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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Regulatory Information

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Controlled Substances Act

TITLE 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER 13 - DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
SUBCHAPTER I - CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT

Part A - Introductory Provisions

Part B - Authority to Control; Standards and Schedules

Part C - Registration of Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dispensers of Controled Substances; Piperidine Reporting

Part D - Offenses and Penalties

Part E - Administrative and Enforcement Provisions

Part F - Advisory Commission

Part G - Conforming, Transitional and Effective Date, and General Provisions


PART A - INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS 

§ 801 Note Short Title

This title may be cited as the 'Controlled Substances Act'.

§ 801. Congressional findings and declarations: controlled substances.

The Congress makes the following findings and declarations:

  • (1) Many of the drugs included within this subchapter have a useful and legitimate medical purpose and are necessary to maintain the health and general welfare of the American people.
  • (2) The illegal importation, manufacture, distribution, and possession and improper use of controlled substances have a substantial and detrimental effect on the health and general welfare of the American people.
  • (3) A major portion of the traffic in controlled substances flows through interstate and foreign commerce. Incidents of the traffic which are not an integral part of the interstate or foreign flow, such as manufacture, local distribution, and possession, nonetheless have a substantial and direct effect upon interstate commerce because -
    • (A) after manufacture, many controlled substances are transported in interstate commerce,
    • (B) controlled substances distributed locally usually have been transported in interstate commerce immediately before their distribution, and
    • (C) controlled substances possessed commonly flow through interstate commerce immediately prior to such possession.
  • (4) Local distribution and possession of controlled substances contribute to swelling the interstate traffic in such substances.
  • (5) Controlled substances manufactured and distributed intrastate cannot be differentiated from controlled substances manufactured and distributed interstate. Thus, it is not feasible to distinguish, in terms of controls, between controlled substances manufactured and distributed interstate and controlled substances manufactured and distributed intrastate.
  • (6) Federal control of the intrastate incidents of the traffic in controlled substances is essential to the effective control of the interstate incidents of such traffic.
  • (7) The United States is a party to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and other international conventions designed to establish effective control over international and domestic traffic in controlled substances.

§ 801a. Congressional findings and declarations: psychotropic substances.

The Congress makes the following findings and declarations:

  • (1) The Congress has long recognized the danger involved in the manufacture, distribution, and use of certain psychotropic substances for nonscientific and nonmedical purposes, and has provided strong and effective legislation to control illicit trafficking and to regulate legitimate uses of psychotropic substances in this country. Abuse of psychotropic substances has become a phenomenon common to many countries, however, and is not confined to national borders. It is, therefore, essential that the United States cooperate with other nations in establishing effective controls over international traffic in such substances.
  • (2) The United States has joined with other countries in executing an international treaty, entitled the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971, which is designed to establish suitable controls over the manufacture, distribution, transfer, and use of certain psychotropic substances. The Convention is not self-executing, and the obligations of the United States thereunder may only be performed pursuant to appropriate legislation. It is the intent of the Congress that the amendments made by this Act, together with existing law, will enable the United States to meet all of its obligations under the Convention and that no further legislation will be necessary for that purpose.
  • (3) In implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the Congress intends that, consistent with the obligations of the United States under the Convention, control of psychotropic substances in the United States should be accomplished within the framework of the procedures and criteria for classification of substances provided in the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). This will insure that
    • (A) the availability of psychotropic substances to manufacturers, distributors, dispensers, and researchers for useful and legitimate medical and scientific purposes will not be unduly restricted;
    • (B) nothing in the Convention will interfere with bona fide research activities; and
    • (C) nothing in the Convention will interfere with ethical medical practice in this country as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services on the basis of a consensus of the views of the American medical and scientific community.

§ 802. Definitions.

As used in this subchapter:

  • (1) The term ''addict'' means any individual who habitually uses any narcotic drug so as to endanger the public morals, health, safety, or welfare, or who is so far addicted to the use of narcotic drugs as to have lost the power of self-control with reference to his addiction.
  • (2) The term ''administer'' refers to the direct application of a controlled substance to the body of a patient or research subject by -
    • (A) a practitioner (or, in his presence, by his authorized agent), or
    • (B) the patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner, whether such application be by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means.
  • (3) The term ''agent'' means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser; except that such term does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseman, or employee of the carrier or warehouseman, when acting in the usual and lawful course of the carrier's or warehouseman's business.
  • (4) The term ''Drug Enforcement Administration'' means the Drug Enforcement Administration in the Department of Justice.
  • (5) The term ''control'' means to add a drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, to a schedule under part B of this subchapter, whether by transfer from another schedule or otherwise.
  • (6) The term ''controlled substance'' means a drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, included in schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of this subchapter. The term does not include distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco, as those terms are defined or used in subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
  • (7) The term ''counterfeit substance'' means a controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, number, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, distributed, or dispensed such substance and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been distributed by, such other manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser.
  • (8) The terms ''deliver'' or ''delivery'' mean the actual, constructive, or attempted transfer of a controlled substance or a listed chemical, whether or not there exists an agency relationship.
  • (9) The term ''depressant or stimulant substance'' means -
    • (A) a drug which contains any quantity of (i) barbituric acid or any of the salts of barbituric acid; or (ii) any derivative of barbituric acid which has been designated by the Secretary as habit forming under section 352(d) of this title; or
    • (B) a drug which contains any quantity of (i) amphetamine or any of its optical isomers; (ii) any salt of amphetamine or any salt of an optical isomer of amphetamine; or (iii) any substance which the Attorney General, after investigation, has found to be, and by regulation designated as, habit forming because of its stimulant effect on the central nervous systems; or
    • (C) lysergic acid diethylamide; or
    • (D) any drug which contains any quantity of a substance which the Attorney General, after investigation, has found to have, and by regulation designated as having, a potential for abuse because of its depressant or stimulant effect on the central nervous system or its hallucinogenic effect.
  • (10) The term ''dispense'' means to deliver a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject by, or pursuant to the lawful order of, a practitioner, including the prescribing and administering of a controlled substance and the packaging, labeling or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for such delivery. The term ''dispenser'' means a practitioner who so delivers a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject.
  • (11) The term ''distribute'' means to deliver (other than by administering or dispensing) a controlled substance or a listed chemical. The term ''distributor'' means a person who so delivers a controlled substance or a listed chemical.
  • (12) The term ''drug'' has the meaning given that term by section 321(g)(1) of this title.
  • (13) The term ''felony'' means any Federal or State offense classified by applicable Federal or State law as a felony.
  • (14) The term ''isomer'' means the optical isomer, except as used in schedule I(c) and schedule II(a)(4). As used in schedule I(c), the term ''isomer'' means any optical, positional, or geometric isomer. As used in schedule II(a)(4), the term ''isomer'' means any optical or geometric isomer.
  • (15) The term ''manufacture'' means the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, or processing of a drug or other substance, either directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, and includes any packaging or repackaging of such substance or labeling or relabeling of its container; except that such term does not include the preparation, compounding, packaging, or labeling of a drug or other substance in conformity with applicable State or local law by a practitioner as an incident to his administration or dispensing of such drug or substance in the course of his professional practice. The term ''manufacturer'' means a person who manufactures a drug or other substance.
  • (16) The term ''marihuana'' means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Such term does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.
  • (17) The term ''narcotic drug'' means any of the following whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:
    • (A) Opium, opiates, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation. Such term does not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.
    • (B) Poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw.
    • (C) Coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed.
    • (D) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers.
    • (E) Ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.
    • (F) Any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (E).
  • (18) The term ''opiate'' means any drug or other substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having such addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability.
  • (19) The term ''opium poppy'' means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L., except the seed thereof.
  • (20) The term ''poppy straw'' means all parts, except the seeds, of the opium poppy, after mowing.
  • (21) The term ''practitioner'' means a physician, dentist, veterinarian, scientific investigator, pharmacy, hospital, or other person licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted, by the United States or the jurisdiction in which he practices or does research, to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to, administer, or use in teaching or chemical analysis, a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research.
  • (22) The term ''production'' includes the manufacture, planting, cultivation, growing, or harvesting of a controlled substance.
  • (23) The term ''immediate precursor'' means a substance -
    • (A) which the Attorney General has found to be and by regulation designated as being the principal compound used, or produced primarily for use, in the manufacture of a controlled substance;
    • (B) which is an immediate chemical intermediary used or likely to be used in the manufacture of such controlled substance; and
    • (C) the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail, or limit the manufacture of such controlled substance.
  • (24) The term ''Secretary'', unless the context otherwise indicates, means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  • (25) The term ''serious bodily injury'' means bodily injury which involves -
    • (A) a substantial risk of death;
    • (B) protracted and obvious disfigurement; or
    • (C) protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.
  • (26) The term ''State'' means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Canal Zone.
  • (27) The term ''ultimate user'' means a person who has lawfully obtained, and who possesses, a controlled substance for his own use or for the use of a member of his household or for an animal owned by him or by a member of his household.
  • (28) The term ''United States'', when used in a geographic sense, means all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • (29) The term ''maintenance treatment'' means the dispensing, for a period in excess of twenty-one days, of a narcotic drug in the treatment of an individual for dependence upon heroin or other morphine-like drugs.
  • (30) The term ''detoxification treatment'' means the dispensing, for a period not in excess of one hundred and eighty days, of a narcotic drug in decreasing doses to an individual in order to alleviate adverse physiological or psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the continuous or sustained use of a narcotic drug and as a method of bringing the individual to a narcotic drug-free state within such period.
  • (31) The term ''Convention on Psychotropic Substances'' means the Convention on Psychotropic Substances signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971; and the term ''Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs'' means the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs signed at New York, New York, on March 30, 1961.
  • (32)
    • (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term ''controlled substance analogue'' means a substance -
      • (i) the chemical structure of which is substantially similar to the chemical structure of a controlled substance in schedule I or II;
      • (ii) which has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in schedule I or II; or
      • (iii) with respect to a particular person, which such person represents or intends to have a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in schedule I or II.
    • (B) Such term does not include -
      • (i) a controlled substance;
      • (ii) any substance for which there is an approved new drug application;
      • (iii) with respect to a particular person any substance, if an exemption is in effect for investigational use, for that person, under section 355 of this title to the extent conduct with respect to such substance is pursuant to such exemption; or
      • (iv) any substance to the extent not intended for human consumption before such an exemption takes effect with respect to that substance.
  • (33) The term ''listed chemical'' means any list I chemical or any list II chemical.
  • (34) The term ''list I chemical'' means a chemical specified by regulation of the Attorney General as a chemical that is used in manufacturing a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter and is important to the manufacture of the controlled substances, and such term includes (until otherwise specified by regulation of the Attorney General, as considered appropriate by the Attorney General or upon petition to the Attorney General by any person) the following:
    • (A) Anthranilic acid, its esters, and its salts.
    • (B) Benzyl cyanide.
    • (C) Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers.
    • (D) Ergonovine and its salts.
    • (E) Ergotamine and its salts.
    • (F) N-Acetylanthranilic acid, its esters, and its salts.
    • (G) Norpseudoephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers.
    • (H) Phenylacetic acid, its esters, and its salts.
    • (I) Phenylpropanolamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers.
    • (J) Piperidine and its salts.
    • (K) Pseudoephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers.
    • (L) 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone.
    • (M) Methylamine.
    • (N) Ethylamine.
    • (O) Propionic anhydride.
    • (P) Insosafrole.
    • (Q) Safrole.
    • (R) Piperonal.
    • (S) N-Methylepherdrine. (FOOTNOTE 1) (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''N-Methylephedrine.''
    • (T) N-methylpseudoephedrine.
    • (U) Hydriotic (FOOTNOTE 2) acid. (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be ''Hydriodic''.
    • (V) Benzaldehyde.
    • (W) Nitroethane.
    • (X) Any salt, optical isomer, or salt of an optical isomer of the chemicals listed in subparagraphs (M) through (U) of this paragraph.
  • (35) The term ''list II chemical'' means a chemical (other than a list I chemical) specified by regulation of the Attorney General as a chemical that is used in manufacturing a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter, and such term includes (until otherwise specified by regulation of the Attorney General, as considered appropriate by the Attorney General or upon petition to the Attorney General by any person) the following chemicals:
    • (A) Acetic anhydride.
    • (B) Acetone.
    • (C) Benzyl chloride.
    • (D) Ethyl ether.
    • (E) Repealed. Pub. L. 101-647, title XXIII, Sec. 2301(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4858.
    • (F) Potassium permanganate.
    • (G) 2-Butanone.
    • (H) Toluene.
  • (36) The term ''regular customer'' means, with respect to a regulated person, a customer with whom the regulated person has an established business relationship that is reported to the Attorney General.
  • (37) The term ''regular importer'' means, with respect to a listed chemical, a person that has an established record as an importer of that listed chemical that is reported to the Attorney General.
  • (38) The term ''regulated person'' means a person who manufactures, distributes, imports, or exports a listed chemical, a tableting machine, or an encapsulating machine or who acts as a broker or trader for an international transaction involving a listed chemical, a tableting machine, or an encapsulating machine.
  • (39) The term ''regulated transaction'' means -
    • (A) a distribution, receipt, sale, importation, or exportation of, or an international transaction involving shipment of, a listed chemical, or if the Attorney General establishes a threshold amount for a specific listed chemical, a threshold amount, including a cumulative threshold amount for multiple transactions (as determined by the Attorney General, in consultation with the chemical industry and taking into consideration the quantities normally used for lawful purposes), of a listed chemical, except that such term does not include -
      • (i) a domestic lawful distribution in the usual course of business between agents or employees of a single regulated person;
      • (ii) a delivery of a listed chemical to or by a common or contract carrier for carriage in the lawful and usual course of the business of the common or contract carrier, or to or by a warehouseman for storage in the lawful and usual course of the business of the warehouseman, except that if the carriage or storage is in connection with the distribution, importation, or exportation of a listed chemical to a third person, this clause does not relieve a distributor, importer, or exporter from compliance with section 830 of this title;
      • (iii) any category of transaction or any category of transaction for a specific listed chemical or chemicals specified by regulation of the Attorney General as excluded from this definition as unnecessary for enforcement of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
      • (iv) any transaction in a listed chemical that is contained in a drug that may be marketed or distributed lawfully in the United States under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) unless -
        • (I)
          • (aa) the drug contains ephedrine or its salts, optical isomers, or salts of optical isomers as the only active medicinal ingredient or contains ephedrine or its salts, optical isomers, or salts of optical isomers and therapeutically insignificant quantities of another active medicinal ingredient; or
          • (bb) the Attorney General has determined under section 814 of this title that the drug or group of drugs is being diverted to obtain the listed chemical for use in the illicit production of a controlled substance; and
        • (II) the quantity of ephedrine or other listed chemical contained in the drug included in the transaction or multiple transactions equals or exceeds the threshold established for that chemical by the Attorney General; or
      • (v) any transaction in a chemical mixture which the Attorney General has by regulation designated as exempt from the application of this subchapter and subchapter II of this chapter based on a finding that the mixture is formulated in such a way that it cannot be easily used in the illicit production of a controlled substance and that the listed chemical or chemicals contained in the mixture cannot be readily recovered; and
    • (B) a distribution, importation, or exportation of a tableting machine or encapsulating machine.
  • (40) The term ''chemical mixture'' means a combination of two or more chemical substances, at least one of which is not a list I chemical or a list II chemical, except that such term does not include any combination of a list I chemical or a list II chemical with another chemical that is present solely as an impurity.
  • (41)
    • (A) The term ''anabolic steroid'' means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth, and includes -
      • (i) boldenone,
      • (ii) chlorotestosterone,
      • (iii) clostebol,
      • (iv) dehydrochlormethyltestosterone,
      • (v) dihydrotestosterone,
      • (vi) drostanolone,
      • (vii) ethylestrenol,
      • (viii) fluoxymesterone,
      • (ix) formebulone,
      • (x) mesterolone,
      • (xi) methandienone,
      • (xii) methandranone,
      • (xiii) methandriol,
      • (xiv) methandrostenolone,
      • (xv) methenolone,
      • (xvi) methyltestosterone,
      • (xvii) mibolerone,
      • (xviii) nandrolone,
      • (xix) norethandrolone,
      • (xx) oxandrolone,
      • (xxi) oxymesterone,
      • (xxii) oxymetholone,
      • (xxiii) stanolone,
      • (xxiv) stanozolol,
      • (xxv) testolactone,
      • (xxvi) testosterone,
      • (xxvii) trenbolone, and (xxviii) any salt, ester, or isomer of a drug or substance described or listed in this paragraph, if that salt, ester, or isomer promotes muscle growth.
    • (B)
      • (i) Except as provided in clause (ii), such term does not include an anabolic steroid which is expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species and which has been approved by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for such administration.
      • (ii) If any person prescribes, dispenses, or distributes such steroid for human use, such person shall be considered to have prescribed, dispensed, or distributed an anabolic steroid within the meaning of subparagraph (A).
  • (42) The term ''international transaction'' means a transaction involving the shipment of a listed chemical across an international border (other than a United States border) in which a broker or trader located in the United States participates.
  • (43) The terms ''broker'' and ''trader'' mean a person that assists in arranging an international transaction in a listed chemical by -
    • (A) negotiating contracts;
    • (B) serving as an agent or intermediary; or
    • (C) bringing together a buyer and seller, a buyer and transporter, or a seller and transporter.
  • (43) (FOOTNOTE 3) The term ''felony drug offense'' means an offense that is punishable by imprisonment for more than one year under any law of the United States or of a State or foreign country that prohibits or restricts conduct relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances. (FOOTNOTE 3) So in original. Probably should be ''(44)''.

§ 803. Repealed.

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PART B - AUTHORITY TO CONTROL; STANDARDS AND SCHEDULES  

§ 811. Authority and criteria for classification of substances.

  • (a) Rules and regulations of Attorney General; hearing

The Attorney General shall apply the provisions of this subchapter to the controlled substances listed in the schedules established by section 812 of this title and to any other drug or other substance added to such schedules under this subchapter. Except as provided in subsections (d) and (e) of this section, the Attorney General may by rule -

  • (1) add to such a schedule or transfer between such schedules any drug or other substance if he -
    • (A) finds that such drug or other substance has a potential for abuse, and
    • (B) makes with respect to such drug or other substance the findings prescribed by subsection (b) of section 812 of this title for the schedule in which such drug is to be placed; or
  • (2) remove any drug or other substance from the schedules if he finds that the drug or other substance does not meet the requirements for inclusion in any schedule.

Rules of the Attorney General under this subsection shall be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing pursuant to the rulemaking procedures prescribed by subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. Proceedings for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of such rules may be initiated by the Attorney General (1) on his own motion, (2) at the request of the Secretary, or (3) on the petition of any interested party.

  • (b) Evaluation of drugs and other substances

The Attorney General shall, before initiating proceedings under subsection (a) of this section to control a drug or other substance or to remove a drug or other substance entirely from the schedules, and after gathering the necessary data, request from the Secretary a scientific and medical evaluation, and his recommendations, as to whether such drug or other substance should be so controlled or removed as a controlled substance. In making such evaluation and recommendations, the Secretary shall consider the factors listed in paragraphs (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8) of subsection (c) of this section and any scientific or medical considerations involved in paragraphs (1), (4), and (5) of such subsection. The recommendations of the Secretary shall include recommendations with respect to the appropriate schedule, if any, under which such drug or other substance should be listed. The evaluation and the recommendations of the Secretary shall be made in writing and submitted to the Attorney General within a reasonable time. The recommendations of the Secretary to the Attorney General shall be binding on the Attorney General as to such scientific and medical matters, and if the Secretary recommends that a drug or other substance not be controlled, the Attorney General shall not control the drug or other substance. If the Attorney General determines that these facts and all other relevant data constitute substantial evidence of potential for abuse such as to warrant control or substantial evidence that the drug or other substance should be removed entirely from the schedules, he shall initiate proceedings for control or removal, as the case may be, under subsection (a) of this section.

