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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Regulatory Information

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§262 Regulation of Biological Products

table of contents: Public Health Service Act

From the U.S. House of Representatives Downloadable U.S. Code

[uscode.house.gov]
[Laws in effect as of January 5, 1999]

[CITE: 42USC262]

TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 6A - PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
SUBCHAPTER II - GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES
Part F - Licensing of Biological Products and Clinical Laboratories
subpart 1 - biological products

-HEAD-
Sec. 262. Regulation of biological products

-STATUTE-
(a) Biologics license

(1) No person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any biological product unless -

(A) a biologics license is in effect for the biological product; and
(B) each package of the biological product is plainly marked with -

(i) the proper name of the biological product contained in the package;
(ii) the name, address, and applicable license number of the manufacturer of the biological product; and
(iii) the expiration date of the biological product.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall establish, by regulation, requirements for the approval, suspension, and revocation of biologics licenses.
(B) The Secretary shall approve a biologics license application

(i) on the basis of a demonstration that -
(I) the biological product that is the subject of the application is safe, pure, and potent; and
(II) the facility in which the biological product is manufactured, processed, packed, or held meets standards designed to assure that the biological product continues to be safe, pure, and potent; and
(ii) if the applicant (or other appropriate person) consents to the inspection of the facility that is the subject of the application, in accordance with subsection (c) of this section.

(3) The Secretary shall prescribe requirements under which a biological product undergoing investigation shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph (1).

(b) Falsely labeling or marking package or container; altering label or mark
No person shall falsely label or mark any package or container of any biological product or alter any label or mark on the package or container of the biological product so as to falsify the label or mark.

(c) Inspection of establishment for propagation and preparation Any officer, agent, or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services, authorized by the Secretary for the purpose, may during all reasonable hours enter and inspect any establishment for the propagation or manufacture and preparation of any biological product.

(d) Recall of product presenting imminent hazard; violations


(1) Upon a determination that a batch, lot, or other quantity of a product licensed under this section presents an imminent or substantial hazard to the public health, the Secretary shall issue an order immediately ordering the recall of such batch, lot, or other quantity of such product. An order under this paragraph shall be issued in accordance with section 554 of title 5.

(2) Any violation of paragraph (1) shall subject the violator to a civil penalty of up to $100,000 per day of violation. The amount of a civil penalty under this paragraph shall, effective December 1 of each year beginning 1 year after the effective date of this paragraph, be increased by the percent change in the Consumer Price Index for the base quarter of such year over the Consumer Price Index for the base quarter of the preceding year, adjusted to the nearest 1/10 of 1 percent. For purposes of this paragraph, the term ''base quarter'', as used with respect to a year, means the calendar quarter ending on September 30 of such year and the price index for a base quarter is the arithmetical mean of such index for the 3 months comprising such quarter. (e) Interference with officers
No person shall interfere with any officer, agent, or employee of the Service in the performance of any duty imposed upon him by this section or by regulations made by authority thereof.


(f) Penalties for offenses
Any person who shall violate, or aid or abet in violating, any of the provisions of this section shall be punished upon conviction by a fine not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.

(g) Construction with other laws
Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed as in any way affecting, modifying, repealing, or superseding the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.).

(h) Exportation of partially processed biological products
A partially processed biological product which -


(1) is not in a form applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of diseases or injuries of man;
(2) is not intended for sale in the United States; and
(3) is intended for further manufacture into final dosage form outside the United States,
shall be subject to no restriction on the export of the product under this chapter or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et. seq.) if the product is manufactured, processed, packaged, and held in conformity with current good manufacturing practice requirements or meets international manufacturing standards as certified by an international standards organization recognized by the Secretary and meets the requirements of section 801(e)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 381(e)).


(i) ''Biological product'' defined
In this section, the term ''biological product'' means a virus, therapeutic serum, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product, or analogous product, or arsphenamine or derivative of arsphenamine (or any other trivalent organic arsenic compound), applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of a disease or condition of human beings.


