coated CdSe quantum dots in dermabraded but not intact SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Toxicol Sci 2009, 111 (1), 37-48.

He, W.; Zhou, Y. T.; Wamer, W. G.; Hu, X.; Wu, X.; Zheng, Z.; Boudreau, M. D.; Yin, J. J. Intrinsic catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles with respect to hydrogen peroxide decomposition and superoxide scavenging. Biomaterials. 2013, 34 (3), 765-773.

He, W. W.; Zhou, Y. T.; Wamer, W. G.; Boudreau, M. D.; Yin, J. J. Mechanisms of the pH dependent generation of hydroxyl radicals and oxygen induced by Ag nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2012, 33 (30), 7547-7555.

Hunt, P. R.; Marquis, B. J.; Tyner, K. M.; Conklin, S.; Olejnik, N.; Nelson, B. C.; Sprando, R. L. Nanosilver suppresses growth and induces oxidative damage to DNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2013, 33 (10), 1131-1142.

Hussain, S. M.; Javorina, A. K.; Schrand, A. M.; Duhart, H. M.; Ali, S. F.; Schlager, J. J. The interaction of manganese nanoparticles with PC-12 cells induces dopamine depletion. Toxicol Sci 2006, 92 (2), 456-463.

Keene, A. M.; Allaway, R. J.; Sadrieh, N.; Tyner, K. M. Gold nanoparticle trafficking of typically excluded compounds across the cell membrane in JB6 Cl 41-5a cells causes assay interference. Nanotoxicology.  2011, 5 (4), 469-478.

Keene, A. M.; Peters, D.; Rouse, R.; Stewart, S.; Rosen, E. T.; Tyner, K. M. Tissue and cellular distribution of gold nanoparticles varies based on aggregation/agglomeration status. Nanomedicine. (Lond. ) 2012, 7 (2), 199-209.

Lacerda, S. H.; Park, J. J.; Meuse, C.; Pristinski, D.; Becker, M. L.; Karim, A.; Douglas, J. F. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with common human blood proteins. ACS. Nano 2010, 4 (1), 365-379.

Lacerda, S. H.; Semberova, J.; Holada, K.; Simakova, O.; Simak, J. Carbon Nanotubes Activate Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) In Human Platelets Manifested by STIM1 Capping. Blood 2010, 116 (21), 1311.

Lacerda, S. H.; Semberova, J.; Holada, K.; Simakova, O.; Hudson, S. D.; Simak, J. Carbon nanotubes activate store-operated calcium entry in human blood platelets. ACS. Nano 2011, 5 (7), 5808-5813.

Li, M.; Yin, J. J.; Wamer, W. G.; Lo, Y. M. Mechanistic characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced toxicity using electron spin resonance. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014, 22 (1), 76-85.

Li, Y.; Bhalli, J. A.; Ding, W.; Yan, J.; Pearce, M. G.; Sadiq, R.; Cunningham, C. K.; Jones, M. Y.; Monroe, W. A.; Howard, P. C.; Zhou, T.; Chen, T. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in mouse. Nanotoxicology. 2014, 8 Suppl 1, 36-45.

Li, Y.; Chen, D. H.; Yan, J.; Chen, Y.; Mittelstaedt, R. A.; Zhang, Y.; Biris, A. S.; Heflich, R. H.; Chen, T. Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus assay. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2012, 745 (1-2), 4-10.

Ma, X. W.; Zhang, L. H.; Wang, L. R.; Xue, X.; Sun, J. H.; Wu, Y.; Zou, G. Z.; Wu, X.; Wang, P. C.; Wamer, W. G.; Yin, J. J.; Zheng, K. Y.; Liang, X. J. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Alter Cytochrome c Electron Transfer and Modulate Mitochondrial Function. ACS. Nano 2012, 6 (12), 10486-10496.

Mahmood, M.; Li, Z.; Casciano, D.; Khodakovskaya, M. V.; Chen, T.; Karmakar, A.; Dervishi, E.; Xu, Y.; Mustafa, T.; Watanabe, F.; Fejleh, A.; Whitlow, M.; Al-Adami, M.; Ghosh, A.; Biris, A. S. Nanostructural materials increase mineralization in bone cells and affect gene expression through miRNA regulation. J Cell. Mol Med 2011, 15 (11), 2297-2306.

Mei, N.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, W.; Ali, S. F.; Biris, A. S.; Rice, P.; Moore, M. M.; Chen, T. Silver nanoparticle-induced mutations and oxidative stress in mouse lymphoma cells. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2012, 53 (6), 409-419.

Oh, E.; Delehanty, J. B.; Sapsford, K. E.; Susumu, K.; Goswami, R.; Blanco-Canosa, J. B.; Dawson, P. E.; Granek, J.; Shoff, M.; Zhang, Q.; Goering, P. L.; Huston, A.; Medintz, I. L. Cellular uptake and fate of PEGylated gold nanoparticles is dependent on both cell-penetration peptides and particle size. ACS. Nano 2011, 5 (8), 6434-6448.

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