  • (c) Factors determinative of control or removal from schedules

In making any finding under subsection (a) of this section or under subsection (b) of section 812 of this title, the Attorney General shall consider the following factors with respect to each drug or other substance proposed to be controlled or removed from the schedules:

  • (1) Its actual or relative potential for abuse.
  • (2) Scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known.
  • (3) The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug or other substance.
  • (4) Its history and current pattern of abuse.
  • (5) The scope, duration, and significance of abuse.
  • (6) What, if any, risk there is to the public health.
  • (7) Its psychic or physiological dependence liability.
  • (8) Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this subchapter.
  • (d) International treaties, conventions, and protocols requiring control; procedures respecting changes in drug schedules of Convention on Psychotropic Substances
    • (1) If control is required by United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on October 27, 1970, the Attorney General shall issue an order controlling such drug under the schedule he deems most appropriate to carry out such obligations, without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) of this section.
    • (2)
      • (A) Whenever the Secretary of State receives notification from the Secretary-General of the United Nations that information has been transmitted by or to the World Health Organization, pursuant to article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which may justify adding a drug or other substance to one of the schedules of the Convention, transferring a drug or substance from one schedule to another, or deleting it from the schedules, the Secretary of State shall immediately transmit the notice to the Secretary of Health and Human Services who shall publish it in the Federal Register and provide opportunity to interested persons to submit to him comments respecting the scientific and medical evaluations which he is to prepare respecting such drug or substance. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare for transmission through the Secretary of State to the World Health Organization such medical and scientific evaluations as may be appropriate regarding the possible action that could be proposed by the World Health Organization respecting the drug or substance with respect to which a notice was transmitted under this subparagraph.
      • (B) Whenever the Secretary of State receives information that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations proposes to decide whether to add a drug or other substance to one of the schedules of the Convention, transfer a drug or substance from one schedule to another, or delete it from the schedules, the Secretary of State shall transmit timely notice to the Secretary of Health and Human Services of such information who shall publish a summary of such information in the Federal Register and provide opportunity to interested persons to submit to him comments respecting the recommendation which he is to furnish, pursuant to this subparagraph, respecting such proposal. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall evaluate the proposal and furnish a recommendation to the Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating to the proposal.
    • (3) When the United States receives notification of a scheduling decision pursuant to article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances that a drug or other substance has been added or transferred to a schedule specified in the notification or receives notification (referred to in this subsection as a ''schedule notice'') that existing legal controls applicable under this subchapter to a drug or substance and the controls required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) do not meet the requirements of the schedule of the Convention in which such drug or substance has been placed, the Secretary of Health and Human Services after consultation with the Attorney General, shall first determine whether existing legal controls under this subchapter applicable to the drug or substance and the controls required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, meet the requirements of the schedule specified in the notification or schedule notice and shall take the following action:
      • (A) If such requirements are met by such existing controls but the Secretary of Health and Human Services nonetheless believes that more stringent controls should be applied to the drug or substance, the Secretary shall recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance, pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, to apply to such controls.
      • (B) If such requirements are not met by such existing controls and the Secretary of Health and Human Services concurs in the scheduling decision or schedule notice transmitted by the notification, the Secretary shall recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance under the appropriate schedule pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section.
      • (C) If such requirements are not met by such existing controls and the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not concur in the scheduling decision or schedule notice transmitted by the notification, the Secretary shall -
        • (i) if he deems that additional controls are necessary to protect the public health and safety, recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, to apply such additional controls;
        • (ii) request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance, within the period specified in the Convention, pursuant to paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention, to the Secretary-General of the United Nations;
        • (iii) request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance as prescribed in clause (ii) and request the Secretary of State to ask for a review by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, in accordance with paragraph 8 of article 2 of the Convention, of the scheduling decision; or
        • (iv) in the case of a schedule notice, request the Secretary of State to take appropriate action under the Convention to initiate proceedings to remove the drug or substance from the schedules under the Convention or to transfer the drug or substance to a schedule under the Convention different from the one specified in the schedule notice.
    • (4)
      • (A) If the Attorney General determines, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, that proceedings initiated under recommendations made under paragraph (FOOTNOTE 1)
      • (B) or (C)(i) of paragraph (3) will not be completed within the time period required by paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention, the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary and after providing interested persons opportunity to submit comments respecting the requirements of the temporary order to be issued under this sentence, shall issue a temporary order controlling the drug or substance under schedule IV or V, whichever is most appropriate to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. As a part of such order, the Attorney General shall, after consultation with the Secretary, except such drug or substance from the application of any provision of part C of this subchapter which he finds is not required to carry out the United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. In the case of proceedings initiated under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3), the Attorney General, concurrently with the issuance of such order, shall request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance to the Secretary-General of the United Nations pursuant to paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. A temporary order issued under this subparagraph controlling a drug or other substance subject to proceedings initiated under subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall expire upon the effective date of the application to the drug or substance of the controls resulting from such proceedings. (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''subparagraph''.
      • (B) After a notice of qualified acceptance of a scheduling decision with respect to a drug or other substance is transmitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (3)(C) or after a request has been made under clause (iv) of such paragraph with respect to a drug or substance described in a schedule notice, the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and after providing interested persons opportunity to submit comments respecting the requirements of the order to be issued under this sentence, shall issue an order controlling the drug or substance under schedule IV or V, whichever is most appropriate to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention in the case of a drug or substance for which a notice of qualified acceptance was transmitted or whichever the Attorney General determines is appropriate in the case of a drug or substance described in a schedule notice. As a part of such order, the Attorney General shall, after consultation with the Secretary, except such drug or substance from the application of any provision of part C of this subchapter which he finds is not required to carry out the United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. If, as a result of a review under paragraph 8 of article 2 of the Convention of the scheduling decision with respect to which a notice of qualified acceptance was transmitted in accordance with clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (3)(C) -
        • (i) the decision is reversed, and
        • (ii) the drug or substance subject to such decision is not required to be controlled under schedule IV or V to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention,

        the order issued under this subparagraph with respect to such drug or substance shall expire upon receipt by the United States of the review decision. If, as a result of action taken pursuant to action initiated under a request transmitted under clause (iv) of paragraph (3)(C), the drug or substance with respect to which such action was taken is not required to be controlled under schedule IV or V, the order issued under this paragraph with respect to such drug or substance shall expire upon receipt by the United States of a notice of the action taken with respect to such drug or substance under the Convention.

      • (C) An order issued under subparagraph (A) or (B) may be issued without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or by section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsection (a) or (b) of this section.


      (5) Nothing in the amendments made by the Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 or the regulations or orders promulgated thereunder shall be construed to preclude requests by the Secretary of Health and Human Services or the Attorney General through the Secretary of State, pursuant to article 2 or other applicable provisions of the Convention, for review of scheduling decisions under such Convention, based on new or additional information.
  • (e) Immediate precursors

The Attorney General may, without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) of this section, place an immediate precursor in the same schedule in which the controlled substance of which it is an immediate precursor is placed or in any other schedule with a higher numerical designation. If the Attorney General designates a substance as an immediate precursor and places it in a schedule, other substances shall not be placed in a schedule solely because they are its precursors.

  • (f) Abuse potential

If, at the time a new-drug application is submitted to the Secretary for any drug having a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system, it appears that such drug has an abuse potential, such information shall be forwarded by the Secretary to the Attorney General.

  • (g) Exclusion of non-narcotic substances sold over the counter without a prescription; dextromethorphan; exemption of substances lacking abuse potential
    • (1) The Attorney General shall by regulation exclude any non-narcotic substance from a schedule if such substance may, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), be lawfully sold over the counter without a prescription.
    • (2) Dextromethorphan shall not be deemed to be included in any schedule by reason of enactment of this subchapter unless controlled after October 27, 1970 pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this section.
    • (3) The Attorney General may, by regulation, exempt any compound, mixture, or preparation containing a controlled substance from the application of all or any part of this subchapter if he finds such compound, mixture, or preparation meets the requirements of one of the following categories:
      • (A) A mixture, or preparation containing a nonnarcotic controlled substance, which mixture or preparation is approved for prescription use, and which contains one or more other active ingredients which are not listed in any schedule and which are included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse.
      • (B) A compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any controlled substance, which is not for administration to a human being or animal, and which is packaged in such form or concentration, or with adulterants or denaturants, so that as packaged it does not present any significant potential for abuse.
  • (h) Temporary scheduling to avoid imminent hazards to public safety
    • (1) If the Attorney General finds that the scheduling of a substance in schedule I on a temporary basis is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety, he may, by order and without regard to the requirements of subsection (b) of this section relating to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, schedule such substance in schedule I if the substance is not listed in any other schedule in section 812 of this title or if no exemption or approval is in effect for the substance under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 355). Such an order may not be issued before the expiration of thirty days from -
      • (A) the date of the publication by the Attorney General of a notice in the Federal Register of the intention to issue such order and the grounds upon which such order is to be issued, and
      • (B) the date the Attorney General has transmitted the notice required by paragraph (4).
  • (2) The scheduling of a substance under this subsection shall expire at the end of one year from the date of the issuance of the order scheduling such substance, except that the Attorney General may, during the pendency of proceedings under subsection (a)(1) of this section with respect to the substance, extend the temporary scheduling for up to six months.
  • (3) When issuing an order under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall be required to consider, with respect to the finding of an imminent hazard to the public safety, only those factors set forth in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of subsection (c) of this section, including actual abuse, diversion from legitimate channels, and clandestine importation, manufacture, or distribution.
  • (4) The Attorney General shall transmit notice of an order proposed to be issued under paragraph (1) to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. In issuing an order under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall take into consideration any comments submitted by the Secretary in response to a notice transmitted pursuant to this paragraph.
  • (5) An order issued under paragraph (1) with respect to a substance shall be vacated upon the conclusion of a subsequent rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a) of this section with respect to such substance.
  • (6) An order issued under paragraph (1) is not subject to judicial review.

§ 812. Schedules of controlled substances.

  • (a) Establishment

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as schedules I, II, III, IV, and V. Such schedules shall initially consist of the substances listed in this section. The schedules established by this section shall be updated and republished on a semiannual basis during the two-year period beginning one year after October 27, 1970, and shall be updated and republished on an annual basis thereafter.

  • (b) Placement on schedules; findings required

Except where control is required by United States obligations under an international treaty, convention, or protocol, in effect on October 27, 1970, and except in the case of an immediate precursor, a drug or other substance may not be placed in any schedule unless the findings required for such schedule are made with respect to such drug or other substance. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

  • (1) Schedule I. -
    • (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
    • (B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
    • (C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.
  • (2) Schedule II. -
    • (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
    • (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
    • (C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
  • (3) Schedule III. -
    • (A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
    • (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
    • (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
  • (4) Schedule IV. -
    • (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
    • (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
    • (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
  • (5) Schedule V. -
    • (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
    • (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
    • (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
  • (c) Initial schedules of controlled substances

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until amended (FOOTNOTE 1) pursuant to section 811 of this title, consist of the following drugs or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated: (FOOTNOTE 1) Revised schedules are published in the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1308 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

SCHEDULE I

  • (a) Opiates

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

  • (1) Acetylmethadol.
  • (2) Allylprodine.
  • (3) Alphacetylmathadol. (FOOTNOTE 2) (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be ''Alphacetylmethadol.''
  • (4) Alphameprodine.
  • (5) Alphamethadol.
  • (6) Benzethidine.
  • (7) Betacetylmethadol.
  • (8) Betameprodine.
  • (9) Betamethadol.
  • (10) Betaprodine.
  • (11) Clonitazene.
  • (12) Dextromoramide.
  • (13) Dextrorphan.
  • (14) Diampromide.
  • (15) Diethylthiambutene.
  • (16) Dimenoxadol.
  • (17) Dimepheptanol.
  • (18) Dimethylthiambutene.
  • (19) Dioxaphetyl butyrate.
  • (20) Dipipanone.
  • (21) Ethylmethylthiambutene.
  • (22) Etonitazene.
  • (23) Etoxeridine.
  • (24) Furethidine.
  • (25) Hydroxypethidine.
  • (26) Ketobemidone.
  • (27) Levomoramide.
  • (28) Levophenacylmorphan.
  • (29) Morpheridine.
  • (30) Noracymethadol.
  • (31) Norlevorphanol.
  • (32) Normethadone.
  • (33) Norpipanone.
  • (34) Phenadoxone.
  • (35) Phenampromide.
  • (36) Phenomorphan.
  • (37) Phenoperidine.
  • (38) Piritramide.
  • (39) Propheptazine.
  • (40) Properidine.
  • (41) Racemoramide.
  • (42) Trimeperidine.
  • (b) Opium Derivatives

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salt of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

  • (1) Acetorphine.
  • (2) Acetyldihydrocodeine.
  • (3) Benzylmorphine.
  • (4) Codeine methylbromide.
  • (5) Codeine-N-Oxide.
  • (6) Cyprenorphine.
  • (7) Desomorphine.
  • (8) Dihydromorphine.
  • (9) Etorphine.
  • (10) Heroin.
  • (11) Hydromorphinol.
  • (12) Methyldesorphine.
  • (13) Methylhydromorphine.
  • (14) Morphine methylbromide.
  • (15) Morphine methylsulfonate.
  • (16) Morphine-N-Oxide.
  • (17) Myrophine.
  • (18) Nicocodeine.
  • (19) Nicomorphine.
  • (20) Normorphine.
  • (21) Pholcodine.
  • (22) Thebacon.
  • (c) Hallucinogenic Substances

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

  • (1) 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.
  • (2) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.
  • (3) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine.
  • (4) Bufotenine.
  • (5) Diethyltryptamine.
  • (6) Dimethyltryptamine.
  • (7) 4-methyl-2,5-diamethoxyamphetamine.
  • (8) Ibogaine.
  • (9) Lysergic acid diethylamide.
  • (10) Marihuana.
  • (11) Mescaline.
  • (12) Peyote.
  • (13) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.
  • (14) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.
  • (15) Psilocybin.
  • (16) Psilocyn.
  • (17) Tetrahydrocannabinols.

SCHEDULE II

  • (a)

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

  • (1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.
  • (2) Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause (1), except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.
  • (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw.
  • (4) coca (FOOTNOTE 3) leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed; cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in this paragraph. (FOOTNOTE 3) So in original. Probably should be capitalized.
  • (b) Opiates

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

  • (1) Alphaprodine.
  • (2) Anileridine.
  • (3) Bezitramide.
  • (4) Dihydrocodeine.
  • (5) Diphenoxylate.
  • (6) Fentanyl.
  • (7) Isomethadone.
  • (8) Levomethorphan.
  • (9) Levorphanol.
  • (10) Metazocine.
  • (11) Methadone.
  • (12) Methadone-Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl butane.
  • (13) Moramide-Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid.
  • (14) Pethidine.
  • (15) Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.
  • (16) Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.
  • (17) Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.
  • (18) Phenazocine.
  • (19) Piminodine.
  • (20) Racemethorphan.
  • (21) Racemorphan.
  • (c) Methamphetamine

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any injectable liquid which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

SCHEDULE III

  • (a) Stimulants

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

  • (1) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers.
  • (2) Phenmetrazine and its salts.
  • (3) Any substance (except an injectable liquid) which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.
  • (4) Methylphenidate.
  • (b) Depressants

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

  • (1) Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid.
  • (2) Chorhexadol.
  • (3) Glutehimide.
  • (4) Lysergic acid.
  • (5) Lysergic acid amide.
  • (6) Methyprylon.
  • (7) Phencyclidine.
  • (8) Sulfondiethylmethane.
  • (9) Sulfonethylmethane.
  • (10) Sulfonmethane.
  • (c) Nalorphine.
  • (d) Narcotic Drug

Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

  • (1) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.
  • (2) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, non-narcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (3) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.
  • (4) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (5) Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (6) Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (7) Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (8) Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.
  • (e) Anabolic steroids.

SCHEDULE IV

  • (1) Barbital.
  • (2) Chloral betaine.
  • (3) Chloral hydrate.
  • (4) Ethchlorvynol.
  • (5) Ethinamate.
  • (6) Methohexital.
  • (7) Meprobamate.
  • (8) Methylphenobarbital.
  • (9) Paraldehyde.
  • (10) Petrichloral.
  • (11) Phenobarbital.

SCHEDULE V

Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

  • (1) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.
  • (2) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.
  • (3) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.
  • (4) Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.
  • (5) Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

§ 813. Treatment of controlled substance analogues.

A controlled substance analogue shall, to the extent intended for human consumption, be treated, for the purposes of any Federal law as a controlled substance in schedule I.

§ 814. Removal of exemption of certain drugs.

  • (a) Removal of exemption

The Attorney General shall by regulation remove from exemption under section 802(39)(A)(iv) of this title a drug or group of drugs that the Attorney General finds is being diverted to obtain a listed chemical for use in the illicit production of a controlled substance.

  • (b) Factors to be considered

In removing a drug or group of drugs from exemption under subsection (a) of this section, the Attorney General shall consider, with respect to a drug or group of drugs that is proposed to be removed from exemption -

  • (1) the scope, duration, and significance of the diversion;
  • (2) whether the drug or group of drugs is formulated in such a way that it cannot be easily used in the illicit production of a controlled substance; and
  • (3) whether the listed chemical can be readily recovered from the drug or group of drugs.
  • (c) Specificity of designation

The Attorney General shall limit the designation of a drug or a group of drugs removed from exemption under subsection (a) of this section to the most particularly identifiable type of drug or group of drugs for which evidence of diversion exists unless there is evidence, based on the pattern of diversion and other relevant factors, that the diversion will not be limited to that particular drug or group of drugs.

  • (d) Reinstatement of exemption with respect to particular drug products
    • (1) Reinstatement On application by a manufacturer of a particular drug product that has been removed from exemption under subsection (a) of this section, the Attorney General shall by regulation reinstate the exemption with respect to that particular drug product if the Attorney General determines that the particular drug product is manufactured and distributed in a manner that prevents diversion.
    • (2) Factors to be considered In deciding whether to reinstate the exemption with respect to a particular drug product under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall consider -
      • (A) the package sizes and manner of packaging of the drug product;
      • (B) the manner of distribution and advertising of the drug product;
      • (C) evidence of diversion of the drug product;
      • (D) any actions taken by the manufacturer to prevent diversion of the drug product; and
      • (E) such other factors as are relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety, including the factors described in subsection (b) of this section as applied to the drug product.
    • (3) Status pending application for reinstatement A transaction involving a particular drug product that is the subject of a bona fide pending application for reinstatement of exemption filed with the Attorney General not later than 60 days after a regulation removing the exemption is issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall not be considered to be a regulated transaction if the transaction occurs during the pendency of the application and, if the Attorney General denies the application, during the period of 60 days following the date on which the Attorney General denies the application, unless -
      • (A) the Attorney General has evidence that, applying the factors described in subsection (b) of this section to the drug product, the drug product is being diverted; and
      • (B) the Attorney General so notifies the applicant.
    • (4) Amendment and modification A regulation reinstating an exemption under paragraph (1) may be modified or revoked with respect to a particular drug product upon a finding that -
      • (A) applying the factors described in subsection (b) of this section to the drug product, the drug product is being diverted; or
      • (B) there is a significant change in the data that led to the issuance of the regulation.

 

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PART C - REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES  

§ 821. Rules and regulations.

The Attorney General is authorized to promulgate rules and regulations and to charge reasonable fees relating to the registration and control of the manufacture, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances and to the registration and control of regulated persons and of regulated transactions.

§ 822. Persons required to register.

  • (a) Period of registration
    • (1) Every person who manufactures or distributes any controlled substance or list I chemical, or who proposes to engage in the manufacture or distribution of any controlled substance or list I chemical, shall obtain annually a registration issued by the Attorney General in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by him.
    • (2) Every person who dispenses, or who proposes to dispense, any controlled substance, shall obtain from the Attorney General a registration issued in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by him. The Attorney General shall, by regulation, determine the period of such registrations. In no event, however, shall such registrations be issued for less than one year nor for more than three years.
  • (b) Authorized activities

Persons registered by the Attorney General under this subchapter to manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances or list I chemicals are authorized to possess, manufacture, distribute, or dispense such substances or chemicals (including any such activity in the conduct of research) to the extent authorized by their registration and in conformity with the other provisions of this subchapter.

  • (c) Exceptions

The following persons shall not be required to register and may lawfully possess any controlled substance or list I chemical under this subchapter:

  • (1) An agent or employee of any registered manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser of any controlled substance or list I chemical if such agent or employee is acting in the usual course of his business or employment.
  • (2) A common or contract carrier or warehouseman, or an employee thereof, whose possession of the controlled substance or list I chemical is in the usual course of his business or employment.
  • (3) An ultimate user who possesses such substance for a purpose specified in section 802(25) (FOOTNOTE 1) of this title.

    (FOOTNOTE 1) Section 802(25) of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), was redesignated section 802(26) of this title by Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 507(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2071, and was further redesignated section 802(27) of this title by Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec. 1003(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-6.

  • (d) Waiver

The Attorney General may, by regulation, waive the requirement for registration of certain manufacturers, distributors, or dispensers if he finds it consistent with the public health and safety.

  • (e) Separate registration

A separate registration shall be required at each principal place of business or professional practice where the applicant manufactures, distributes, or dispenses controlled substances or list I chemicals.

  • (f) Inspection

The Attorney General is authorized to inspect the establishment of a registrant or applicant for registration in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by him.

§ 823. Registration requirements.

  • (a) Manufacturers of controlled substances in schedule I or II

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to manufacture controlled substances in schedule I or II if he determines that such registration is consistent with the public interest and with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

  • (1) maintenance of effective controls against diversion of particular controlled substances and any controlled substance in schedule I or II compounded therefrom into other than legitimate medical, scientific, research, or industrial channels, by limiting the importation and bulk manufacture of such controlled substances to a number of establishments which can produce an adequate and uninterrupted supply of these substances under adequately competitive conditions for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes;
  • (2) compliance with applicable State and local law;
  • (3) promotion of technical advances in the art of manufacturing these substances and the development of new substances;
  • (4) prior conviction record of applicant under Federal and State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances;
  • (5) past experience in the manufacture of controlled substances, and the existence in the establishment of effective control against diversion; and
  • (6) such other factors as may be relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.
  • (b) Distributors of controlled substances in schedule I or II

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to distribute a controlled substance in schedule I or II unless he determines that the issuance of such registration is inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

  • (1) maintenance of effective control against diversion of particular controlled substances into other than legitimate medical, scientific, and industrial channels;
  • (2) compliance with applicable State and local law;
  • (3) prior conviction record of applicant under Federal or State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances;
  • (4) past experience in the distribution of controlled substances; and
  • (5) such other factors as may be relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.
  • (c) Limits of authorized activities

Registration granted under subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not entitle a registrant to (1) manufacture or distribute controlled substances in schedule I or II other than those specified in the registration, or (2) manufacture any quantity of those controlled substances in excess of the quota assigned pursuant to section 826 of this title.

