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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Volume IV - 13.11 Radiation

DFS Pyramid Logo

Orientation and Training

Food and Drug Administration

DOCUMENT NO.:
IV-13
VERSION NO.: 1.3

Section 13 - Engineering

EFFECTIVE DATE: 10-01-03 REVISED: 02-14-13

13.11.1 Sources of Radiation Exposure

A.  Objective

To introduce sources of radiation exposure, both natural and manmade, and to provide a background in radiation protection and safety to the trainee.

B. Assignment

The trainer will present information on radiation protection, safety rules and regulations, and various sources of radiation exposure.

The trainee will be expected to read assigned references and be able to apply radiation safety procedures, as instructed.

13.11.2 Radiobiology of Ionizing Radiation

A.  Objective

To familiarize the trainee with the biological effects of ionizing radiation.

B.  Assignment

The trainer will present the fundamentals of ionizing radiation radiobiology, to include:

  • sequence of biological effects,
  • determinants of biological effects, and
  • carcinogenic, teratogenic, and genetic effects of ionizing radiation exposure.

13.11.3 Radiation Instrumentation

A.  Objective

To introduce the trainee to the various types of instruments for radiation detection and measurement and to provide practical experience in their use.

B.  Assignment

The trainer will present the various types of instruments, their preferred uses, their limitations, and the corrections needed to read actual (corrected) values for each type. Instrument types to be presented include:

  • GM (Geiger Mueller) counters,
  • ionization chambers,
  • scintillation detectors,
  • thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD), and
  • film dosimeters.

The trainee will perform measurement and/or calibration exercises assigned by the trainer.

13.11.4 Properties and Production of X-rays

A.  Objective

To introduce the trainee to the basic properties and methods of x-ray production.

B.  Assignment

The trainer will present the fundamental properties of x-rays and the basics of x-ray machines.  This presentation will include:

  1. X-rays
    1. definition
    2. production
    3. properties
  2. X-ray machines
    1. set up
    2. controls
    3. production of x-rays
  3. X-ray exposure variation
    1. kVp
    2. mA
    3. mAs 
    4. time
    5. distance
  4. X-ray scatter

The trainee will become familiar with the operation, uses, and limitations of x-ray equipment.

13.11.5 Radiography and X-ray Film Processing

A.  Objective

To acquaint the trainee with the fundamentals of digital and film radiography, taking a radiograph, processing the film to produce the desired results, and reading film using a densitometer.

B. Assignment

The trainer will present the fundamentals of radiography, which may include:

  1. Radiographic film
    1. description
    2. characteristics
    3. image formation
  2. Intensifying screens
  3. Grids
  4. Film developing
    1. manual
    2. automatic processing
    3. variation with developer temperature
  5. Film variation
    1. kVp
    2. mA
    3. mAs
    4. time
    5. distance
    6. large vs. small x-ray tube focal spots
  6. Film densitometers and their use

The trainee will be expected to be capable of producing an acceptable radiograph deciding on exposure technique factors for the objects and developing the film.