(j) Application of Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) applies to a biological product subject to regulation under this section, except that a product for which a license has been approved under subsection (a) shall not be required to have an approved application under section 505 of such Act (21 U.S.C. 355).

-SOURCE-
(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, Sec. 351, 58 Stat. 702; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, Sec. 5, 8, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 85-881, Sec. 2, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 91-515, title II, Sec. 291, Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 96-88, title V, Sec. 509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 99-660, title I, Sec. 105(a), title III, Sec. 315, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3751, 3783; Pub. L. 102-300, Sec. 6(b)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 104-134, title II, Sec. 2102(d)(2), 2104, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321-319, 1321-320; Pub. L. 105-115, title I, Sec. 123(a)-(d), (g), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2323, 2324.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The effective date of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is the effective date of section 315 of Pub. L. 99-660 which added subsec. (d)(2). See Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note set out below.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsecs. (g), (h), and (j), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (Sec. 301 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of Title 21 and Tables.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1997 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) related to intrastate and interstate traffic in biological products and suspension or revocation of licenses as affecting prior sales.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: ''No person shall falsely label or mark any package or container of any virus, serum, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product, or other product aforesaid; nor alter any label or mark on any package or container of any virus, serum, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product, or other product aforesaid so as to falsify such label or mark.''

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(c), substituted ''biological product.'' for ''virus, serum, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product, or other product aforesaid for sale, barter, or exchange in the District of Columbia, or to be sent, carried, or brought from any State or possession into any other State or possession or into any foreign country, or from any foreign country into any State or possession.''

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(a)(2), designated par. (2) as subsec. (d), redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (2) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, in par. (2), substituted ''Any violation of paragraph (1)'' for ''Any violation of subparagraph (A)'' and substituted ''this paragraph'' for ''this subparagraph'' wherever appearing, and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: ''Licenses for the maintenance of establishments for the propagation or manufacture and preparation of products described in subsection (a) of this section may be issued only upon a showing that the establishment and the products for which a license is desired meet standards, designed to insure the continued safety, purity, and potency of such products, prescribed in regulations, and licenses for new products may be issued only upon a showing that they meet such standards. All such licenses shall be issued, suspended, and revoked as prescribed by regulations and all licenses issued for the maintenance of establishments for the propagation or manufacture and preparation, in any foreign country, of any such products for sale, barter, or exchange in any State or possession shall be issued upon condition that the licensees will permit the inspection of their establishments in accordance with subsection (c) of this section.'' Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(d), added subsec. (i). Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105-115, Sec. 123(g), added subsec. (j). 1996 - Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104-134, Sec. 2104, amended subsec. (h) generally, revising and restating former provisions, which also related to exportation of partially processed biological products. Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104-134, Sec. 2102(d)(2), substituted ''in a country listed under section 802(b)(1)'' for ''in a country listed under section 802(b)(A)'' and ''to a country listed under section 802(b)(1)'' for ''to a country listed under section 802(b)(4)''.

1992 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102-300, which directed substitution of ''Health and Human Services'' for ''Health, Education, and Welfare'', could not be executed because the words ''Health, Education, and Welfare'' did not appear in original statutory text. Previously, references to Department and Secretary of Health and Human Services were substituted for references to Federal Security Agency and its Administrator pursuant to provisions cited in Transfer of Functions note below.

1986 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-660, Sec. 315, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99-660, Sec. 105(a), added subsec. (h). 1970 - Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 91-515 inserted ''vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product,'' after ''antitoxin'' wherever appearing.