  • (d) Manufacturers of controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to manufacture controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V, unless he determines that the issuance of such registration is inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

  • (1) maintenance of effective controls against diversion of particular controlled substances and any controlled substance in schedule III, IV, or V compounded therefrom into other than legitimate medical, scientific, or industrial channels;
  • (2) compliance with applicable State and local law;
  • (3) promotion of technical advances in the art of manufacturing these substances and the development of new substances;
  • (4) prior conviction record of applicant under Federal or State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances;
  • (5) past experience in the manufacture, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances, and the existence in the establishment of effective controls against diversion; and
  • (6) such other factors as may be relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.
  • (e) Distributors of controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to distribute controlled substances in schedule III, IV, or V, unless he determines that the issuance of such registration is inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

  • (1) maintenance of effective controls against diversion of particular controlled substances into other than legitimate medical, scientific, and industrial channels;
  • (2) compliance with applicable State and local law;
  • (3) prior conviction record of applicant under Federal or State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances;
  • (4) past experience in the distribution of controlled substances; and
  • (5) such other factors as may be relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.
  • (f) Research by practitioners; pharmacies; research applications; construction of Article 7 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Attorney General shall register practitioners (including pharmacies, as distinguished from pharmacists) to dispense, or conduct research with, controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV, or V, if the applicant is authorized to dispense, or conduct research with respect to, controlled substances under the laws of the State in which he practices. The Attorney General may deny an application for such registration if he determines that the issuance of such registration would be inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

  • (1) The recommendation of the appropriate State licensing board or professional disciplinary authority.
  • (2) The applicant's experience in dispensing, or conducting research with respect to controlled substances.
  • (3) The applicant's conviction record under Federal or State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of controlled substances.
  • (4) Compliance with applicable State, Federal, or local laws relating to controlled substances.
  • (5) Such other conduct which may threaten the public health and safety.

Separate registration under this part for practitioners engaging in research with controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV, or V, who are already registered under this part in another capacity, shall not be required. Registration applications by practitioners wishing to conduct research with controlled substances in schedule I shall be referred to the Secretary, who shall determine the qualifications and competency of each practitioner requesting registration, as well as the merits of the research protocol. The Secretary, in determining the merits of each research protocol, shall consult with the Attorney General as to effective procedures to adequately safeguard against diversion of such controlled substances from legitimate medical or scientific use. Registration for the purpose of bona fide research with controlled substances in schedule I by a practitioner deemed qualified by the Secretary may be denied by the Attorney General only on a ground specified in section 824(a) of this title. Article 7 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances shall not be construed to prohibit, or impose additional restrictions upon, research involving drugs or other substances scheduled under the convention which is conducted in conformity with this subsection and other applicable provisions of this subchapter.

  • (g) Practitioners dispensing narcotic drugs for narcotic treatment; annual registration; separate registration; qualifications

Practitioners who dispense narcotic drugs to individuals for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment shall obtain annually a separate registration for that purpose. The Attorney General shall register an applicant to dispense narcotic drugs to individuals for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment (or both)

  • (1) if the applicant is a practitioner who is determined by the Secretary to be qualified (under standards established by the Secretary) to engage in the treatment with respect to which registration is sought;
  • (2) if the Attorney General determines that the applicant will comply with standards established by the Attorney General respecting (A) security of stocks of narcotic drugs for such treatment, and (B) the maintenance of records (in accordance with section 827 of this title) on such drugs; and
  • (3) if the Secretary determines that the applicant will comply with standards established by the Secretary (after consultation with the Attorney General) respecting the quantities of narcotic drugs which may be provided for unsupervised use by individuals in such treatment.
  • (h) Applicants for distribution of list I chemicals

The Attorney General shall register an applicant to distribute a list I chemical unless the Attorney General determines that registration of the applicant is inconsistent with the public interest. Registration under this subsection shall not be required for the distribution of a drug product that is exempted under section 802(39)(A)(iv) of this title. In determining the public interest for the purposes of this subsection, the Attorney General shall consider -

  • (1) maintenance by the applicant of effective controls against diversion of listed chemicals into other than legitimate channels;
  • (2) compliance by the applicant with applicable Federal, State, and local law;
  • (3) any prior conviction record of the applicant under Federal or State laws relating to controlled substances or to chemicals controlled under Federal or State law;
  • (4) any past experience of the applicant in the manufacture and distribution of chemicals; and
  • (5) such other factors as are relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.

§ 824. Denial, revocation, or suspension of registration.

  • (a) Grounds

A registration pursuant to section 823 of this title to manufacture, distribute, or dispense a controlled substance or a list I chemical may be suspended or revoked by the Attorney General upon a finding that the registrant -

  • (1) has materially falsified any application filed pursuant to or required by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (2) has been convicted of a felony under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or of any State, relating to any substance defined in this subchapter as a controlled substance or a list I chemical;
  • (3) has had his State license or registration suspended, revoked, or denied by competent State authority and is no longer authorized by State law to engage in the manufacturing, distribution, or dispensing of controlled substances or list I chemicals or has had the suspension, revocation, or denial of his registration recommended by competent State authority;
  • (4) has committed such acts as would render his registration under section 823 of this title inconsistent with the public interest as determined under such section; or
  • (5) has been excluded (or directed to be excluded) from participation in a program pursuant to section 1320a-7(a) of title 42.

A registration pursuant to section 823(g) of this title to dispense a narcotic drug for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment may be suspended or revoked by the Attorney General upon a finding that the registrant has failed to comply with any standard referred to in section 823(g) of this title.

  • (b) Limits of revocation or suspension

The Attorney General may limit revocation or suspension of a registration to the particular controlled substance or list I chemical with respect to which grounds for revocation or suspension exist.

  • (c) Service of show cause order; proceedings

Before taking action pursuant to this section, or pursuant to a denial of registration under section 823 of this title, the Attorney General shall serve upon the applicant or registrant an order to show cause why registration should not be denied, revoked, or suspended. The order to show cause shall contain a statement of the basis thereof and shall call upon the applicant or registrant to appear before the Attorney General at a time and place stated in the order, but in no event less than thirty days after the date of receipt of the order. Proceedings to deny, revoke, or suspend shall be conducted pursuant to this section in accordance with subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. Such proceedings shall be independent of, and not in lieu of, criminal prosecutions or other proceedings under this subchapter or any other law of the United States.

  • (d) Suspension of registration in cases of imminent danger

The Attorney General may, in his discretion, suspend any registration simultaneously with the institution of proceedings under this section, in cases where he finds that there is an imminent danger to the public health or safety. A failure to comply with a standard referred to in section 823(g) of this title may be treated under this subsection as grounds for immediate suspension of a registration granted under such section. A suspension under this subsection shall continue in effect until the conclusion of such proceedings, including judicial review thereof, unless sooner withdrawn by the Attorney General or dissolved by a court of competent jurisdiction.

  • (e) Suspension and revocation of quotas

The suspension or revocation of a registration under this section shall operate to suspend or revoke any quota applicable under section 826 of this title.

  • (f) Disposition of controlled substances or list I chemicals

In the event the Attorney General suspends or revokes a registration granted under section 823 of this title, all controlled substances or list I chemicals owned or possessed by the registrant pursuant to such registration at the time of suspension or the effective date of the revocation order, as the case may be, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be placed under seal. No disposition may be made of any controlled substances or list I chemicals under seal until the time for taking an appeal has elapsed or until all appeals have been concluded except that a court, upon application therefor, may at any time order the sale of perishable controlled substances or list I chemicals. Any such order shall require the deposit of the proceeds of the sale with the court. Upon a revocation order becoming final, all such controlled substances or list I chemicals (or proceeds of sale deposited in court) shall be forfeited to the United States; and the Attorney General shall dispose of such controlled substances or list I chemicals in accordance with section 881(e) of this title. All right, title, and interest in such controlled substances or list I chemicals shall vest in the United States upon a revocation order becoming final.

  • (g) Seizure or placement under seal of controlled substances or list I chemicals

The Attorney General may, in his discretion, seize or place under seal any controlled substances or list I chemicals owned or possessed by a registrant whose registration has expired or who has ceased to practice or do business in the manner contemplated by his registration. Such controlled substances or list I chemicals shall be held for the benefit of the registrant, or his successor in interest. The Attorney General shall notify a registrant, or his successor in interest, who has any controlled substance or list I chemical seized or placed under seal of the procedures to be followed to secure the return of the controlled substance or list I chemical and the conditions under which it will be returned. The Attorney General may not dispose of any controlled substance or list I chemical seized or placed under seal under this subsection until the expiration of one hundred and eighty days from the date such substance or chemical was seized or placed under seal.

§ 825. Labeling and packaging.

  • (a) Symbol

It shall be unlawful to distribute a controlled substance in a commercial container unless such container, when and as required by regulations of the Attorney General, bears a label (as defined in section 321(k) of this title) containing an identifying symbol for such substance in accordance with such regulations. A different symbol shall be required for each schedule of controlled substances.

  • (b) Unlawful distribution without identifying symbol

It shall be unlawful for the manufacturer of any controlled substance to distribute such substance unless the labeling (as defined in section 321(m) of this title) of such substance contains, when and as required by regulations of the Attorney General, the identifying symbol required under subsection (a) of this section.

  • (c) Warning on label

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under section 353(b) of this title which shall provide that the label of a drug listed in schedule II, III, or IV shall, when dispensed to or for a patient, contain a clear, concise warning that it is a crime to transfer the drug to any person other than the patient.

  • (d) Containers to be securely sealed

It shall be unlawful to distribute controlled substances in schedule I or II, and narcotic drugs in schedule III or IV, unless the bottle or other container, stopper, covering, or wrapper thereof is securely sealed as required by regulations of the Attorney General.

§ 826. Production quotas for controlled substances.

  • (a) Establishment of total annual needs

The Attorney General shall determine the total quantity and establish production quotas for each basic class of controlled substance in schedules I and II to be manufactured each calendar year to provide for the estimated medical, scientific, research, and industrial needs of the United States, for lawful export requirements, and for the establishment and maintenance of reserve stocks. Production quotas shall be established in terms of quantities of each basic class of controlled substance and not in terms of individual pharmaceutical dosage forms prepared from or containing such a controlled substance.

  • (b) Individual production quotas; revised quotas

The Attorney General shall limit or reduce individual production quotas to the extent necessary to prevent the aggregate of individual quotas from exceeding the amount determined necessary each year by the Attorney General under subsection (a) of this section. The quota of each registered manufacturer for each basic class of controlled substance in schedule I or II shall be revised in the same proportion as the limitation or reduction of the aggregate of the quotas. However, if any registrant, before the issuance of a limitation or reduction in quota, has manufactured in excess of his revised quota, the amount of the excess shall be subtracted from his quota for the following year.

  • (c) Manufacturing quotas for registered manufacturers

On or before October 1 of each year, upon application therefor by a registered manufacturer, the Attorney General shall fix a manufacturing quota for the basic classes of controlled substances in schedules I and II that the manufacturer seeks to produce. The quota shall be subject to the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section. In fixing such quotas, the Attorney General shall determine the manufacturer's estimated disposal, inventory, and other requirements for the calendar year; and, in making his determination, the Attorney General shall consider the manufacturer's current rate of disposal, the trend of the national disposal rate during the preceding calendar year, the manufacturer's production cycle and inventory position, the economic availability of raw materials, yield and stability problems, emergencies such as strikes and fires, and other factors.

  • (d) Quotas for registrants who have not manufactured controlled substance during one or more preceding years

The Attorney General shall, upon application and subject to the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, fix a quota for a basic class of controlled substance in schedule I or II for any registrant who has not manufactured that basic class of controlled substance during one or more preceding calendar years. In fixing such quota, the Attorney General shall take into account the registrant's reasonably anticipated requirements for the current year; and, in making his determination of such requirements, he shall consider such factors specified in subsection (c) of this section as may be relevant.

  • (e) Quota increases

At any time during the year any registrant who has applied for or received a manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance in schedule I or II may apply for an increase in that quota to meet his estimated disposal, inventory, and other requirements during the remainder of that year. In passing upon the application the Attorney General shall take into consideration any occurrences since the filing of the registrant's initial quota application that may require an increased manufacturing rate by the registrant during the balance of the year. In passing upon the application the Attorney General may also take into account the amount, if any, by which the determination of the Attorney General under subsection (a) of this section exceeds the aggregate of the quotas of all registrants under this section.

  • (f) Incidental production exception

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter, no registration or quota may be required for the manufacture of such quantities of controlled substances in schedules I and II as incidentally and necessarily result from the manufacturing process used for the manufacture of a controlled substance with respect to which its manufacturer is duly registered under this subchapter. The Attorney General may, by regulation, prescribe restrictions on the retention and disposal of such incidentally produced substances.

§ 827. Records and reports of registrants.

  • (a) Inventory

Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section -

  • (1) every registrant under this subchapter shall, on May 1, 1971, or as soon thereafter as such registrant first engages in the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of controlled substances, and every second year thereafter, make a complete and accurate record of all stocks thereof on hand, except that the regulations prescribed under this section shall permit each such biennial inventory (following the initial inventory required by this paragraph) to be prepared on such registrant's regular general physical inventory date (if any) which is nearest to and does not vary by more than six months from the biennial date that would otherwise apply;
  • (2) on the effective date of each regulation of the Attorney General controlling a substance that immediately prior to such date was not a controlled substance, each registrant under this subchapter manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing such substance shall make a complete and accurate record of all stocks thereof on hand; and
  • (3) on and after May 1, 1971, every registrant under this subchapter manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance or substances shall maintain, on a current basis, a complete and accurate record of each such substance manufactured, received, sold, delivered, or otherwise disposed of by him, except that this paragraph shall not require the maintenance of a perpetual inventory.
  • (b) Availability of records

Every inventory or other record required under this section (1) shall be in accordance with, and contain such relevant information as may be required by, regulations of the Attorney General, (2) shall (A) be maintained separately from all other records of the registrant, or (B) alternatively, in the case of nonnarcotic controlled substances, be in such form that information required by the Attorney General is readily retrievable from the ordinary business records of the registrant, and (3) shall be kept and be available, for at least two years, for inspection and copying by officers or employees of the United States authorized by the Attorney General.

  • (c) Nonapplicability

The foregoing provisions of this section shall not apply -

  • (1)
    • (A) to the prescribing of controlled substances in schedule II, III, IV, or V by practitioners acting in the lawful course of their professional practice unless such substance is prescribed in the course of maintenance or detoxification treatment of an individual; or
    • (B) to the administering of a controlled substance in schedule II, III, IV, or V unless the practitioner regularly engages in the dispensing or administering of controlled substances and charges his patients, either separately or together with charges for other professional services, for substances so dispensed or administered or unless such substance is administered in the course of maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment of an individual;
  • (2)
    • (A) to the use of controlled substances, at establishments registered under this subchapter which keep records with respect to such substances, in research conducted in conformity with an exemption granted under section 355(i) or 360b(j) of this title;
    • (B) to the use of controlled substances, at establishments registered under this subchapter which keep records with respect to such substances, in preclinical research or in teaching; or
  • (3) to the extent of any exemption granted to any person, with respect to all or part of such provisions, by the Attorney General by or pursuant to regulation on the basis of a finding that the application of such provisions (or part thereof) to such person is not necessary for carrying out the purposes of this subchapter. Nothing in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances shall be construed as superseding or otherwise affecting the provisions of paragraph (1)(B), (2), or (3) of this subsection.
  • (d) Periodic reports to Attorney General

Every manufacturer registered under section 823 of this title shall, at such time or times and in such form as the Attorney General may require, make periodic reports to the Attorney General of every sale, delivery or other disposal by him of any controlled substance, and each distributor shall make such reports with respect to narcotic controlled substances, identifying by the registration number assigned under this subchapter the person or establishment (unless exempt from registration under section 822(d) of this title) to whom such sale, delivery, or other disposal was made.

  • (e) Reporting and recordkeeping requirements of drug conventions

In addition to the reporting and recordkeeping requirements under any other provision of this subchapter, each manufacturer registered under section 823 of this title shall, with respect to narcotic and nonnarcotic controlled substances manufactured by it, make such reports to the Attorney General, and maintain such records, as the Attorney General may require to enable the United States to meet its obligations under articles 19 and 20 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and article 16 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Attorney General shall administer the requirements of this subsection in such a manner as to avoid the unnecessary imposition of duplicative requirements under this subchapter on manufacturers subject to the requirements of this subsection.

  • (f) Investigational uses of drugs; procedures

Regulations under sections 355(i) and 360(j) of this title, relating to investigational use of drugs, shall include such procedures as the Secretary, after consultation with the Attorney General, determines are necessary to insure the security and accountability of controlled substances used in research to which such regulations apply.

  • (g) Change of address

Every registrant under this subchapter shall be required to report any change of professional or business address in such manner as the Attorney General shall by regulation require.

§ 828. Order forms.

  • (a) Unlawful distribution of controlled substances

It shall be unlawful for any person to distribute a controlled substance in schedule I or II to another except in pursuance of a written order of the person to whom such substance is distributed, made on a form to be issued by the Attorney General in blank in accordance with subsection (d) of this section and regulations prescribed by him pursuant to this section.

  • (b) Nonapplicability of provisions

Nothing in subsection (a) of this section shall apply to -

  • (1) the exportation of such substances from the United States in conformity with subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (2) the delivery of such a substance to or by a common or contract carrier for carriage in the lawful and usual course of its business, or to or by a warehouseman for storage in the lawful and usual course of its business; but where such carriage or storage is in connection with the distribution by the owner of the substance to a third person, this paragraph shall not relieve the distributor from compliance with subsection (a) of this section.
  • (c) Preservation and availability
    • (1) Every person who in pursuance of an order required under subsection (a) of this section distributes a controlled substance shall preserve such order for a period of two years, and shall make such order available for inspection and copying by officers and employees of the United States duly authorized for that purpose by the Attorney General, and by officers or employees of States or their political subdivisions who are charged with the enforcement of State or local laws regulating the production, or regulating the distribution or dispensing, of controlled substances and who are authorized under such laws to inspect such orders.
    • (2) Every person who gives an order required under subsection (a) of this section shall, at or before the time of giving such order, make or cause to be made a duplicate thereof on a form to be issued by the Attorney General in blank in accordance with subsection (d) of this section and regulations prescribed by him pursuant to this section, and shall, if such order is accepted, preserve such duplicate for a period of two years and make it available for inspection and copying by the officers and employees mentioned in paragraph (1) of this subsection.
  • (d) Issuance
    • (1) The Attorney General shall issue forms pursuant to subsections (a) and (c)(2) of this section only to persons validly registered under section 823 of this title (or exempted from registration under section 822(d) of this title). Whenever any such form is issued to a person, the Attorney General shall, before delivery thereof, insert therein the name of such person, and it shall be unlawful for any other person (A) to use such form for the purpose of obtaining controlled substances or (B) to furnish such form to any person with intent thereby to procure the distribution of such substances.
    • (2) The Attorney General may charge reasonable fees for the issuance of such forms in such amounts as he may prescribe for the purpose of covering the cost to the United States of issuing such forms, and other necessary activities in connection therewith.
  • (e) Unlawful acts

It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain by means of order forms issued under this section controlled substances for any purpose other than their use, distribution, dispensing, or administration in the conduct of a lawful business in such substances or in the course of his professional practice or research.

§ 829. Prescriptions.

  • (a) Schedule II substances

Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance in schedule II, which is a prescription drug as determined under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), may be dispensed without the written prescription of a practitioner, except that in emergency situations, as prescribed by the Secretary by regulation after consultation with the Attorney General, such drug may be dispensed upon oral prescription in accordance with section 503(b) of that Act (21 U.S.C. 353(b)). Prescriptions shall be retained in conformity with the requirements of section 827 of this title. No prescription for a controlled substance in schedule II may be refilled.

  • (b) Schedule III and IV substances

Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance in schedule III or IV, which is a prescription drug as determined under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), may be dispensed without a written or oral prescription in conformity with section 503(b) of that Act (21 U.S.C. 353(b)). Such prescriptions may not be filled or refilled more than six months after the date thereof or be refilled more than five times after the date of the prescription unless renewed by the practitioner.

  • (c) Schedule V substances

No controlled substance in schedule V which is a drug may be distributed or dispensed other than for a medical purpose.

  • (d) Non-prescription drugs with abuse potential

Whenever it appears to the Attorney General that a drug not considered to be a prescription drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) should be so considered because of its abuse potential, he shall so advise the Secretary and furnish to him all available data relevant thereto.

§ 830. Regulation of listed chemicals and certain machines.

