Lotrel (amlodipine besylate/benazapril hydrochloride) capsule
Detailed View: Safety Labeling Changes Approved By FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)
- In postmarketing experience with benazepril, there have been rare reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, pemphigus, and thrombocytopenia. Gingival hyperplasia, tachycardia, [new/added] jaundice, and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis severe enough to require hospitalization) have been reported in association with use of amlodipine. Other potentially important adverse experiences attributed to other ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers include: eosinophilic pneumonitis (ACE inhibitors) and gynecomastia (CCBs). Other infrequently reported events included chest pain, ventricular extrasystole, gout, neuritis, tinnitus, alopecia, upper respiratory tract infection, palpitations and somnolence.
- Lotrel is contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema, with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment, or patients who are hypersensitive to benazepril, to any other ACE inhibitor, or to amlodipine.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions
- Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
- Lotrel can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus. Drugs that act on the renin angiotensin system can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when used in pregnancy. In several dozen published cases, ACE inhibitor use during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy was associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure, and death.
- However, since amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate Lotrel slowly in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Impaired Renal Function
- Lotrel should not be used in patients with severe renal disease (Clearance creatinine < 30 ml/min), In patients with severe heart failure, whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with benazepril may be associated with oliguria or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death.
- In a small study of hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, treatment with benazepril was associated with increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine; these increases were reversible upon discontinuation of benazepril therapy, concomitant diuretic therapy, or both. When such patients are treated with Lotrel, monitor renal function during the first few weeks of therapy.
- Some benazepril-treated hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when benazepril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. Dosage reduction of Lotrel may be required.
- Renal function should be monitored periodically in patients receiving benazepril.
Clinical Trials Experience
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The
adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
- The peripheral edema associated with amlodipine use is dose-dependent. When benazepril is added to a regimen of amlodipine, the incidence of edema is substantially reduced.
- The addition of benazepril to a regimen of amlodipine should not be expected to provide additional antihypertensive effect in African-Americans. However, all patient groups benefit from the reduction in amlodipine-induced edema.
- The incidence of edema was greater in patients treated with amlodipine monotherapy (5.1%) than in patients treated with Lotrel (2.1%) or placebo (2.2%).
- Hematologic: Neutropenia
- Monotherapies of benazepril and amlodipine have been evaluated for safety in clinical trials in over 6,000 and 11,000 patients, respectively. The observed adverse reactions to the monotherapies in these trials were similar to those seen in trials of Lotrel.
- Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Drug-Drug Interactions/Potassium Supplements and Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
- Benazepril can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, the patient’s serum potassium should be monitored frequently.