1958 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85-881 struck out ''made jointly by the Surgeon General, the Surgeon General of the Army, and the Surgeon General of the Navy, and approved by the Secretary'' after ''regulations'' in first sentence.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105-115, set out as a note under section 321 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Section 105(b) of Pub. L. 99-660 provided that: ''Paragraph (1) of section 351(h) of the Public Health Service Act (former subsec. (h)(1) of this section) as added by subsection (a) shall take effect upon the expiration of 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act (Nov. 14, 1986).''
Amendment by section 315 of Pub. L. 99-660 effective Dec. 22, 1987, see section 323 of Pub. L. 99-660, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 300aa-1 of this title.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of Public Health Service, Surgeon General of Public Health Service, and all other officers and employees of Public Health Service, and functions of all agencies of or in Public Health Service transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, eff. June 25, 1966, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, set out as a note under section 202 of this title. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96-88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.
References to Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare substituted for references to Federal Security Administrator and Federal Security Agency, respectively, pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953, Sec. 5, set out as a note under section 3501 of this title, which transferred all functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and all agencies of Federal Security Agency to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Federal Security Agency and office of Administrator abolished by section 8 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953. Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96-88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20.

-MISC5-

ENHANCED PENALTIES AND CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

Pub. L. 104-132, title V, Sec. 511, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1284, provided that:

''(a) Findings. - The Congress finds that -

''(1) certain biological agents have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety;

''(2) such biological agents can be used as weapons by individuals or organizations for the purpose of domestic or international terrorism or for other criminal purposes;

''(3) the transfer and possession of potentially hazardous biological agents should be regulated to protect public health and safety; and

''(4) efforts to protect the public from exposure to such agents should ensure that individuals and groups with legitimate objectives continue to have access to such agents for clinical and research purposes.

''(b) Criminal Enforcement. - (Amended sections 175, 177, and 178 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.)

''(c) Terrorism. - (Amended section 2332a of Title 18.)

''(d) Regulatory Control of Biological Agents. -

''(1) List of biological agents. -

''(A) In general. - The Secretary shall, through regulations promulgated under subsection (f), establish and maintain a list of each biological agent that has the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety.

''(B) Criteria. - In determining whether to include an agent on the list under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall -

''(i) consider -

''(I) the effect on human health of exposure to the agent;

''(II) the degree of contagiousness of the agent and the methods by which the agent is transferred to humans;

''(III) the availability and effectiveness of immunizations to prevent and treatments for any illness resulting from infection by the agent; and

''(IV) any other criteria that the Secretary considers appropriate; and

''(ii) consult with scientific experts representing appropriate professional groups.

''(e) Regulation of Transfers of Listed Biological Agents. - The Secretary shall, through regulations promulgated under subsection

(f), provide for -

''(1) the establishment and enforcement of safety procedures for the transfer of biological agents listed pursuant to subsection (d)(1), including measures to ensure -

''(A) proper training and appropriate skills to handle such agents; and

''(B) proper laboratory facilities to contain and dispose of such agents;

''(2) safeguards to prevent access to such agents for use in domestic or international terrorism or for any other criminal purpose;

''(3) the establishment of procedures to protect the public safety in the event of a transfer or potential transfer of a biological agent in violation of the safety procedures established under paragraph (1) or the safeguards established under paragraph (2); and

''(4) appropriate availability of biological agents for research, education, and other legitimate purposes.

''(f) Regulations. - The Secretary shall carry out this section by issuing -

''(1) proposed rules not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act (Apr. 24, 1996); and

''(2) final rules not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act.

''(g) Definitions. - For purposes of this section -

''(1) the term 'biological agent' has the same meaning as in section 178 of title 18, United States Code; and

''(2) the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.''

-CROSS-

CROSS REFERENCES

Regulation of biological products for use in treatment of domestic animals, see sections 151 to 159 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 236, 263, 300aa-22, 300aa-23, 1396r-8 of this title; title 21 sections 321, 331, 352, 353, 355, 356, 356a, 360aa, 360bb, 360cc, 360ee, 360aaa, 360bbb-1, 379g, 381, 382, 392, 397; title 26 section 45C; title 35 section 156.