  • (a) Record of regulated transactions
    • (1) Each regulated person who engages in a regulated transaction involving a listed chemical, a tableting machine, or an encapsulating machine shall keep a record of the transaction -
      • (A) for 4 years after the date of the transaction, if the listed chemical is a list I chemical or if the transaction involves a tableting machine or an encapsulating machine; and
      • (B) for 2 years after the date of the transaction, if the listed chemical is a list II chemical.
    • (2) A record under this subsection shall be retrievable and shall include the date of the regulated transaction, the identity of each party to the regulated transaction, a statement of the quantity and form of the listed chemical, a description of the tableting machine or encapsulating machine, and a description of the method of transfer. Such record shall be available for inspection and copying by the Attorney General.
    • (3) It is the duty of each regulated person who engages in a regulated transaction to identify each other party to the transaction. It is the duty of such other party to present proof of identity to the regulated person. The Attorney General shall specify by regulation the types of documents and other evidence that constitute proof of identity for purposes of this paragraph.
  • (b) Reports to Attorney General
    • (1) Each regulated person shall report to the Attorney General, in such form and manner as the Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation -
      • (A) any regulated transaction involving an extraordinary quantity of a listed chemical, an uncommon method of payment or delivery, or any other circumstance that the regulated person believes may indicate that the listed chemical will be used in violation of this subchapter;
      • (B) any proposed regulated transaction with a person whose description or other identifying characteristic the Attorney General furnishes in advance to the regulated person;
      • (C) any unusual or excessive loss or disappearance of a listed chemical under the control of the regulated person; and
      • (D) any regulated transaction in a tableting machine or an encapsulating machine.

      Each report under subparagraph (A) shall be made at the earliest practicable opportunity after the regulated person becomes aware of the circumstance involved. A regulated person may not complete a transaction with a person whose description or identifying characteristic is furnished to the regulated person under subparagraph (B) unless the transaction is approved by the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall make available to regulated persons guidance documents describing transactions and circumstances for which reports are required under subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (C).

    • (2) A regulated person that manufactures a listed chemical shall report annually to the Attorney General, in such form and manner and containing such specific data as the Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation, information concerning listed chemicals manufactured by the person. The requirement of the preceding sentence shall not apply to the manufacture of a drug product that is exempted under section 802(39)(A)(iv) of this title.
  • (c) Confidentiality of information obtained by Attorney General; non-disclosure; exceptions
    • (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any information obtained by the Attorney General under this section which is exempt from disclosure under section 552(a) of title 5, by reason of section 552(b)(4) of such title, is confidential and may not be disclosed to any person.
    • (2) Information referred to in paragraph (1) may be disclosed only -
      • (A) to an officer or employee of the United States engaged in carrying out this subchapter, subchapter II of this chapter, or the customs laws;
      • (B) when relevant in any investigation or proceeding for the enforcement of this subchapter, subchapter II of this chapter, or the customs laws;
      • (C) when necessary to comply with an obligation of the United States under a treaty or other international agreement; or
      • (D) to a State or local official or employee in conjunction with the enforcement of controlled substances laws or chemical control laws.
    • (3) The Attorney General shall -
      • (A) take such action as may be necessary to prevent unauthorized disclosure of information by any person to whom such information is disclosed under paragraph (2); and
      • (B) issue guidelines that limit, to the maximum extent feasible, the disclosure of proprietary business information, including the names or identities of United States exporters of listed chemicals, to any person to whom such information is disclosed under paragraph (2).
    • (4) Any person who is aggrieved by a disclosure of information in violation of this section may bring a civil action against the violator for appropriate relief.
    • (5) Notwithstanding paragraph (4), a civil action may not be brought under such paragraph against investigative or law enforcement personnel of the Drug Enforcement Administration.

 

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PART D - OFFENSES AND PENALTIES 

§ 841. Prohibited acts A.

  • (a) Unlawful acts

Except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally -

  • (1) to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance; or
  • (2) to create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.
  • (b) Penalties

Except as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:

  • (1)
    • (A) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving -
      • (i) 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;
      • (ii) 5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of -
        • (I) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;
        • (II) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;
        • (III) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or
        • (IV) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);
      • (iii) 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;
      • (iv) 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);
      • (v) 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);
      • (vi) 400 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- ( 1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl ) propanamide or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-pheny propanamide;
      • (vii) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or
      • (viii) 100 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

      such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years or more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $4,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $20,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits a violation of this subparagraph or of section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title after two or more prior convictions for a felony drug offense have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory term of life imprisonment without release and fined in accordance with the preceding sentence. Any sentence under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 10 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

    • (B) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving -
      • (i) 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;
      • (ii) 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of -
        • (I) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;
        • (II) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;
        • (III) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or
        • (IV) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);
      • (iii) 5 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;
      • (iv) 10 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);
      • (v) 1 gram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);
      • (vi) 40 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- ( 1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl ) propanamide or 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-pheny propanamide;
      • (vii) 100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or
      • (viii) 10 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

      such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $4,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposed under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 8 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

       



    • (C) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule I or II except as provided in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (D), such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under the provisions of this subparagraph which provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment if death or serious bodily injury results, nor shall a person so sentenced be eligible for parole during the term of such a sentence.
    • (D) In the case of less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil or in the case of any controlled substance in schedule III, such person shall, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.
  • (2) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule IV, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 3 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after one or more prior convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 6 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least one year in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.
  • (3) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule V, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than one year, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $100,000 if the defendant is an individual or $250,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after one or more convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a crime under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 2 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $200,000 if the defendant is an individual or $500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.
  • (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by distributing a small amount of marihuana for no remuneration shall be treated as provided in section 844 of this title and section 3607 of title 18.
  • (5) Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by cultivating a controlled substance on Federal property shall be imprisoned as provided in this subsection and shall be fined any amount not to exceed -
    • (A) the amount authorized in accordance with this section;
    • (B) the amount authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18;
    • (C) $500,000 if the defendant is an individual; or
    • (D) $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual; or both.
  • (6) Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section, or attempts to do so, and knowingly or intentionally uses a poison, chemical, or other hazardous substance on Federal land, and, by such use -
    • (A) creates a serious hazard to humans, wildlife, or domestic animals,
    • (B) degrades or harms the environment or natural resources, or
    • (C) pollutes an aquifer, spring, stream, river, or body of water, shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.
  • (c) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 224(a)(2), formerly Sec. 224(a)(6), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030, as renumbered by Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec. 1005(a)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-6
  • (d) Offenses involving listed chemicals

Any person who knowingly or intentionally -

  • (1) possesses a listed chemical with intent to manufacture a controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter;
  • (2) possesses or distributes a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter; or
  • (3) with the intent of causing the evasion of the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title, or the regulations issued under that section, receives or distributes a reportable amount of any listed chemical in units small enough so that the making of records or filing of reports under that section is not required; shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
  • (e) Boobytraps on Federal property; penalties; ''boobytrap'' defined
    • (1) Any person who assembles, maintains, places, or causes to be placed a boobytrap on Federal property where a controlled substance is being manufactured, distributed, or dispensed shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not more than 10 years and shall be fined not more than $10,000.
    • (2) If any person commits such a violation after 1 or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and shall be fined not more than $20,000.
    • (3) For the purposes of this subsection, the term ''boobytrap'' means any concealed or camouflaged device designed to cause bodily injury when triggered by any action of any unsuspecting person making contact with the device. Such term includes guns, ammunition, or explosive devices attached to trip wires or other triggering mechanisms, sharpened stakes, and lines or wires with hooks attached.
  • (f) Ten-year injunction as additional penalty

In addition to any other applicable penalty, any person convicted of a felony violation of this section relating to the receipt, distribution, or importation of a listed chemical may be enjoined from engaging in any regulated transaction involving a listed chemical for not more than ten years.

  • (g) Wrongful distribution or possession of listed chemicals
    • (1) Whoever knowingly distributes a listed chemical in violation of this subchapter (other than in violation of a recordkeeping or reporting requirement of section 830 of this title) shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
    • (2) Whoever possesses any listed chemical, with knowledge that the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title have not been adhered to, if, after such knowledge is acquired, such person does not take immediate steps to remedy the violation shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

§ 842. Prohibited acts B.

  • (a) Unlawful acts

It shall be unlawful for any person -

  • (1) who is subject to the requirements of part C to distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of section 829 of this title;
  • (2) who is a registrant to distribute or dispense a controlled substance not authorized by his registration to another registrant or other authorized person or to manufacture a controlled substance not authorized by his registration;
  • (3) who is a registrant to distribute a controlled substance in violation of section 825 of this title;
  • (4) to remove, alter, or obliterate a symbol or label required by section 825 of this title;
  • (5) to refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, report, notification, declaration, order or order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (6) to refuse any entry into any premises or inspection authorized by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (7) to remove, break, injure, or deface a seal placed upon controlled substances pursuant to section 824(f) or 881 of this title or to remove or dispose of substances so placed under seal;
  • (8) to use, to his own advantage, or to reveal, other than to duly authorized officers or employees of the United States, or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, any information acquired in the course of an inspection authorized by this subchapter concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection, or to use to his own advantage or reveal (other than as authorized by section 830 of this title) any information that is confidential under such section;
  • (9) who is a regulated person to engage in a regulated transaction without obtaining the identification required by 830(a)(3) of this title; or
  • (10) to fail to keep a record or make a report under section 830 of this title.
  • (b) Manufacture

It shall be unlawful for any person who is a registrant to manufacture a controlled substance in schedule I or II which is -

  • (1) not expressly authorized by his registration and by a quota assigned to him pursuant to section 826 of this title; or
  • (2) in excess of a quota assigned to him pursuant to section 826 of this title.
  • (c) Penalties
    • (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person who violates this section shall, with respect to any such violation, be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. The district courts of the United States (or, where there is no such court in the case of any territory or possession of the United States, then the court in such territory or possession having the jurisdiction of a district court of the United States in cases arising under the Constitution and laws of the United States) shall have jurisdiction in accordance with section 1355 of title 28 to enforce this paragraph.
    • (2)
      • (A) If a violation of this section is prosecuted by an information or indictment which alleges that the violation was committed knowingly and the trier of fact specifically finds that the violation was so committed, such person shall, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than one year or a fine of not more than $25,000, or both.
      • (B) If a violation referred to in subparagraph (A) was committed after one or more prior convictions of the offender for an offense punishable under this paragraph (2), or for a crime under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of the United States relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 2 years, a fine of $50,000, or both.
    • (3) Except under the conditions specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a violation of this section does not constitute a crime, and a judgment for the United States and imposition of a civil penalty pursuant to paragraph (1) shall not give rise to any disability or legal disadvantage based on conviction for a criminal offense.

§ 843. Prohibited acts C.

  • (a) Unlawful acts

It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally -

  • (1) who is a registrant to distribute a controlled substance classified in schedule I or II, in the course of his legitimate business, except pursuant to an order or an order form as required by section 828 of this title;
  • (2) to use in the course of the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of a controlled substance, or to use for the purpose of acquiring or obtaining a controlled substance, a registration number which is fictitious, revoked, suspended, expired, or issued to another person;
  • (3) to acquire or obtain possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge;
  • (4)
    • (A) to furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any application, report, record, or other document required to be made, kept, or filed under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, or
    • (B) to present false or fraudulent identification where the person is receiving or purchasing a listed chemical and the person is required to present identification under section 830(a) of this title;
  • (5) to make, distribute, or possess any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit substance;
  • (6) to possess any three-neck round-bottom flask, tableting machine, encapsulating machine, or gelatin capsule, or any equipment, chemical, product, or material which may be used to manufacture a controlled substance or listed chemical, knowing, intending, or having reasonable cause to believe, that it will be used to manufacture a controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (7) to manufacture, distribute, export, or import any three-neck round-bottom flask, tableting machine, encapsulating machine, or gelatin capsule, or any equipment, chemical, product, or material which may be used to manufacture a controlled substance or listed chemical, knowing, intending, or having reasonable cause to believe, that it will be used to manufacture a controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or, in the case of an exportation, in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or of the laws of the country to which it is exported;
  • (8) to create a chemical mixture for the purpose of evading a requirement of section 830 of this title or to receive a chemical mixture created for that purpose; or
  • (9) to distribute, import, or export a list I chemical without the registration required by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter.
  • (b) Communication facility

It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to use any communication facility in committing or in causing or facilitating the commission of any act or acts constituting a felony under any provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter. Each separate use of a communication facility shall be a separate offense under this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, the term ''communication facility'' means any and all public and private instrumentalities used or useful in the transmission of writing, signs, signals, pictures, or sounds of all kinds and includes mail, telephone, wire, radio, and all other means of communication.

  • (c) Advertisement

It shall be unlawful for any person to place in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publications, any written advertisement knowing that it has the purpose of seeking or offering illegally to receive, buy, or distribute a Schedule (FOOTNOTE 1) I controlled substance. As used in this section the term ''advertisement'' includes, in addition to its ordinary meaning, such advertisements as those for a catalog of Schedule (FOOTNOTE 1) I controlled substances and any similar written advertisement that has the purpose of seeking or offering illegally to receive, buy, or distribute a Schedule (FOOTNOTE 1) I controlled substance. The term ''advertisement'' does not include material which merely advocates the use of a similar material, which advocates a position or practice, and does not attempt to propose or facilitate an actual transaction in a Schedule (FOOTNOTE 1) I controlled substance. (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

  • (d) Penalties

Any person who violates this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 4 years, a fine of not more than $30,000, or both; except that if any person commits such a violation after one or more prior convictions of him for violation of this section, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of the United States relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 8 years, a fine of not more than $60,000, or both.

  • (e) Additional penalties

In addition to any other applicable penalty, any person convicted of a felony violation of this section relating to the receipt, distribution, or importation of a listed chemical may be enjoined from engaging in any regulated transaction involving a listed chemical for not more than ten years.

§ 844. Penalties for simple possession.

  • (a) Unlawful acts; penalties

It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled substance unless such substance was obtained directly, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order, from a practitioner, while acting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter. Any person who violates this subsection may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 1 year, and shall be fined a minimum of $1,000, or both, except that if he commits such offense after a prior conviction under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, or a prior conviction for any drug or narcotic offense chargeable under the law of any State, has become final, he shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not less than 15 days but not more than 2 years, and shall be fined a minimum of $2,500, except, further, that if he commits such offense after two or more prior convictions under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, or two or more prior convictions for any drug or narcotic offense chargeable under the law of any State, or a combination of two or more such offenses have become final, he shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not less than 90 days but not more than 3 years, and shall be fined a minimum of $5,000. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a person convicted under this subsection for the possession of a mixture or substance which contains cocaine base shall be imprisoned not less than 5 years and not more than 20 years, and fined a minimum of $1,000, if the conviction is a first conviction under this subsection and the amount of the mixture or substance exceeds 5 grams, if the conviction is after a prior conviction for the possession of such a mixture or substance under this subsection becomes final and the amount of the mixture or substance exceeds 3 grams, or if the conviction is after 2 or more prior convictions for the possession of such a mixture or substance under this subsection become final and the amount of the mixture or substance exceeds 1 gram. The imposition or execution of a minimum sentence required to be imposed under this subsection shall not be suspended or deferred. Further, upon conviction, a person who violates this subsection shall be fined the reasonable costs of the investigation and prosecution of the offense, including the costs of prosecution of an offense as defined in sections 1918 and 1920 of title 28, except that this sentence shall not apply and a fine under this section need not be imposed if the court determines under the provision of title 18 that the defendant lacks the ability to pay.

  • (b) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 219(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027
  • (c) ''Drug or narcotic offense'' defined

As used in this section, the term ''drug or narcotic offense'' means any offense which proscribes the possession, distribution, manufacture, cultivation, sale, transfer, or the attempt or conspiracy to possess, distribute, manufacture, cultivate, sell or transfer any substance the possession of which is prohibited under this subchapter.

§ 844a. Civil penalty for possession of small amounts of certain controlled substances.

  • (a) In general

Any individual who knowingly possesses a controlled substance that is listed in section 841(b)(1)(A) of this title in violation of section 844 of this title in an amount that, as specified by regulation of the Attorney General, is a personal use amount shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for each such violation.

  • (b) Income and net assets

The income and net assets of an individual shall not be relevant to the determination whether to assess a civil penalty under this section or to prosecute the individual criminally. However, in determining the amount of a penalty under this section, the income and net assets of an individual shall be considered.

  • (c) Prior conviction

A civil penalty may not be assessed under this section if the individual previously was convicted of a Federal or State offense relating to a controlled substance.

  • (d) Limitation on number of assessments

A civil penalty may not be assessed on an individual under this section on more than two separate occasions.

  • (e) Assessment

A civil penalty under this section may be assessed by the Attorney General only by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5. The Attorney General shall provide written notice to the individual who is the subject of the proposed order informing the individual of the opportunity to receive such a hearing with respect to the proposed order. The hearing may be held only if the individual makes a request for the hearing before the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date such notice is issued.

  • (f) Compromise

The Attorney General may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty imposed under this section.

  • (g) Judicial review

If the Attorney General issues an order pursuant to subsection (e) of this section after a hearing described in such subsection, the individual who is the subject of the order may, before the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date the order is issued, bring a civil action in the appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the law and the facts of the violation and the assessment of the civil penalty shall be determined de novo, and shall include the right of a trial by jury, the right to counsel, and the right to confront witnesses. The facts of the violation shall be proved beyond a reasonable doubt.

  • (h) Civil action

If an individual does not request a hearing pursuant to subsection (e) of this section and the Attorney General issues an order pursuant to such subsection, or if an individual does not under subsection (g) of this section seek judicial review of such an order, the Attorney General may commence a civil action in any appropriate district court of the United States for the purpose of recovering the amount assessed and an amount representing interest at a rate computed in accordance with section 1961 of title 28. Such interest shall accrue from the expiration of the 30-day period described in subsection (g) of this section. In such an action, the decision of the Attorney General to issue the order, and the amount of the penalty assessed by the Attorney General, shall not be subject to review.

  • (i) Limitation

The Attorney General may not under this subsection (FOOTNOTE 1) commence proceeding against an individual after the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on the date on which the individual allegedly violated subsection (a) of this section. (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''section''.

  • (j) Expungement procedures

The Attorney General shall dismiss the proceedings under this section against an individual upon application of such individual at any time after the expiration of 3 years if -

  • (1) the individual has not previously been assessed a civil penalty under this section;
  • (2) the individual has paid the assessment;
  • (3) the individual has complied with any conditions imposed by the Attorney General;
  • (4) the individual has not been convicted of a Federal or State offense relating to a controlled substance; and
  • (5) the individual agrees to submit to a drug test, and such test shows the individual to be drug free.

A nonpublic record of a disposition under this subsection shall be retained by the Department of Justice solely for the purpose of determining in any subsequent proceeding whether the person qualified for a civil penalty or expungement under this section. If a record is expunged under this subsection, an individual concerning whom such an expungement has been made shall not be held thereafter under any provision of law to be guilty of perjury, false swearing, or making a false statement by reason of his failure to recite or acknowledge a proceeding under this section or the results thereof in response to an inquiry made of him for any purpose.

§ 845 to 845b. Transferred.

§ 846. Attempt and conspiracy.

Any person who attempts or conspires to commit any offense defined in this subchapter shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the object of the attempt or conspiracy.

§ 847. Additional penalties.

Any penalty imposed for violation of this subchapter shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction authorized by law.

§ 848. Continuing criminal enterprise.

  • (a) Penalties; forfeitures

Any person who engages in a continuing criminal enterprise shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 years and which may be up to life imprisonment, to a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, and to the forfeiture prescribed in section 853 of this title; except that if any person engages in such activity after one or more prior convictions of him under this section have become final, he shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 30 years and which may be up to life imprisonment, to a fine not to exceed the greater of twice the amount authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $4,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, and to the forfeiture prescribed in section 853 of this title.

  • (b) Life imprisonment for engaging in continuing criminal enterprise

Any person who engages in a continuing criminal enterprise shall be imprisoned for life and fined in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, if -

  • (1) such person is the principal administrator, organizer, or leader of the enterprise or is one of several such principal administrators, organizers, or leaders; and
  • (2)
    • (A) the violation referred to in subsection (c)(1) of this section involved at least 300 times the quantity of a substance described in subsection 841(b)(1)(B) of this title, or
    • (B) the enterprise, or any other enterprise in which the defendant was the principal or one of several principal administrators, organizers, or leaders, received $10 million dollars in gross receipts during any twelve-month period of its existence for the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a substance described in section 841(b)(1)(B) of this title.
  • (c) ''Continuing criminal enterprise'' defined

For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, a person is engaged in a continuing criminal enterprise if -

  • (1) he violates any provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter the punishment for which is a felony, and
  • (2) such violation is a part of a continuing series of violations of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter -
    • (A) which are undertaken by such person in concert with five or more other persons with respect to whom such person occupies a position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management, and
    • (B) from which such person obtains substantial income or resources.
  • (d) Suspension of sentence and probation prohibited

In the case of any sentence imposed under this section, imposition or execution of such sentence shall not be suspended, probation shall not be granted, and the Act of July 15, 1932 (D.C. Code, secs. 24-203 - 24-207), shall not apply.

