Detailed View: Safety Labeling Changes Approved By FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
- COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism, and for whom the benefits of COUMADIN may outweigh the risks. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Because these data were not collected in adequate and well-controlled studies, this incidence of major birth defects are not anadequate basis for comparison to the estimated incidences in the control group or the U.S. general population and may not reflect the incidences observed in practice. Consider the benefits and risks of COUMADIN and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing COUMADIN to a pregnant woman. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
- In humans, warfarin crosses the placenta, and concentrations in fetal plasma approach the maternal values. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Warfarin embryopathy is characterized by nasal hypoplasia with or without stippled epiphyses (chondrodysplasia punctata) and growth retardation (including low birth weight). Central nervous system and eye abnormalities have also been reported, including dorsal midline dysplasia characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, midline cerebellar atrophy, and ventral midline dysplasia characterized by optic atrophy. Mental retardation, blindness, schizencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported following warfarin exposure during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
- Warfarin was not present in human milk from mothers treated with warfarin from a limited published study. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including bleeding in a breastfed infant, consider the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding along with the mother’s clinical need for COUMADIN and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from COUMADIN or from the underlying maternal condition before prescribing COUMADIN to a lactating woman.
- Monitor breastfeeding infants for bruising or bleeding.
- Based on published data in 15 nursing mothers, warfarin was not detected in human milk. Among the 15 full-term newborns, 6 nursing infants had documented prothrombin times within the expected range. Prothrombin times were not obtained for the other 9 nursing infants. Effects in premature infants have not been evaluated.
Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
- COUMADIN can cause fetal harm. Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating COUMADIN therapy.
- Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment, and for at least 1 month after the final dose of COUMADIN.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The dose of Coumadin must be individualized by monitoring the PT/INR. Not all factors causing warfarin dose variability are known. The maintenance dose needed to achieve a target PT/INR is influenced by:
- Clinical factors including age, race, body weight, sex, concomitant medications, and comorbidities and
- Genetic factors (CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes).
- Select the starting dose based on the expected maintenance dose, taking into account the above factors. Routine use of loading doses is not recommended as this may increase hemorrhagic and other complications and does not offer more rapid protection against clot formation...
- The patient’s CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype information, when available, can assist in selection of the starting dose...
- Table 5: Range of Expected Therapeutic Warfarin Doses Based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes (new table)