  • (e) Death penalty
    • (1) In addition to the other penalties set forth in this section -
      • (A) any person engaging in or working in furtherance of a continuing criminal enterprise, or any person engaging in an offense punishable under section 841(b)(1)(A) of this title or section 960(b)(1) of this title who intentionally kills or counsels, commands, induces, procures, or causes the intentional killing of an individual and such killing results, shall be sentenced to any term of imprisonment, which shall not be less than 20 years, and which may be up to life imprisonment, or may be sentenced to death; and
      • (B) any person, during the commission of, in furtherance of, or while attempting to avoid apprehension, prosecution or service of a prison sentence for, a felony violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter who intentionally kills or counsels, commands, induces, procures, or causes the intentional killing of any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer engaged in, or on account of, the performance of such officer's official duties and such killing results, shall be sentenced to any term of imprisonment, which shall not be less than 20 years, and which may be up to life imprisonment, or may be sentenced to death.
    • (2) As used in paragraph (1)(b), (FOOTNOTE 1) the term ''law enforcement officer'' means a public servant authorized by law or by a Government agency or Congress to conduct or engage in the prevention, investigation, prosecution or adjudication of an offense, and includes those engaged in corrections, probation, or parole functions. (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be paragraph ''(1)(B),''. (g) (FOOTNOTE 2) Hearing required with respect to death penalty (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Section does not contain a subsec.
  • (f), see 1988 Amendment note below.
  • (g) Hearing required with respect to the death penalty.

A person shall be subjected to the penalty of death for any offense under this section only if a hearing is held in accordance with this section.

  • (h) Notice by Government in death penalty cases
    • (1) Whenever the Government intends to seek the death penalty for an offense under this section for which one of the sentences provided is death, the attorney for the Government, a reasonable time before trial or acceptance by the court of a plea of guilty, shall sign and file with the court, and serve upon the defendant, a notice -
      • (A) that the Government in the event of conviction will seek the sentence of death; and
      • (B) setting forth the aggravating factors enumerated in subsection (n) of this section and any other aggravating factors which the Government will seek to prove as the basis for the death penalty.
    • (2) The court may permit the attorney for the Government to amend this notice for good cause shown.
  • (i) Hearing before court or jury
    • (1) When the attorney for the Government has filed a notice as required under subsection (h) of this section and the defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e) of this section, the judge who presided at the trial or before whom the guilty plea was entered, or any other judge if the judge who presided at the trial or before whom the guilty plea was entered is unavailable, shall conduct a separate sentencing hearing to determine the punishment to be imposed. The hearing shall be conducted -
      • (A) before the jury which determined the defendant's guilt;
      • (B) before a jury impaneled for the purpose of the hearing if -
        • (i) the defendant was convicted upon a plea of guilty;
        • (ii) the defendant was convicted after a trial before the court sitting without a jury;
        • (iii) the jury which determined the defendant's guilt has been discharged for good cause; or
        • (iv) after initial imposition of a sentence under this section, redetermination of the sentence under this section is necessary; or
      • (C) before the court alone, upon the motion of the defendant and with the approval of the Government.
    • (2) A jury impaneled under paragraph (1)(B) shall consist of 12 members, unless, at any time before the conclusion of the hearing, the parties stipulate with the approval of the court that it shall consist of any number less than 12.
  • (j) Proof of aggravating and mitigating factors

Notwithstanding rule 32(c) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, when a defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e) of this section, no presentence report shall be prepared. In the sentencing hearing, information may be presented as to matters relating to any of the aggravating or mitigating factors set forth in subsections (m) and (n) of this section, or any other mitigating factor or any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B) of this section. Where information is presented relating to any of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n) of this section, information may be presented relating to any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B) of this section. Information presented may include the trial transcript and exhibits if the hearing is held before a jury or judge not present during the trial, or at the trial judge's discretion. Any other information relevant to such mitigating or aggravating factors may be presented by either the Government or the defendant, regardless of its admissibility under the rules governing admission of evidence at criminal trials, except that information may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or misleading the jury. The Government and the defendant shall be permitted to rebut any information received at the hearing and shall be given fair opportunity to present argument as to the adequacy of the information to establish the existence of any of the aggravating or mitigating factors and as to appropriateness in that case of imposing a sentence of death. The Government shall open the argument. The defendant shall be permitted to reply. The Government shall then be permitted to reply in rebuttal. The burden of establishing the existence of any aggravating factor is on the Government, and is not satisfied unless established beyond a reasonable doubt. The burden of establishing the existence of any mitigating factor is on the defendant, and is not satisfied unless established by a preponderance of the evidence.

  • (k) Return of findings

The jury, or if there is no jury, the court, shall consider all the information received during the hearing. It shall return special findings identifying any aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n) of this section, found to exist. If one of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n)(1) of this section and another of the aggravating factors set forth in paragraphs (2) through (12) of subsection (n) of this section is found to exist, a special finding identifying any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B) of this section, may be returned. A finding with respect to a mitigating factor may be made by one or more of the members of the jury, and any member of the jury who finds the existence of a mitigating factor may consider such a factor established for purposes of this subsection, regardless of the number of jurors who concur that the factor has been established. A finding with respect to any aggravating factor must be unanimous. If an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) of this section is not found to exist or an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) of this section is found to exist but no other aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n) of this section is found to exist, the court shall impose a sentence, other than death, authorized by law. If an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) of this section and one or more of the other aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n) of this section are found to exist, the jury, or if there is no jury, the court, shall then consider whether the aggravating factors found to exist sufficiently outweigh any mitigating factor or factors found to exist, or in the absence of mitigating factors, whether the aggravating factors are themselves sufficient to justify a sentence of death. Based upon this consideration, the jury by unanimous vote, or if there is no jury, the court, shall recommend that a sentence of death shall be imposed rather than a sentence of life imprisonment without possibility of release or some other lesser sentence. The jury or the court, regardless of its findings with respect to aggravating and mitigating factors, is never required to impose a death sentence and the jury shall be so instructed.

  • (l) Imposition of sentence

Upon the recommendation that the sentence of death be imposed, the court shall sentence the defendant to death. Otherwise the court shall impose a sentence, other than death, authorized by law. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who is under 18 years of age at the time the crime was committed. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who is mentally retarded. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who, as a result of mental disability -

  • (1) cannot understand the nature of the pending proceedings, what such person was tried for, the reason for the punishment, or the nature of the punishment; or
  • (2) lacks the capacity to recognize or understand facts which would make the punishment unjust or unlawful, or lacks the ability to convey such information to counsel or to the court.
  • (m) Mitigating factors

In determining whether a sentence of death is to be imposed on a defendant, the finder of fact shall consider mitigating factors, including the following:

  • (1) The defendant's capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of the defendant's conduct or to conform conduct to the requirements of law was significantly impaired, regardless of whether the capacity was so impaired as to constitute a defense to the charge.
  • (2) The defendant was under unusual and substantial duress, regardless of whether the duress was of such a degree as to constitute a defense to the charge.
  • (3) The defendant is punishable as a principal (as defined in section 2 of title 18) in the offense, which was committed by another, but the defendant's participation was relatively minor, regardless of whether the participation was so minor as to constitute a defense to the charge.
  • (4) The defendant could not reasonably have foreseen that the defendant's conduct in the course of the commission of murder, or other offense resulting in death for which the defendant was convicted, would cause, or would create a grave risk of causing, death to any person.
  • (5) The defendant was youthful, although not under the age of 18.
  • (6) The defendant did not have a significant prior criminal record.
  • (7) The defendant committed the offense under severe mental or emotional disturbance.
  • (8) Another defendant or defendants, equally culpable in the crime, will not be punished by death.
  • (9) The victim consented to the criminal conduct that resulted in the victim's death.
  • (10) That other factors in the defendant's background or character mitigate against imposition of the death sentence.
  • (n) Aggravating factors for homicide

If the defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e) of this section, the following aggravating factors are the only aggravating factors that shall be considered, unless notice of additional aggravating factors is provided under subsection (h)(1)(B) of this section:

  • (1) The defendant -
    • (A) intentionally killed the victim;
    • (B) intentionally inflicted serious bodily injury which resulted in the death of the victim;
    • (C) intentionally engaged in conduct intending that the victim be killed or that lethal force be employed against the victim, which resulted in the death of the victim;
    • (D) intentionally engaged in conduct which -
      • (i) the defendant knew would create a grave risk of death to a person, other than one of the participants in the offense; and
      • (ii) resulted in the death of the victim.
  • (2) The defendant has been convicted of another Federal offense, or a State offense resulting in the death of a person, for which a sentence of life imprisonment or a sentence of death was authorized by statute.
  • (3) The defendant has previously been convicted of two or more State or Federal offenses punishable by a term of imprisonment of more than one year, committed on different occasions, involving the infliction of, or attempted infliction of, serious bodily injury upon another person.
  • (4) The defendant has previously been convicted of two or more State or Federal offenses punishable by a term of imprisonment of more than one year, committed on different occasions, involving the distribution of a controlled substance.
  • (5) In the commission of the offense or in escaping apprehension for a violation of subsection (e) of this section, the defendant knowingly created a grave risk of death to one or more persons in addition to the victims of the offense.
  • (6) The defendant procured the commission of the offense by payment, or promise of payment, of anything of pecuniary value.
  • (7) The defendant committed the offense as consideration for the receipt, or in the expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value.
  • (8) The defendant committed the offense after substantial planning and premeditation.
  • (9) The victim was particularly vulnerable due to old age, youth, or infirmity.
  • (10) The defendant had previously been convicted of violating this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter for which a sentence of five or more years may be imposed or had previously been convicted of engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise.
  • (11) The violation of this subchapter in relation to which the conduct described in subsection (e) of this section occurred was a violation of section 859 of this title.
  • (12) The defendant committed the offense in an especially heinous, cruel, or depraved manner in that it involved torture or serious physical abuse to the victim.
  • (o) Right of defendant to justice without discrimination
    • (1) In any hearing held before a jury under this section, the court shall instruct the jury that in its consideration of whether the sentence of death is justified it shall not consider the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant or the victim, and that the jury is not to recommend a sentence of death unless it has concluded that it would recommend a sentence of death for the crime in question no matter what the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant, or the victim, may be. The jury shall return to the court a certificate signed by each juror that consideration of the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant or the victim was not involved in reaching his or her individual decision, and that the individual juror would have made the same recommendation regarding a sentence for the crime in question no matter what the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant, or the victim, may be.
    • (2) Not later than one year from November 18, 1988, the Comptroller General shall conduct a study of the various procedures used by the several States for determining whether or not to impose the death penalty in particular cases, and shall report to the Congress on whether or not any or all of the various procedures create a significant risk that the race of a defendant, or the race of a victim against whom a crime was committed, influence the likelihood that defendants in those States will be sentenced to death. In conducting the study required by this paragraph, the General Accounting Office shall -
      • (A) use ordinary methods of statistical analysis, including methods comparable to those ruled admissible by the courts in race discrimination cases under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.);
      • (B) study only crimes occurring after January 1, 1976; and
      • (C) determine what, if any, other factors, including any relation between any aggravating or mitigating factors and the race of the victim or the defendant, may account for any evidence that the race of the defendant, or the race of the victim, influences the likelihood that defendants will be sentenced to death. In addition, the General Accounting Office shall examine separately and include in the report, death penalty cases involving crimes similar to those covered under this section.
  • (p) Sentencing in capital cases in which death penalty is not sought or imposed

If a person is convicted for an offense under subsection (e) of this section and the court does not impose the penalty of death, the court may impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.

  • (q) Appeal in capital cases; counsel for financially unable defendants
    • (1) In any case in which the sentence of death is imposed under this section, the sentence of death shall be subject to review by the court of appeals upon appeal by the defendant. Notice of appeal must be filed within the time prescribed for appeal of judgment in section 2107 of title 28. An appeal under this section may be consolidated with an appeal of the judgment of conviction. Such review shall have priority over all other cases.
    • (2) On review of the sentence, the court of appeals shall consider the record, the evidence submitted during the trial, the information submitted during the sentencing hearing, the procedures employed in the sentencing hearing, and the special findings returned under this section.
    • (3) The court shall affirm the sentence if it determines that -
      • (A) the sentence of death was not imposed under the influence of passion, prejudice, or any other arbitrary factor; and
      • (B) the information supports the special finding of the existence of every aggravating factor upon which the sentence was based, together with, or the failure to find, any mitigating factors as set forth or allowed in this section. In all other cases the court shall remand the case for reconsideration under this section. The court of appeals shall state in writing the reasons for its disposition of the review of the sentence.
    • (4)
      • (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, in every criminal action in which a defendant is charged with a crime which may be punishable by death, a defendant who is or becomes financially unable to obtain adequate representation or investigative, expert, or other reasonably necessary services at any time either -
        • (i) before judgment; or
        • (ii) after the entry of a judgment imposing a sentence of death but before the execution of that judgment; shall be entitled to the appointment of one or more attorneys and the furnishing of such other services in accordance with paragraphs (5), (6), (7), (8), and (9).
      • (B) In any post conviction proceeding under section 2254 or 2255 of title 28 seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence, any defendant who is or becomes financially unable to obtain adequate representation or investigative, expert, or other reasonably necessary services shall be entitled to the appointment of one or more attorneys and the furnishing of such other services in accordance with paragraphs (5), (6), (7), (8), and (9).
    • (5) If the appointment is made before judgment, at least one attorney so appointed must have been admitted to practice in the court in which the prosecution is to be tried for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years experience in the actual trial of felony prosecutions in that court.
    • (6) If the appointment is made after judgment, at least one attorney so appointed must have been admitted to practice in the court of appeals for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years experience in the handling of appeals in that court in felony cases.
    • (7) With respect to paragraphs (5) and (6), the court, for good cause, may appoint another attorney whose background, knowledge, or experience would otherwise enable him or her to properly represent the defendant, with due consideration to the seriousness of the possible penalty and to the unique and complex nature of the litigation.
    • (8) Unless replaced by similarly qualified counsel upon the attorney's own motion or upon motion of the defendant, each attorney so appointed shall represent the defendant throughout every subsequent stage of available judicial proceedings, including pretrial proceedings, trial, sentencing, motions for new trial, appeals, applications for writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States, and all available post-conviction process, together with applications for stays of execution and other appropriate motions and procedures, and shall also represent the defendant in such competency proceedings and proceedings for executive or other clemency as may be available to the defendant.
    • (9) Upon a finding in ex parte proceedings that investigative, expert or other services are reasonably necessary for the representation of the defendant, whether in connection with issues relating to guilt or sentence, the court shall authorize the defendant's attorneys to obtain such services on behalf of the defendant and shall order the payment of fees and expenses therefore, under paragraph (10). Upon a finding that timely procurement of such services could not practicably await prior authorization, the court may authorize the provision of and payment for such services nunc pro tunc.
    • (10) Notwithstanding the rates and maximum limits generally applicable to criminal cases and any other provision of law to the contrary, the court shall fix the compensation to be paid to attorneys appointed under this subsection and the fees and expenses to be paid for investigative, expert, and other reasonably necessary services authorized under paragraph (9), at such rates or amounts as the court determines to be reasonably necessary to carry out the requirements of paragraphs (4) through (9).
  • (r) Refusal to participate by State and Federal correctional employees

No employee of any State department of corrections or the Federal Bureau of Prisons and no employee providing services to that department or bureau under contract shall be required, as a condition of that employment, or contractual obligation to be in attendance at or to participate in any execution carried out under this section if such participation is contrary to the moral or religious convictions of the employee. For purposes of this subsection, the term ''participation in executions'' includes personal preparation of the condemned individual and the apparatus used for execution and supervision of the activities of other personnel in carrying out such activities.

§ 849. Transportation safety offenses.

  • (a) Definitions In this section -

''safety rest area'' means a roadside facility with parking facilities for the rest or other needs of motorists.

''truck stop'' means a facility (including any parking lot appurtenant thereto) that -

  • (A) has the capacity to provide fuel or service, or both, to any commercial motor vehicle (as defined in section 31301 of title 49), operating in commerce (as defined in that section); and
  • (B) is located within 2,500 feet of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways or the Federal-Aid Primary System.
  • (b) First offense

A person who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title or section 856 of this title by distributing or possessing with intent to distribute a controlled substance in or on, or within 1,000 feet of, a truck stop or safety rest area is (except as provided in subsection (b) (FOOTNOTE 1) of this section) subject to - (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be subsection ''(c)''.

  • (1) twice the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title; and
  • (2) twice any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title for a first offense.
  • (c) Subsequent offense

A person who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title or section 856 of this title by distributing or possessing with intent to distribute a controlled substance in or on, or within 1,000 feet of, a truck stop or a safety rest area after a prior conviction or convictions under subsection (a) (FOOTNOTE 2) of this section have become final is subject to - (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be subsection ''(b)''.

  • (1) 3 times the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title; and
  • (2) 3 times any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title for a first offense.

§ 850. Information for sentencing.

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter or section 242a(a) of title 42, no limitation shall be placed on the information concerning the background, character, and conduct of a person convicted of an offense which a court of the United States may receive and consider for the purpose of imposing an appropriate sentence under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter.

§ 851. Proceedings to establish prior convictions.

  • (a) Information filed by United States Attorney
    • (1) No person who stands convicted of an offense under this part shall be sentenced to increased punishment by reason of one or more prior convictions, unless before trial, or before entry of a plea of guilty, the United States attorney files an information with the court (and serves a copy of such information on the person or counsel for the person) stating in writing the previous convictions to be relied upon. Upon a showing by the United States attorney that facts regarding prior convictions could not with due diligence be obtained prior to trial or before entry of a plea of guilty, the court may postpone the trial or the taking of the plea of guilty for a reasonable period for the purpose of obtaining such facts. Clerical mistakes in the information may be amended at any time prior to the pronouncement of sentence.
    • (2) An information may not be filed under this section if the increased punishment which may be imposed is imprisonment for a term in excess of three years unless the person either waived or was afforded prosecution by indictment for the offense for which such increased punishment may be imposed.
  • (b) Affirmation or denial of previous conviction

If the United States attorney files an information under this section, the court shall after conviction but before pronouncement of sentence inquire of the person with respect to whom the information was filed whether he affirms or denies that he has been previously convicted as alleged in the information, and shall inform him that any challenge to a prior conviction which is not made before sentence is imposed may not thereafter be raised to attack the sentence.

  • (c) Denial; written response; hearing
    • (1) If the person denies any allegation of the information of prior conviction, or claims that any conviction alleged is invalid, he shall file a written response to the information. A copy of the response shall be served upon the United States attorney. The court shall hold a hearing to determine any issues raised by the response which would except the person from increased punishment. The failure of the United States attorney to include in the information the complete criminal record of the person or any facts in addition to the convictions to be relied upon shall not constitute grounds for invalidating the notice given in the information required by subsection (a)(1) of this section. The hearing shall be before the court without a jury and either party may introduce evidence. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the United States attorney shall have the burden of proof beyond a reasonable doubt on any issue of fact. At the request of either party, the court shall enter findings of fact and conclusions of law.
    • (2) A person claiming that a conviction alleged in the information was obtained in violation of the Constitution of the United States shall set forth his claim, and the factual basis therefor, with particularity in his response to the information. The person shall have the burden of proof by a preponderance of the evidence on any issue of fact raised by the response. Any challenge to a prior conviction, not raised by response to the information before an increased sentence is imposed in reliance thereon, shall be waived unless good cause be shown for failure to make a timely challenge.
  • (d) Imposition of sentence
    • (1) If the person files no response to the information, or if the court determines, after hearing, that the person is subject to increased punishment by reason of prior convictions, the court shall proceed to impose sentence upon him as provided by this part.
    • (2) If the court determines that the person has not been convicted as alleged in the information, that a conviction alleged in the information is invalid, or that the person is otherwise not subject to an increased sentence as a matter of law, the court shall, at the request of the United States attorney, postpone sentence to allow an appeal from that determination. If no such request is made, the court shall impose sentence as provided by this part. The person may appeal from an order postponing sentence as if sentence had been pronounced and a final judgment of conviction entered.
  • (e) Statute of limitations

No person who stands convicted of an offense under this part may challenge the validity of any prior conviction alleged under this section which occurred more than five years before the date of the information alleging such prior conviction.

§ 852. Application of treaties and other international agreements.

Nothing in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, or other treaties or international agreements shall be construed to limit the provision of treatment, education, or rehabilitation as alternatives to conviction or criminal penalty for offenses involving any drug or other substance subject to control under any such treaty or agreement.

§ 853. Criminal forfeitures.

  • (a) Property subject to criminal forfeiture

Any person convicted of a violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter punishable by imprisonment for more than one year shall forfeit to the United States, irrespective of any provision of State law -

  • (1) any property constituting, or derived from, any proceeds the person obtained, directly or indirectly, as the result of such violation;
  • (2) any of the person's property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, such violation; and
  • (3) in the case of a person convicted of engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise in violation of section 848 of this title, the person shall forfeit, in addition to any property described in paragraph (1) or (2), any of his interest in, claims against, and property or contractual rights affording a source of control over, the continuing criminal enterprise.

The court, in imposing sentence on such person, shall order, in addition to any other sentence imposed pursuant to this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, that the person forfeit to the United States all property described in this subsection. In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this part, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.

  • (b) Meaning of term ''property''

Property subject to criminal forfeiture under this section includes -

  • (1) real property, including things growing on, affixed to, and found in land; and
  • (2) tangible and intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, claims, and securities.
  • (c) Third party transfers

All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) of this section vests in the United States upon the commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section. Any such property that is subsequently transferred to a person other than the defendant may be the subject of a special verdict of forfeiture and thereafter shall be ordered forfeited to the United States, unless the transferee establishes in a hearing pursuant to subsection (n) of this section that he is a bona fide purchaser for value of such property who at the time of purchase was reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section.

  • (d) Rebuttable presumption

There is a rebuttable presumption at trial that any property of a person convicted of a felony under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter is subject to forfeiture under this section if the United States establishes by a preponderance of the evidence that -

  • (1) such property was acquired by such person during the period of the violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or within a reasonable time after such period; and
  • (2) there was no likely source for such property other than the violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter.
  • (e) Protective orders
    • (1) Upon application of the United States, the court may enter a restraining order or injunction, require the execution of a satisfactory performance bond, or take any other action to preserve the availability of property described in subsection (a) of this section for forfeiture under this section -
      • (A) upon the filing of an indictment or information charging a violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter for which criminal forfeiture may be ordered under this section and alleging that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section; or
      • (B) prior to the filing of such an indictment or information, if, after notice to persons appearing to have an interest in the property and opportunity for a hearing, the court determines that -
        • (i) there is a substantial probability that the United States will prevail on the issue of forfeiture and that failure to enter the order will result in the property being destroyed, removed from the jurisdiction of the court, or otherwise made unavailable for forfeiture; and
        • (ii) the need to preserve the availability of the property through the entry of the requested order outweighs the hardship on any party against whom the order is to be entered:

      Provided, however, That an order entered pursuant to subparagraph (B) shall be effective for not more than ninety days, unless extended by the court for good cause shown or unless an indictment or information described in subparagraph (A) has been filed.

    • (2) A temporary restraining order under this subsection may be entered upon application of the United States without notice or opportunity for a hearing when an information or indictment has not yet been filed with respect to the property, if the United States demonstrates that there is probable cause to believe that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section and that provision of notice will jeopardize the availability of the property for forfeiture. Such a temporary order shall expire not more than ten days after the date on which it is entered, unless extended for good cause shown or unless the party against whom it is entered consents to an extension for a longer period. A hearing requested concerning an order entered under this paragraph shall be held at the earliest possible time and prior to the expiration of the temporary order.
    • (3) The court may receive and consider, at a hearing held pursuant to this subsection, evidence and information that would be inadmissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence.
  • (f) Warrant of seizure

The Government may request the issuance of a warrant authorizing the seizure of property subject to forfeiture under this section in the same manner as provided for a search warrant. If the court determines that there is probable cause to believe that the property to be seized would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture and that an order under subsection (e) of this section may not be sufficient to assure the availability of the property for forfeiture, the court shall issue a warrant authorizing the seizure of such property.

  • (g) Execution

Upon entry of an order of forfeiture under this section, the court shall authorize the Attorney General to seize all property ordered forfeited upon such terms and conditions as the court shall deem proper. Following entry of an order declaring the property forfeited, the court may, upon application of the United States, enter such appropriate restraining orders or injunctions, require the execution of satisfactory performance bonds, appoint receivers, conservators, appraisers, accountants, or trustees, or take any other action to protect the interest of the United States in the property ordered forfeited. Any income accruing to or derived from property ordered forfeited under this section may be used to offset ordinary and necessary expenses to the property which are required by law, or which are necessary to protect the interests of the United States or third parties.

  • (h) Disposition of property

Following the seizure of property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General shall direct the disposition of the property by sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of any innocent persons. Any property right or interest not exercisable by, or transferable for value to, the United States shall expire and shall not revert to the defendant, nor shall the defendant or any person acting in concert with him or on his behalf be eligible to purchase forfeited property at any sale held by the United States. Upon application of a person, other than the defendant or a person acting in concert with him or on his behalf, the court may restrain or stay the sale or disposition of the property pending the conclusion of any appeal of the criminal case giving rise to the forfeiture, if the applicant demonstrates that proceeding with the sale or disposition of the property will result in irreparable injury, harm, or loss to him.

  • (i) Authority of the Attorney General

With respect to property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General is authorized to -

  • (1) grant petitions for mitigation or remission of forfeiture, restore forfeited property to victims of a violation of this subchapter, or take any other action to protect the rights of innocent persons which is in the interest of justice and which is not inconsistent with the provisions of this section;
  • (2) compromise claims arising under this section;
  • (3) award compensation to persons providing information resulting in a forfeiture under this section;
  • (4) direct the disposition by the United States, in accordance with the provisions of section 881(e) of this title, of all property ordered forfeited under this section by public sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of innocent persons; and
  • (5) take appropriate measures necessary to safeguard and maintain property ordered forfeited under this section pending its disposition.
  • (j) Applicability of civil forfeiture provisions

Except to the extent that they are inconsistent with the provisions of this section, the provisions of section 881(d) of this title shall apply to a criminal forfeiture under this section.

  • (k) Bar on intervention

Except as provided in subsection (n) of this section, no party claiming an interest in property subject to forfeiture under this section may -

  • (1) intervene in a trial or appeal of a criminal case involving the forfeiture of such property under this section; or
  • (2) commence an action at law or equity against the United States concerning the validity of his alleged interest in the property subsequent to the filing of an indictment or information alleging that the property is subject to forfeiture under this section.
  • (l) Jurisdiction to enter orders

The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to enter orders as provided in this section without regard to the location of any property which may be subject to forfeiture under this section or which has been ordered forfeited under this section.

  • (m) Depositions

In order to facilitate the identification and location of property declared forfeited and to facilitate the disposition of petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture, after the entry of an order declaring property forfeited to the United States, the court may, upon application of the United States, order that the testimony of any witness relating to the property forfeited be taken by deposition and that any designated book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material not privileged be produced at the same time and place, in the same manner as provided for the taking of depositions under Rule 15 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

  • (n) Third party interests
    • (1) Following the entry of an order of forfeiture under this section, the United States shall publish notice of the order and of its intent to dispose of the property in such manner as the Attorney General may direct. The Government may also, to the extent practicable, provide direct written notice to any person known to have alleged an interest in the property that is the subject of the order of forfeiture as a substitute for published notice as to those persons so notified.
    • (2) Any person, other than the defendant, asserting a legal interest in property which has been ordered forfeited to the United States pursuant to this section may, within thirty days of the final publication of notice or his receipt of notice under paragraph (1), whichever is earlier, petition the court for a hearing to adjudicate the validity of his alleged interest in the property. The hearing shall be held before the court alone, without a jury.
    • (3) The petition shall be signed by the petitioner under penalty of perjury and shall set forth the nature and extent of the petitioner's right, title, or interest in the property, the time and circumstances of the petitioner's acquisition of the right, title, or interest in the property, any additional facts supporting the petitioner's claim, and the relief sought.
    • (4) The hearing on the petition shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the interests of justice, be held within thirty days of the filing of the petition. The court may consolidate the hearing on the petition with a hearing on any other petition filed by a person other than the defendant under this subsection.
    • (5) At the hearing, the petitioner may testify and present evidence and witnesses on his own behalf, and cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing. The United States may present evidence and witnesses in rebuttal and in defense of its claim to the property and cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing. In addition to testimony and evidence presented at the hearing, the court shall consider the relevant portions of the record of the criminal case which resulted in the order of forfeiture.
    • (6) If, after the hearing, the court determines that the petitioner has established by a preponderance of the evidence that -
      • (A) the petitioner has a legal right, title, or interest in the property, and such right, title, or interest renders the order of forfeiture invalid in whole or in part because the right, title, or interest was vested in the petitioner rather than the defendant or was superior to any right, title, or interest of the defendant at the time of the commission of the acts which gave rise to the forfeiture of the property under this section; or
      • (B) the petitioner is a bona fide purchaser for value of the right, title, or interest in the property and was at the time of purchase reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section; the court shall amend the order of forfeiture in accordance with its determination.
    • (7) Following the court's disposition of all petitions filed under this subsection, or if no such petitions are filed following the expiration of the period provided in paragraph (2) for the filing of such petitions, the United States shall have clear title to property that is the subject of the order of forfeiture and may warrant good title to any subsequent purchaser or transferee.
  • (o) Construction

The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.

  • (p) Forfeiture of substitute property

If any of the property described in subsection (a) of this section, as a result of any act or omission of the defendant -

  • (1) cannot be located upon the exercise of due diligence;
  • (2) has been transferred or sold to, or deposited with, a third party;
  • (3) has been placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court;
  • (4) has been substantially diminished in value; or
  • (5) has been commingled with other property which cannot be divided without difficulty;

the court shall order the forfeiture of any other property of the defendant up to the value of any property described in paragraphs (1) through (5).

§ 853a. Transferred.

§ 854. Investment of illicit drug profits.

  • (a) Prohibition

It shall be unlawful for any person who has received any income derived, directly or indirectly, from a violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter punishable by imprisonment for more than one year in which such person has participated as a principal within the meaning of section 2 of title 18, to use or invest, directly or indirectly, any part of such income, or the proceeds of such income, in acquisition of any interest in, or the establishment or operation of, any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect interstate or foreign commerce. A purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so, shall not be unlawful under this section if the securities of the issuer held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter after such purchase do not amount in the aggregate to 1 per centum of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer.

  • (b) Penalty

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than $50,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

  • (c) ''Enterprise'' defined

As used in this section, the term ''enterprise'' includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity.

  • (d) Construction

The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.

§ 855. Alternative fine.

In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this part, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.

§ 856. Establishment of manufacturing operations.

  • (a) Except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful to -
    • (1) knowingly open or maintain any place for the purpose of manufacturing, distributing, or using any controlled substance;
    • (2) manage or control any building, room, or enclosure, either as an owner, lessee, agent, employee, or mortgagee, and knowingly and intentionally rent, lease, or make available for use, with or without compensation, the building, room, or enclosure for the purpose of unlawfully manufacturing, storing, distributing, or using a controlled substance.
  • (b) Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $500,000, or both, or a fine of $2,000,000 for a person other than an individual.

§ 857. Repealed.

Repealed. Pub. L. 101-647, title XXIV, Sec. 2401(d), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4859

§ 858. Endangering human life while illegally manufacturing controlled substance.

Whoever, while manufacturing a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter, or attempting to do so, or transporting or causing to be transported materials, including chemicals, to do so, creates a substantial risk of harm to human life shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

§ 859. Distribution to persons under age twenty-one.

  • (a) First offense

Except as provided in section 860 of this title, any person at least eighteen years of age who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title by distributing a controlled substance to a person under twenty-one years of age is (except as provided in subsection (b) of this section) subject to (1) twice the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title, and (2) at least twice any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title, for a first offense involving the same controlled substance and schedule. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided by section 841(b) of this title, a term of imprisonment under this subsection shall be not less than one year. The mandatory minimum sentencing provisions of this subsection shall not apply to offenses involving 5 grams or less of marihuana.

  • (b) Second offense

Except as provided in section 860 of this title, any person at least eighteen years of age who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title by distributing a controlled substance to a person under twenty-one years of age after a prior conviction under subsection (a) of this section (or under section 333(b) of this title as in effect prior to May 1, 1971) has become final, is subject to (1) three times the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title, and (2) at least three times any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title, for a second or subsequent offense involving the same controlled substance and schedule. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided by section 841(b) of this title, a term of imprisonment under this subsection shall be not less than one year. Penalties for third and subsequent convictions shall be governed by section 841(b)(1)(A) of this title.

§ 860. Distribution or manufacturing in or near schools and colleges.

  • (a) Penalty

Any person who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title or section 856 of this title by distributing, possessing with intent to distribute, or manufacturing a controlled substance in or on, or within one thousand feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary, vocational, or secondary school or a public or private college, junior college, or university, or a playground, or housing facility owned by a public housing authority, or within 100 feet of a public or private youth center, public swimming pool, or video arcade facility, is (except as provided in subsection (b) of this section) subject to (1) twice the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title; and (2) at least twice any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title for a first offense. A fine up to twice that authorized by section 841(b) of this title may be imposed in addition to any term of imprisonment authorized by this subsection. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided by section 841(b) of this title, a person shall be sentenced under this subsection to a term of imprisonment of not less than one year. The mandatory minimum sentencing provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to offenses involving 5 grams or less of marihuana.

  • (b) Second offenders

Any person who violates section 841(a)(1) of this title or section 856 of this title by distributing, possessing with intent to distribute, or manufacturing a controlled substance in or on, or within one thousand feet of, the real property comprising a public or private elementary, vocational, or secondary school or a public or private college, junior college, or university, or a playground, or housing facility owned by a public housing authority, or within 100 feet of a public or private youth center, public swimming pool, or video arcade facility, after a prior conviction under subsection (a) of this section has become final is punishable (1) by the greater of (A) a term of imprisonment of not less than three years and not more than life imprisonment or (B) three times the maximum punishment authorized by section 841(b) of this title for a first offense, and (2) at least three times any term of supervised release authorized by section 841(b) of this title for a first offense. A fine up to three times that authorized by section 841(b) of this title may be imposed in addition to any term of imprisonment authorized by this subsection. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided by section 841(b) of this title, a person shall be sentenced under this subsection to a term of imprisonment of not less than three years. Penalties for third and subsequent convictions shall be governed by section 841(b)(1)(A) of this title.

  • (c) Employing children to distribute drugs near schools or playgrounds

Notwithstanding any other law, any person at least 21 years of age who knowingly and intentionally -

  • (1) employs, hires, uses, persuades, induces, entices, or coerces a person under 18 years of age to violate this section; or
  • (2) employs, hires, uses, persuades, induces, entices, or coerces a person under 18 years of age to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for any offense under this section by any Federal, State, or local law enforcement official, is punishable by a term of imprisonment, a fine, or both, up to triple those authorized by section 841 of this title.
  • (d) Suspension of sentence; probation; parole

In the case of any mandatory minimum sentence imposed under this section, imposition or execution of such sentence shall not be suspended and probation shall not be granted. An individual convicted under this section shall not be eligible for parole until the individual has served the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment as provided by this section.

  • (e) Definitions

For the purposes of this section -

  • (1) The term ''playground'' means any outdoor facility (including any parking lot appurtenant thereto) intended for recreation, open to the public, and with any portion thereof containing three or more separate apparatus intended for the recreation of children including, but not limited to, sliding boards, swingsets, and teeterboards.
  • (2) The term ''youth center'' means any recreational facility and/or gymnasium (including any parking lot appurtenant thereto), intended primarily for use by persons under 18 years of age, which regularly provides athletic, civic, or cultural activities.
  • (3) The term ''video arcade facility'' means any facility, legally accessible to persons under 18 years of age, intended primarily for the use of pinball and video machines for amusement containing a minimum of ten pinball and/or video machines.
  • (4) The term ''swimming pool'' includes any parking lot appurtenant thereto.

§ 861. Employment or use of persons under 18 years of age in drug operations.

  • (a) Unlawful acts

It shall be unlawful for any person at least eighteen years of age to knowingly and intentionally -

  • (1) employ, hire, use, persuade, induce, entice, or coerce, a person under eighteen years of age to violate any provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
  • (2) employ, hire, use, persuade, induce, entice, or coerce, a person under eighteen years of age to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for any offense of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter by any Federal, State, or local law enforcement official; or
  • (3) receive a controlled substance from a person under 18 years of age, other than an immediate family member, in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter.
  • (b) Penalty for first offense

Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section is subject to twice the maximum punishment otherwise authorized and at least twice any term of supervised release otherwise authorized for a first offense. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided, a term of imprisonment under this subsection shall not be less than one year.

  • (c) Penalty for subsequent offenses

Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section after a prior conviction under subsection (a) of this section has become final, is subject to three times the maximum punishment otherwise authorized and at least three times any term of supervised release otherwise authorized for a first offense. Except to the extent a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided, a term of imprisonment under this subsection shall not be less than one year. Penalties for third and subsequent convictions shall be governed by section 841(b)(1)(A) of this title.

  • (d) Penalty for providing or distributing controlled substance to underage person

Any person who violates subsection (a)(1) or (2) of this section (FOOTNOTE 1) (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash.

  • (1) by knowingly providing or distributing a controlled substance or a controlled substance analogue to any person under eighteen years of age; or
  • (2) if the person employed, hired, or used is fourteen years of age or younger, shall be subject to a term of imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than $50,000, or both, in addition to any other punishment authorized by this section.

(e) Suspension of sentence; probation; parole In any case of any sentence imposed under this section, imposition or execution of such sentence shall not be suspended and probation shall not be granted. An individual convicted under this section of an offense for which a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment is applicable shall not be eligible for parole under section 4202 of title 18 (FOOTNOTE 2) until the individual has served the mandatory term of imprisonment as enhanced by this section.

(FOOTNOTE 2) Section 4202 of title 18, referred to in subsec. (e), which, as originally enacted in Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, related to eligibility of prisoners for parole, was repealed and a new section 4202 enacted as part of the repeal and enactment of a new chapter 311 (Sec. 4201 et seq.) of Title 18, by Pub. L. 94-233, Sec. 2, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 219. For provisions relating to the eligibility of prisoners for parole, see section 4205 of Title 18. Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 218(a)(5), 235(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2031, 2032, as amended, provided that, effective on the first day of the first calendar month beginning 36 months after Oct. 12, 1984 (Nov. 1, 1987), chapter 311 of Title 18 is repealed, subject to remaining effective for five years after Nov. 1, 1987, in certain circumstances.

  • (f) Distribution of controlled substance to pregnant individual

Except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally provide or distribute any controlled substance to a pregnant individual in violation of any provision of this subchapter. Any person who violates this subsection shall be subject to the provisions of subsections (b), (c), and (e) of this section.

§ 862. Denial of Federal benefits to drug traffickers and possessors.

  • (a) Drug traffickers
    • (1) Any individual who is convicted of any Federal or State offense consisting of the distribution of controlled substances shall -
      • (A) at the discretion of the court, upon the first conviction for such an offense be ineligible for any or all Federal benefits for up to 5 years after such conviction;
      • (B) at the discretion of the court, upon a second conviction for such an offense be ineligible for any or all Federal benefits for up to 10 years after such conviction; and
      • (C) upon a third or subsequent conviction for such an offense be permanently ineligible for all Federal benefits.
    • (2) The benefits which are denied under this subsection shall not include benefits relating to long-term drug treatment programs for addiction for any person who, if there is a reasonable body of evidence to substantiate such declaration, declares himself to be an addict and submits himself to a long-term treatment program for addiction, or is deemed to be rehabilitated pursuant to rules established by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  • (b) Drug possessors
    • (1) Any individual who is convicted of any Federal or State offense involving the possession of a controlled substance (as such term is defined for purposes of this subchapter) shall -
      • (A) upon the first conviction for such an offense and at the discretion of the court -
        • (i) be ineligible for any or all Federal benefits for up to one year;
        • (ii) be required to successfully complete an approved drug treatment program which includes periodic testing to insure that the individual remains drug free;
        • (iii) be required to perform appropriate community service; or
        • (iv) any combination of clause (i), (ii), or (iii); and
      • (B) upon a second or subsequent conviction for such an offense be ineligible for all Federal benefits for up to 5 years after such conviction as determined by the court. The court shall continue to have the discretion in subparagraph (A) above. In imposing penalties and conditions under subparagraph (A), the court may require that the completion of the conditions imposed by clause (ii) or (iii) be a requirement for the reinstatement of benefits under clause (i).
    • (2) The penalties and conditions which may be imposed under this subsection shall be waived in the case of a person who, if there is a reasonable body of evidence to substantiate such declaration, declares himself to be an addict and submits himself to a long-term treatment program for addiction, or is deemed to be rehabilitated pursuant to rules established by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  • (c) Suspension of period of ineligibility

The period of ineligibility referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be suspended if the individual -

  • (A) completes a supervised drug rehabilitation program after becoming ineligible under this section;
  • (B) has otherwise been rehabilitated; or
  • (C) has made a good faith effort to gain admission to a supervised drug rehabilitation program, but is unable to do so because of inaccessibility or unavailability of such a program, or the inability of the individual to pay for such a program.
  • (d) Definitions

As used in this section -

  • (1) the term ''Federal benefit'' -
    • (A) means the issuance of any grant, contract, loan, professional license, or commercial license provided by an agency of the United States or by appropriated funds of the United States; and
    • (B) does not include any retirement, welfare, Social Security, health, disability, veterans benefit, public housing, or other similar benefit, or any other benefit for which payments or services are required for eligibility; and
  • (2) the term ''veterans benefit'' means all benefits provided to veterans, their families, or survivors by virtue of the service of a veteran in the Armed Forces of the United States.
  • (e) Inapplicability of this section to Government witnesses

The penalties provided by this section shall not apply to any individual who cooperates or testifies with the Government in the prosecution of a Federal or State offense or who is in a Government witness protection program.

  • (f) Indian provision

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the obligation of the United States to any Indian or Indian tribe arising out of any treaty, statute, Executive order, or the trust responsibility of the United States owing to such Indian or Indian tribe. Nothing in this subsection shall exempt any individual Indian from the sanctions provided for in this section, provided that no individual Indian shall be denied any benefit under Federal Indian programs comparable to those described in subsection (d)(1)(B) or (d)(2) of this section.

  • (g) Presidential report
    • (1) On or before May 1, 1989, the President shall transmit to the Congress a report -
      • (A) delineating the role of State courts in implementing this section;
      • (B) describing the manner in which Federal agencies will implement and enforce the requirements of this section;
      • (C) detailing the means by which Federal and State agencies, courts, and law enforcement agencies will exchange and share the data and information necessary to implement and enforce the withholding of Federal benefits; and
      • (D) recommending any modifications to improve the administration of this section or otherwise achieve the goal of discouraging the trafficking and possession of controlled substances.
    • (2) No later than September 1, 1989, the Congress shall consider the report of the President and enact such changes as it deems appropriate to further the goals of this section.
  • (h) Effective date

The denial of Federal benefits set forth in this section shall take effect for convictions occurring after September 1, 1989.

§ 863. Drug paraphernalia.

  • (a) In general

It is unlawful for any person -

  • (1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
  • (2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug paraphernalia; or
  • (3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.
  • (b) Penalties

Anyone convicted of an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be imprisoned for not more than three years and fined under title 18.

  • (c) Seizure and forfeiture

Any drug paraphernalia involved in any violation of subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture upon the conviction of a person for such violation. Any such paraphernalia shall be delivered to the Administrator of General Services, General Services Administration, who may order such paraphernalia destroyed or may authorize its use for law enforcement or educational purposes by Federal, State, or local authorities.

  • (d) ''Drug paraphernalia'' defined

The term ''drug paraphernalia'' means any equipment, product, or material of any kind which is primarily intended or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, concealing, producing, processing, preparing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled substance, possession of which is unlawful under this subchapter. It includes items primarily intended or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, (FOOTNOTE 1) cocaine, hashish, hashish oil, PCP, or amphetamines into the human body, such as - (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''marihuana,''.

  • (1) metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls;
  • (2) water pipes;
  • (3) carburetion tubes and devices;
  • (4) smoking and carburetion masks;
  • (5) roach clips: meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marihuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand;
  • (6) miniature spoons with level capacities of one-tenth cubic centimeter or less;
  • (7) chamber pipes;
  • (8) carburetor pipes;
  • (9) electric pipes;
  • (10) air-driven pipes;
  • (11) chillums;
  • (12) bongs;
  • (13) ice pipes or chillers;
  • (14) wired cigarette papers; or
  • (15) cocaine freebase kits.
  • (e) Matters considered in determination of what constitutes drug paraphernalia

In determining whether an item constitutes drug paraphernalia, in addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following may be considered:

  • (1) instructions, oral or written, provided with the item concerning its use;
  • (2) descriptive materials accompanying the item which explain or depict its use;
  • (3) national and local advertising concerning its use;
  • (4) the manner in which the item is displayed for sale;
  • (5) whether the owner, or anyone in control of the item, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;
  • (6) direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the item(s) to the total sales of the business enterprise;
  • (7) the existence and scope of legitimate uses of the item in the community; and
  • (8) expert testimony concerning its use.
  • (f) Exemptions

This section shall not apply to -

  • (1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or
  • (2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail or by any other means, and traditionally intended for use with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory.

 

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PART E - ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS 

§ 871. Attorney General.

  • (a) Delegation of functions

The Attorney General may delegate any of his functions under this subchapter to any officer or employee of the Department of Justice.

  • (b) Rules and regulations

The Attorney General may promulgate and enforce any rules, regulations, and procedures which he may deem necessary and appropriate for the efficient execution of his functions under this subchapter.

  • (c) Acceptance of devices, bequests, gifts, and donations

The Attorney General may accept in the name of the Department of Justice any form of device, bequest, gift, or donation where the donor intends to donate property for the purpose of preventing or controlling the abuse of controlled substances. He may take all appropriate steps to secure possession of such property and may sell, assign, transfer, or convey any such property other than moneys.

§ 872. Education and research programs of Attorney General.

  • (a) Authorization

The Attorney General is authorized to carry out educational and research programs directly related to enforcement of the laws under his jurisdiction concerning drugs or other substances which are or may be subject to control under this subchapter. Such programs may include -

  • (1) educational and training programs on drug abuse and controlled substances law enforcement for local, State, and Federal personnel;
  • (2) studies or special projects designed to compare the deterrent effects of various enforcement strategies on drug use and abuse;
  • (3) studies or special projects designed to assess and detect accurately the presence in the human body of drugs or other substances which are or may be subject to control under this subchapter, including the development of rapid field identification methods which would enable agents to detect microquantities of such drugs or other substances;
  • (4) studies or special projects designed to evaluate the nature and sources of the supply of illegal drugs throughout the country;
  • (5) studies or special projects to develop more effective methods to prevent diversion of controlled substances into illegal channels; and
  • (6) studies or special projects to develop information necessary to carry out his functions under section 811 of this title.
  • (b) Contracts

The Attorney General may enter into contracts for such educational and research activities without performance bonds and without regard to section 5 of title 41.

  • (c) Identification of research populations; authorization to withhold

The Attorney General may authorize persons engaged in research to withhold the names and other identifying characteristics of persons who are the subjects of such research. Persons who obtain this authorization may not be compelled in any Federal, State, or local civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceeding to identify the subjects of research for which such authorization was obtained.

  • (d) Affect of treaties and other international agreements on confidentiality

Nothing in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, or other treaties or international agreements shall be construed to limit, modify, or prevent the protection of the confidentiality of patient records or of the names and other identifying characteristics of research subjects as provided by any Federal, State, or local law or regulation.

  • (e) Use of controlled substances in research

The Attorney General, on his own motion or at the request of the Secretary, may authorize the possession, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances by persons engaged in research. Persons who obtain this authorization shall be exempt from State or Federal prosecution for possession, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances to the extent authorized by the Attorney General.

  • (f) Program to curtail diversion of precursor and essential chemicals

The Attorney General shall maintain an active program, both domestic and international, to curtail the diversion of precursor chemicals and essential chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of controlled substances.

§ 873. Cooperative arrangements.

  • (a) Cooperation of Attorney General with local, State, and Federal agencies

The Attorney General shall cooperate with local, State, and Federal agencies concerning traffic in controlled substances and in suppressing the abuse of controlled substances. To this end, he is authorized to -

  • (1) arrange for the exchange of information between governmental officials concerning the use and abuse of controlled substances;
  • (2) cooperate in the institution and prosecution of cases in the courts of the United States and before the licensing boards and courts of the several States;
  • (3) conduct training programs on controlled substance law enforcement for local, State, and Federal personnel;
  • (4) maintain in the Department of Justice a unit which will accept, catalog, file, and otherwise utilize all information and statistics, including records of controlled substance abusers and other controlled substance law offenders, which may be received from Federal, State, and local agencies, and make such information available for Federal, State, and local law enforcement purposes;
  • (5) conduct programs of eradication aimed at destroying wild or illicit growth of plant species from which controlled substances may be extracted;
  • (6) assist State and local governments in suppressing the diversion of controlled substances from legitimate medical, scientific, and commercial channels by -
    • (A) making periodic assessments of the capabilities of State and local governments to adequately control the diversion of controlled substances;
    • (B) providing advice and counsel to State and local governments on the methods by which such governments may strengthen their controls against diversion; and
    • (C) establishing cooperative investigative efforts to control diversion; and
  • (7) notwithstanding any other provision of law, enter into contractual agreements with State and local law enforcement agencies to provide for cooperative enforcement and regulatory activities under this chapter. (FOOTNOTE 1)

(FOOTNOTE 1) This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), was in the original as added by Pub. L. 99-646 ''this Act'', meaning Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1236, as amended. In the subsec. (a)(7) added by Pub. L. 99-570, the reference was ''this title'', meaning title II of Pub. L. 91-513 which is popularly known as the ''Controlled Substances Act'' and is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of this Act and title II to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Schedule II, referred to in subsec. (c), is set out in section 812(c) of this title.

  • (b) Requests by Attorney General for assistance from Federal agencies or instrumentalities

When requested by the Attorney General, it shall be the duty of any agency or instrumentality of the Federal Government to furnish assistance, including technical advice, to him for carrying out his functions under this subchapter; except that no such agency or instrumentality shall be required to furnish the name of, or other identifying information about, a patient or research subject whose identity it has undertaken to keep confidential.

  • (c) Descriptive and analytic reports by Attorney General to State agencies of distribution patterns of schedule II substances having highest rates of abuse

The Attorney General shall annually (1) select the controlled substances (or controlled substances) contained in schedule II which, in the Attorney General's discretion, is determined to have the highest rate of abuse, and (2) prepare and make available to regulatory, licensing, and law enforcement agencies of States descriptive and analytic reports on the actual distribution patterns in such States of each such controlled substance.

  • (d) Grants by Attorney General
    • (1) The Attorney General may make grants, in accordance with paragraph (2), to State and local governments to assist in meeting the costs of -
      • (A) collecting and analyzing data on the diversion of controlled substances,
      • (B) conducting investigations and prosecutions of such diversions,
      • (C) improving regulatory controls and other authorities to control such diversions,
      • (D) programs to prevent such diversions,
      • (E) preventing and detecting forged prescriptions, and
      • (F) training law enforcement and regulatory personnel to improve the control of such diversions.
    • (2) No grant may be made under paragraph (1) unless an application therefor is submitted to the Attorney General in such form and manner as the Attorney General may prescribe. No grant may exceed 80 per centum of the costs for which the grant is made, and no grant may be made unless the recipient of the grant provides assurances satisfactory to the Attorney General that it will obligate funds to meet the remaining 20 per centum of such costs. The Attorney General shall review the activities carried out with grants under paragraph (1) and shall report annually to Congress on such activities.
    • (3) To carry out this subsection there is authorized to be appropriated $6,000,000 for fiscal year 1985 and $6,000,000 for fiscal year 1986.

§ 874. Advisory committees.

The Attorney General may from time to time appoint committees to advise him with respect to preventing and controlling the abuse of controlled substances. Members of the committees may be entitled to receive compensation at the rate of $100 for each day (including traveltime) during which they are engaged in the actual performance of duties. While traveling on official business in the performance of duties for the committees, members of the committees shall be allowed expenses of travel, including per diem instead of subsistence, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5.

§ 875. Administrative hearings.

  • (a) Power of Attorney General

In carrying out his functions under this subchapter, the Attorney General may hold hearings, sign and issue subpenas, administer oaths, examine witnesses, and receive evidence at any place in the United States.

  • (b) Procedures applicable

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, notice shall be given and hearings shall be conducted under appropriate procedures of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

§ 876. Subpenas.

  • (a) Authorization of use by Attorney General

In any investigation relating to his functions under this subchapter with respect to controlled substances, listed chemicals, tableting machines, or encapsulating machines, the Attorney General may subpena witnesses, compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses, and require the production of any records (including books, papers, documents, and other tangible things which constitute or contain evidence) which the Attorney General finds relevant or material to the investigation. The attendance of witnesses and the production of records may be required from any place in any State or in any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States at any designated place of hearing; except that a witness shall not be required to appear at any hearing more than 500 miles distant from the place where he was served with a subpena. Witnesses summoned under this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States.

  • (b) Service

A subpena issued under this section may be served by any person designated in the subpena to serve it. Service upon a natural person may be made by personal delivery of the subpena to him. Service may be made upon a domestic or foreign corporation or upon a partnership or other unincorporated association which is subject to suit under a common name, by delivering the subpena to an officer, to a managing or general agent, or to any other agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process. The affidavit of the person serving the subpena entered a true copy thereof by the person serving it shall be proof of service.

  • (c) Enforcement

In the case of contumacy by or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any person, the Attorney General may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which the investigation is carried on or of which the subpenaed person is an inhabitant, or in which he carries on business or may be found, to compel compliance with the subpena. The court may issue an order requiring the subpenaed person to appear before the Attorney General to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in any judicial district in which such person may be found.

§ 877. Judicial review.

All final determinations, findings, and conclusions of the Attorney General under this subchapter shall be final and conclusive decisions of the matters involved, except that any person aggrieved by a final decision of the Attorney General may obtain review of the decision in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which his principal place of business is located upon petition filed with the court and delivered to the Attorney General within thirty days after notice of the decision. Findings of fact by the Attorney General, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive.

§ 878. Powers of enforcement personnel.

  • (a) Any officer or employee of the Drug Enforcement Administration or any State or local law enforcement officer designated by the Attorney General may -
    • (1) carry firearms;
    • (2) execute and serve search warrants, arrest warrants, administrative inspection warrants, subpenas, and summonses issued under the authority of the United States;
    • (3) make arrests without warrant (A) for any offense against the United States committed in his presence, or (B) for any felony, cognizable under the laws of the United States, if he has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony;
    • (4) make seizures of property pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter; and
    • (5) perform such other law enforcement duties as the Attorney General may designate.
  • (b) State and local law enforcement officers performing functions under this section shall not be deemed Federal employees and shall not be subject to provisions of law relating to Federal employees, except that such officers shall be subject to section 3374(c) of title 5.

§ 879. Search warrants.

A search warrant relating to offenses involving controlled substances may be served at any time of the day or night if the judge or United States magistrate judge issuing the warrant is satisfied that there is probable cause to believe that grounds exist for the warrant and for its service at such time.

§ 880. Administrative inspections and warrants.

  • (a) ''Controlled premises'' defined

As used in this section, the term ''controlled premises'' means -

  • (1) places where original or other records or documents required under this subchapter are kept or required to be kept, and
  • (2) places, including factories, warehouses, and other establishments, and conveyances, where persons registered under section 823 of this title (or exempt from registration under section 822(d) of this title or by regulation of the Attorney General) or regulated persons may lawfully hold, manufacture, distribute, dispense, administer, or otherwise dispose of controlled substances or listed chemicals or where records relating to those activities are maintained.
  • (b) Grant of authority; scope of inspections
    • (1) For the purpose of inspecting, copying, and verifying the correctness of records, reports, or other documents required to be kept or made under this subchapter and otherwise facilitating the carrying out of his functions under this subchapter, the Attorney General is authorized, in accordance with this section, to enter controlled premises and to conduct administrative inspections thereof, and of the things specified in this section, relevant to those functions.
    • (2) Such entries and inspections shall be carried out through officers or employees (hereinafter referred to as ''inspectors'') designated by the Attorney General. Any such inspector, upon stating his purpose and presenting to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such premises (A) appropriate credentials and (B) a written notice of his inspection authority (which notice in the case of an inspection requiring, or in fact supported by, an administrative inspection warrant shall consist of such warrant), shall have the right to enter such premises and conduct such inspection at reasonable times.
    • (3) Except as may otherwise be indicated in an applicable inspection warrant, the inspector shall have the right -
      • (A) to inspect and copy records, reports, and other documents required to be kept or made under this subchapter;
      • (B) to inspect, within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, controlled premises and all pertinent equipment, finished and unfinished drugs, listed chemicals, and other substances or materials, containers, and labeling found therein, and, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, all other things therein (including records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities) appropriate for verification of the records, reports, and documents referred to in clause (A) or otherwise bearing on the provisions of this subchapter; and
      • (C) to inventory any stock of any controlled substance or listed chemical therein and obtain samples of any such substance or chemical.
    • (4) Except when the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the controlled premises so consents in writing, no inspection authorized by this section shall extend to -
      • (A) financial data;
      • (B) sales data other than shipment data; or
      • (C) pricing data.
  • (c) Situations not requiring warrants

A warrant under this section shall not be required for the inspection of books and records pursuant to an administrative subpena issued in accordance with section 876 of this title, nor for entries and administrative inspections (including seizures of property) -

  • (1) with the consent of the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the controlled premises;
  • (2) in situations presenting imminent danger to health or safety;
  • (3) in situations involving inspection of conveyances where there is reasonable cause to believe that the mobility of the conveyance makes it impracticable to obtain a warrant;
  • (4) in any other exceptional or emergency circumstance where time or opportunity to apply for a warrant is lacking; or
  • (5) in any other situations where a warrant is not constitutionally required.
  • (d) Administrative inspection warrants; issuance; execution; probable cause

Issuance and execution of administrative inspection warrants shall be as follows:

  • (1) Any judge of the United States or of a State court of record, or any United States magistrate judge, may, within his territorial jurisdiction, and upon proper oath or affirmation showing probable cause, issue warrants for the purpose of conducting administrative inspections authorized by this subchapter or regulations thereunder, and seizures of property appropriate to such inspections. For the purposes of this section, the term ''probable cause'' means a valid public interest in the effective enforcement of this subchapter or regulations thereunder sufficient to justify administrative inspections of the area, premises, building, or conveyance, or contents thereof, in the circumstances specified in the application for the warrant.
  • (2) A warrant shall issue only upon an affidavit of an officer or employee having knowledge of the facts alleged, sworn to before the judge or magistrate judge and establishing the grounds for issuing the warrant. If the judge or magistrate judge is satisfied that grounds for the application exist or that there is probable cause to believe they exist, he shall issue a warrant identifying the area, premises, building, or conveyance to be inspected, the purpose of such inspection, and, where appropriate, the type of property to be inspected, if any. The warrant shall identify the items or types of property to be seized, if any. The warrant shall be directed to a person authorized under subsection (b)(2) of this section to execute it. The warrant shall state the grounds for its issuance and the name of the person or persons whose affidavit has been taken in support thereof. It shall command the person to whom it is directed to inspect the area, premises, building, or conveyance identified for the purpose specified, and, where appropriate, shall direct the seizure of the property specified. The warrant shall direct that it be served during normal business hours. It shall designate the judge or magistrate judge to whom it shall be returned.
  • (3) A warrant issued pursuant to this section must be executed and returned within ten days of its date unless, upon a showing by the United States of a need therefor, the judge or magistrate judge allows additional time in the warrant. If property is seized pursuant to a warrant, the person executing the warrant shall give to the person from whom or from whose premises the property was taken a copy of the warrant and a receipt for the property taken or shall leave the copy and receipt at the place from which the property was taken. The return of the warrant shall be made promptly and shall be accompanied by a written inventory of any property taken. The inventory shall be made in the presence of the person executing the warrant and of the person from whose possession or premises the property was taken, if they are present, or in the presence of at least one credible person other than the person making such inventory, and shall be verified by the person executing the warrant. The judge or magistrate judge, upon request, shall deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whom or from whose premises the property was taken and the applicant for the warrant.
  • (4) The judge or magistrate judge who has issued a warrant under this section shall attach to the warrant a copy of the return and all papers filed in connection therewith and shall file them with the clerk of the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the inspection was made.

§ 881. Forfeitures.

  • (a) Subject property

The following shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States and no property right shall exist in them:

  • (1) All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, or acquired in violation of this subchapter.
  • (2) All raw materials, products, and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled substance in violation of this subchapter.
  • (3) All property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9).
  • (4) All conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles, or vessels, which are used, or are intended for use, to transport, or in any manner to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9), except that -
    • (A) no conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier shall be forfeited under the provisions of this section unless it shall appear that the owner or other person in charge of such conveyance was a consenting party or privy to a violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter;
    • (B) no conveyance shall be forfeited under the provisions of this section by reason of any act or omission established by the owner thereof to have been committed or omitted by any person other than such owner while such conveyance was unlawfully in the possession of a person other than the owner in violation of the criminal laws of the United States, or of any State; and
    • (C) no conveyance shall be forfeited under this paragraph to the extent of an interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission established by that owner to have been committed or omitted without the knowledge, consent, or willful blindness of the owner.
  • (5) All books, records, and research, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data which are used, or intended for use, in violation of this subchapter.
  • (6) All moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any person in exchange for a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter, all proceeds traceable to such an exchange, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, and securities used or intended to be used to facilitate any violation of this subchapter, except that no property shall be forfeited under this paragraph, to the extent of the interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission established by that owner to have been committed or omitted without the knowledge or consent of that owner.
  • (7) All real property, including any right, title, and interest (including any leasehold interest) in the whole of any lot or tract of land and any appurtenances or improvements, which is used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, a violation of this subchapter punishable by more than one year's imprisonment, except that no property shall be forfeited under this paragraph, to the extent of an interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission established by that owner to have been committed or omitted without the knowledge or consent of that owner.
  • (8) All controlled substances which have been possessed in violation of this subchapter.
  • (9) All listed chemicals, all drug manufacturing equipment, all tableting machines, all encapsulating machines, and all gelatin capsules, which have been imported, exported, manufactured, possessed, distributed, or intended to be distributed, imported, or exported, in violation of a felony provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter.
  • (10) Any drug paraphernalia (as defined in section 1822 of the Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act). (FOOTNOTE 1)

    (FOOTNOTE 1) Section 1822 of the Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(10), is section 1822 of Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-51, which was repealed by Pub. L. 101-647, title XXIV, Sec. 2401(d), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4859. Prior to repeal, subsec. (d) of section 1822 of Pub. L. 99-570, which defined ''drug paraphernalia'', was transferred to subsec. (d) of section 422 of title II of Pub. L. 91-513, the Controlled Substances Act. Section 422 of Pub. L. 91-513 is classified to section 863 of this title.

  • (11) Any firearm (as defined in section 921 of title 18) used or intended to be used to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1) or (2) and any proceeds traceable to such property.
  • (b) Seizure pursuant to Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims; issuance of warrant authorizing seizure

Any property subject to civil forfeiture to the United States under this subchapter may be seized by the Attorney General upon process issued pursuant to the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims by any district court of the United States having jurisdiction over the property, except that seizure without such process may be made when -

  • (1) the seizure is incident to an arrest or a search under a search warrant or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant;
  • (2) the property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the United States in a criminal injunction or forfeiture proceeding under this subchapter;
  • (3) the Attorney General has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to health or safety; or
  • (4) the Attorney General has probable cause to believe that the property is subject to civil forfeiture under this subchapter.

In the event of seizure pursuant to paragraph (3) or (4) of this subsection, proceedings under subsection (d) of this section shall be instituted promptly. The Government may request the issuance of a warrant authorizing the seizure of property subject to forfeiture under this section in the same manner as provided for a search warrant under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

  • (c) Custody of Attorney General

Property taken or detained under this section shall not be repleviable, but shall be deemed to be in the custody of the Attorney General, subject only to the orders and decrees of the court or the official having jurisdiction thereof. Whenever property is seized under any of the provisions of this subchapter, the Attorney General may -

  • (1) place the property under seal;
  • (2) remove the property to a place designated by him; or
  • (3) require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and remove it, if practicable, to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law.
  • (d) Other laws and proceedings applicable

The provisions of law relating to the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any of the provisions of this subchapter, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions hereof; except that such duties as are imposed upon the customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this subchapter by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General, except to the extent that such duties arise from seizures and forfeitures effected by any customs officer.

  • (e) Disposition of forfeited property
    • (1) Whenever property is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter the Attorney General may -
      • (A) retain the property for official use or, in the manner provided with respect to transfers under section 1616a of title 19, transfer the property to any Federal agency or to any State or local law enforcement agency which participated directly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property;
      • (B) except as provided in paragraph (4), sell, by public sale or any other commercially feasible means, any forfeited property which is not required to be destroyed by law and which is not harmful to the public;
      • (C) require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and dispose of it in accordance with law;
      • (D) forward it to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs for disposition (including delivery for medical or scientific use to any Federal or State agency under regulations of the Attorney General); or
      • (E) transfer the forfeited personal property or the proceeds of the sale of any forfeited personal or real property to any foreign country which participated directly or indirectly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property, if such a transfer -
        • (i) has been agreed to by the Secretary of State;
        • (ii) is authorized in an international agreement between the United States and the foreign country; and
        • (iii) is made to a country which, if applicable, has been certified under section 2291j(b) of title 22.
    • (2)
      • (A) The proceeds from any sale under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) and any moneys forfeited under this subchapter shall be used to pay -
        • (i) all property expenses of the proceedings for forfeiture and sale including expenses of seizure, maintenance of custody, advertising, and court costs; and
        • (ii) awards of up to $100,000 to any individual who provides original information which leads to the arrest and conviction of a person who kills or kidnaps a Federal drug law enforcement agent. Any award paid for information concerning the killing or kidnapping of a Federal drug law enforcement agent, as provided in clause (ii), shall be paid at the discretion of the Attorney General.
      • (B) The Attorney General shall forward to the Treasurer of the United States for deposit in accordance with section 524(c) of title 28, any amounts of such moneys and proceeds remaining after payment of the expenses provided in subparagraph (A), except that, with respect to forfeitures conducted by the Postal Service, the Postal Service shall deposit in the Postal Service Fund, under section 2003(b)(7) of title 39, such moneys and proceeds.
    • (3) The Attorney General shall assure that any property transferred to a State or local law enforcement agency under paragraph (1)(A) -
      • (A) has a value that bears a reasonable relationship to the degree of direct participation of the State or local agency in the law enforcement effort resulting in the forfeiture, taking into account the total value of all property forfeited and the total law enforcement effort with respect to the violation of law on which the forfeiture is based; and
      • (B) will serve to encourage further cooperation between the recipient State or local agency and Federal law enforcement agencies.
    • (4)
      • (A) With respect to real property described in subparagraph (B), if the chief executive officer of the State involved submits to the Attorney General a request for purposes of such subparagraph, the authority established in such subparagraph is in lieu of the authority established in paragraph (1)(B).
      • (B) In the case of property described in paragraph (1)(B) that is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter, if the property is real property that is appropriate for use as a public area reserved for recreational or historic purposes or for the preservation of natural conditions, the Attorney General, upon the request of the chief executive officer of the State in which the property is located, may transfer title to the property to the State, either without charge or for a nominal charge, through a legal instrument providing that -
        • (i) such use will be the principal use of the property; and
        • (ii) title to the property reverts to the United States in the event that the property is used otherwise.
  • (f) Forfeiture and destruction of schedule I and II substances
    • (1) All controlled substances in schedule I or II that are possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of the provisions of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) of this section which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products shall be deemed contraband and seized and summarily forfeited to the United States. Similarly, all substances in schedule I or II, which are seized or come into the possession of the United States, the owners of which are unknown, shall be deemed contraband and summarily forfeited to the United States.
    • (2) The Attorney General may direct the destruction of all controlled substances in schedule I or II seized for violation of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) of this section which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products under such circumstances as the Attorney General may deem necessary.
  • (g) Plants
    • (1) All species of plants from which controlled substances in schedules I and II may be derived which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this subchapter, or of which the owners or cultivators are unknown, or which are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited to the United States.
    • (2) The failure, upon demand by the Attorney General or his duly authorized agent, of the person in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which such species of plants are growing or being stored, to produce an appropriate registration, or proof that he is the holder thereof, shall constitute authority for the seizure and forfeiture.
    • (3) The Attorney General, or his duly authorized agent, shall have authority to enter upon any lands, or into any dwelling pursuant to a search warrant, to cut, harvest, carry off, or destroy such plants.
  • (h) Vesting of title in United States

All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) of this section shall vest in the United States upon commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section.

  • (i) Stay of civil forfeiture proceedings

The filing of an indictment or information alleging a violation of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, or a violation of State or local law that could have been charged under this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter, which is also related to a civil forfeiture proceeding under this section shall, upon motion of the United States and for good cause shown, stay the civil forfeiture proceeding.

  • (j) Venue

In addition to the venue provided for in section 1395 of title 28 or any other provision of law, in the case of property of a defendant charged with a violation that is the basis for forfeiture of the property under this section, a proceeding for forfeiture under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant owning such property is found or in the judicial district in which the criminal prosecution is brought. (l) (FOOTNOTE 2) Agreement between Attorney General and Postal Service for performance of functions (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. No subsec. (k) has been enacted. The functions of the Attorney General under this section shall be carried out by the Postal Service pursuant to such agreement as may be entered into between the Attorney General and the Postal Service.

§ 881-1, 881a. Transferred.

§ 882. Injunctions.

  • (a) Jurisdiction

The district courts of the United States and all courts exercising general jurisdiction in the territories and possessions of the United States shall have jurisdiction in proceedings in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure to enjoin violations of this subchapter.

  • (b) Jury trial

In case of an alleged violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, trial shall, upon demand of the accused, be by a jury in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

§ 883. Enforcement proceedings.

Before any violation of this subchapter is reported by the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the Administrator may require that the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated is given appropriate notice and an opportunity to present his views, either orally or in writing, with regard to such contemplated proceeding.

§ 884. Immunity and privilege.

  • (a) Refusal to testify

Whenever a witness refuses, on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or provide other information in a proceeding before a court or grand jury of the United States, involving a violation of this subchapter, and the person presiding over the proceeding communicates to the witness an order issued under this section, the witness may not refuse to comply with the order on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination. But no testimony or other information compelled under the order issued under subsection (b) of this section or any information obtained by the exploitation of such testimony or other information, may be used against the witness in any criminal case, including any criminal case brought in a court of a State, except a prosecution for perjury, giving a false statement, or otherwise failing to comply with the order.

  • (b) Order of United States district court

In the case of any individual who has been or may be called to testify or provide other information at any proceeding before a court or grand jury of the United States, the United States district court for the judicial district in which the proceeding is or may be held shall issue, upon the request of the United States attorney for such district, an order requiring such individual to give any testimony or provide any other information which he refuses to give or provide on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination.

  • (c) Request by United States attorney

A United States attorney may, with the approval of the Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or any Assistant Attorney General designated by the Attorney General, request an order under subsection (b) of this section when in his judgment -

  • (1) the testimony or other information from such individual may be necessary to the public interest; and
  • (2) such individual has refused or is likely to refuse to testify or provide other information on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination.

§ 885. Burden of proof; liabilities.

  • (a) Exemptions and exceptions; presumption in simple possession offenses
    • (1) It shall not be necessary for the United States to negative any exemption or exception set forth in this subchapter in any complaint, information, indictment, or other pleading or in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding under this subchapter, and the burden of going forward with the evidence with respect to any such exemption or exception shall be upon the person claiming its benefit.
    • (2) In the case of a person charged under section 844(a) of this title with the possession of a controlled substance, any label identifying such substance for purposes of section 353(b)(2) of this title shall be admissible in evidence and shall be prima facie evidence that such substance was obtained pursuant to a valid prescription from a practitioner while acting in the course of his professional practice.
  • (b) Registration and order forms

In the absence of proof that a person is the duly authorized holder of an appropriate registration or order form issued under this subchapter, he shall be presumed not to be the holder of such registration or form, and the burden of going forward with the evidence with respect to such registration or form shall be upon him.

  • (c) Use of vehicles, vessels, and aircraft

The burden of going forward with the evidence to establish that a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft used in connection with controlled substances in schedule I was used in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter shall be on the persons engaged in such use.

  • (d) Immunity of Federal, State, local and other officials

Except as provided in section 2234 and 2235 of title 18, no civil or criminal liability shall be imposed by virtue of this subchapter upon any duly authorized Federal officer lawfully engaged in the enforcement of this subchapter, or upon any duly authorized officer of any State, territory, political subdivision thereof, the District of Columbia, or any possession of the United States, who shall be lawfully engaged in the enforcement of any law or municipal ordinance relating to controlled substances.

§ 886. Payments and advances.

  • (a) Payment to informers

The Attorney General is authorized to pay any person, from funds appropriated for the Drug Enforcement Administration, for information concerning a violation of this subchapter, such sum or sums of money as he may deem appropriate, without reference to any moieties or rewards to which such person may otherwise be entitled by law.

  • (b) Reimbursement for purchase of controlled substances

Moneys expended from appropriations of the Drug Enforcement Administration for purchase of controlled substances and subsequently recovered shall be reimbursed to the current appropriation for the Administration. (FOOTNOTE 1)

(FOOTNOTE 1) In subsec. (b), ''Administration'' substituted for ''Bureau'' as the probable intent of Congress in view of amendment by Pub. L. 96-132, which substituted references to the Drug Enforcement Administration for references to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs wherever appearing in text.

  • (c) Advance of funds for enforcement purposes

The Attorney General is authorized to direct the advance of funds by the Treasury Department in connection with the enforcement of this subchapter.

  • (d) Drug Pollution Fund
    • (1) There is established in the Treasury a trust fund to be known as the ''Drug Pollution Fund'' (hereinafter referred to in this subsection as the ''Fund''), consisting of amounts appropriated or credited to such Fund under section 841(b)(6) of this title.
    • (2) There are hereby appropriated to the Fund amounts equivalent to the fines imposed under section 841(b)(6) of this title.
    • (3) Amounts in the Fund shall be available, as provided in appropriations Acts, for the purpose of making payments in accordance with paragraph (4) for the clean up of certain pollution resulting from the actions referred to in section 841(b)(6) of this title.
    • (4)
      • (A) The Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Attorney General, shall make payments under paragraph (3), in such amounts as the Secretary determines appropriate, to the heads of executive agencies or departments that meet the requirements of subparagraph (B).
      • (B) In order to receive a payment under paragraph (3), the head of an executive agency or department shall submit an application in such form and containing such information as the Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulation require. Such application shall contain a description of the fine imposed under section 841(b)(6) of this title, the circumstances surrounding the imposition of such fine, and the type and severity of pollution that resulted from the actions to which such fine applies.
    • (5) For purposes of subchapter B of chapter 98 of title 26, the Fund established under this paragraph shall be treated in the same manner as a trust fund established under subchapter A of such chapter.

§ 886a. Diversion Control Fee Account.

There is established in the general fund of the Treasury a separate account which shall be known as the Diversion Control Fee Account. For fiscal year 1993 and thereafter:

  • (1) There shall be deposited as offsetting receipts into that account all fees collected by the Drug Enforcement Administration, in excess of $15,000,000, for the operation of its diversion control program.
  • (2) Such amounts as are deposited into the Diversion Control Fee Account shall remain available until expended and shall be refunded out of that account by the Secretary of the Treasury, at least on a quarterly basis, to reimburse the Drug Enforcement Administration for expenses incurred in the operation of the diversion control program.
  • (3) Fees charged by the Drug Enforcement Administration under its diversion control program shall be set at a level that ensures the recovery of the full costs of operating the various aspects of that program.
  • (4) The amount required to be refunded from the Diversion Control Fee Account for fiscal year 1994 and thereafter shall be refunded in accordance with estimates made in the budget request of the Attorney General for those fiscal years. Any proposed changes in the amounts designated in said budget requests shall only be made after notification to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate fifteen days in advance.
  • (5) The Attorney General shall prepare and submit annually to the Congress, statements of financial condition of the account, including the beginning balance, receipts, refunds to appropriations, transfers to the general fund, and the ending balance.

§ 887. Coordination and consolidation of post-seizure administration.

The Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury shall take such action as may be necessary to develop and maintain a joint plan to coordinate and consolidate post-seizure administration of property seized under this subchapter, subchapter II of this chapter, or provisions of the customs laws relating to controlled substances.

§ 888. Expedited procedures for seized conveyances.

  • (a) Petition for expedited decision; determination
    • (1) The owner of a conveyance may petition the Attorney General for an expedited decision with respect to the conveyance, if the conveyance is seized for a drug-related offense and the owner has filed the requisite claim and cost bond in the manner provided in section 1608 of title 19. The Attorney General shall make a determination on a petition under this section expeditiously, including a determination of any rights or defenses available to the petitioner. If the Attorney General does not grant or deny a petition under this section within 20 days after the date on which the petition is filed, the conveyance shall be returned to the owner pending further forfeiture proceedings.
    • (2) With respect to a petition under this section, the Attorney General may -
      • (A) deny the petition and retain possession of the conveyance;
      • (B) grant the petition, move to dismiss the forfeiture action, if filed, and promptly release the conveyance to the owner; or
      • (C) advise the petitioner that there is not adequate information available to determine the petition and promptly release the conveyance to the owner.
    • (3) Release of a conveyance under subsection (a)(1) or (a)(2)(C) of this section does not affect any forfeiture action with respect to the conveyance.
    • (4) The Attorney General shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section.
  • (b) Written notice of procedures

At the time of seizure, the officer making the seizure shall furnish to any person in possession of the conveyance a written notice specifying the procedures under this section. At the earliest practicable opportunity after determining ownership of the seized conveyance, the head of the department or agency that seizes the conveyance shall furnish a written notice to the owner and other interested parties (including lienholders) of the legal and factual basis of the seizure.

  • (c) Complaint for forfeiture

Not later than 60 days after a claim and cost bond have been filed under section 1608 of title 19 regarding a conveyance seized for a drug-related offense, the Attorney General shall file a complaint for forfeiture in the appropriate district court, except that the court may extend the period for filing for good cause shown or on agreement of the parties. If the Attorney General does not file a complaint as specified in the preceding sentence, the court shall order the return of the conveyance to the owner and the forfeiture may not take place.

  • (d) Bond for release of conveyance

Any owner of a conveyance seized for a drug-related offense may obtain release of the conveyance by providing security in the form of a bond to the Attorney General in an amount equal to the value of the conveyance unless the Attorney General determines the conveyance should be retained (1) as contraband, (2) as evidence of a violation of law, or (3) because, by reason of design or other characteristic, the conveyance is particularly suited for use in illegal activities.

§ 889. Production control of controlled substances.

  • (a) Definitions

As used in this section:

  • (1) The term ''controlled substance'' has the same meaning given such term in section 802(6) of this title.
  • (2) The term ''Secretary'' means the Secretary of Agriculture.
  • (3) The term ''State'' means each of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
  • (b) Persons ineligible for Federal agricultural program benefits

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, following December 23, 1985, any person who is convicted under Federal or State law of planting, cultivation, growing, producing, harvesting, or storing a controlled substance in any crop year shall be ineligible for -

  • (1) as to any commodity produced during that crop year, and the four succeeding crop years, by such person -
    • (A) any price support or payment made available under the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.), the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714 et seq.), or any other Act;
    • (B) a farm storage facility loan made under section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714b(h));
    • (C) crop insurance under the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.);
    • (D) a disaster payment made under the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.); or
    • (E) a loan made, insured or guaranteed under the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.) or any other provision of law administered by the Farmers Home Administration; or
  • (2) a payment made under section 4 or 5 of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714b or 714c) for the storage of an agricultural commodity that is -
    • (A) produced during that crop year, or any of the four succeeding crop years, by such person; and
    • (B) acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation.
  • (c) Regulations

Not later than 180 days after December 23, 1985, the Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary determines are necessary to carry out this section, including regulations that -

  • (1) define the term ''person'';
  • (2) govern the determination of persons who shall be ineligible for program benefits under this section; and
  • (3) protect the interests of tenants and sharecroppers.

 

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PART F Advisory Commission 

  • (a) There is established a commission to be known as the Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Commission'). The Commission shall be composed of -
    • (1) two Members of the Senate appointed by the President of the Senate;
    • (2) two Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and
    • (3) nine members appointed by the President of the United States. At no time shall more than one of the members appointed under paragraph (1), or more than one of the members appointed under paragraph (2), or more than five of the members appointed under paragraph (3) be members of the same political party.
  • (b) (Chairman; Vice Chairman; compensation of members; meetings)
    • (1) The President shall designate one of the members of the Commission as Chairman and one as Vice Chairman. Seven members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number may conduct hearings.
    • (2) Members of the Commission who are Members of Congress or full-time officers or employees of the United States shall serve without additional compensation but shall be reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred in the performance of the duties vested in the Commission. Members of the Commission from private life shall receive $100 per diem while engaged in the actual performance of the duties vested in the Commission, plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred in the performance of such duties.
    • (3) The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman or at the call of a majority of the members thereof.
  • (c) (Personnel; experts; information from departments and agencies)
    • (1) The Commission shall have the power to appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as it deems advisable, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.
    • (2) The Commission may procure, in accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, the temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants. Persons so employed shall receive compensation at a rate to be fixed by the Commission, but not in excess of $75 per diem, including traveltime. While away from his home or regular place of business in the performance of services for the Commission, any such person may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703(b) of title 5, United States Code, for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.
    • (3) The Commission may secure directly from any department or agency of the United States information necessary to enable it to carry out its duties under this section. Upon request of the Chairman of the Commission, such department or agency shall furnish such information to the Commission.
  • (d) (Marihuana study; report to the President and the Congress)
    • (1) The Commission shall conduct a study of marihuana including, but not limited to, the following areas:
      • (A) the extent of use of marihuana in the United States to include its various sources of users, number of arrests, number of convictions, amount of marihuana seized, type of user, nature of use;
      • (B) an evaluation of the efficacy of existing marihuana laws;
      • (C) a study of the pharmacology of marihuana and its immediate and long-term effects, both physiological and psychological;
      • (D) the relationship of marihuana use to aggressive behavior and crime;
      • (E) the relationship between marihuana and the use of other drugs; and
      • (F) the international control of marihuana.
    • (2) Within one year after the date on which funds first become available to carry out this section, the Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on its study and investigation under this subsection which shall include its recommendations and such proposals for legislation and administrative action as may be necessary to carry out its recommendations.
  • (e) (Study and investigation of causes of drug abuse; report to the President and the Congress; termination of Commission)

The Commission shall conduct a comprehensive study and investigation of the causes of drug abuse and their relative significance. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress such interim reports as it deems advisable and shall within two years after the date on which funds first become available to carry out this section submit to the President and the Congress a final report which shall contain a detailed statement of its findings and conclusions and also such recommendations for legislation and administrative actions as it deems appropriate. The Commission shall cease to exist sixty days after the final report is submitted under this subsection.

  • (f) (Limitation on expenditures)

Total expenditures of the Commission shall not exceed $4,000,000.''

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Part G - Conforming, Transitional and Effective Date, and General Provisions 

§ 701 Repeals and Conforming Amendments

(a) Sections 201(v), 301(q), and 511 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 321(v), 331(q), 360(a)) are repealed.

(b) Subsections (a) and (b) of section 303 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 333) are amended to read as follows:

  • Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 333)
    • (a) Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead
      • (1) Any person who violates a provision of section 331 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both.
      • (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this section, (FOOTNOTE 1) if any person commits such a violation after a conviction of him under this section has become final, or commits such a violation with the intent to defraud or mislead, such person shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.

      (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Words ''of this section'' probably should not appear.

(c) Section 304(a)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 334) amended in 1970 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91-513, Sec. 701(c), struck out cls. (A) and (D) which dealt with depressant or stimulant drugs, struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs in cl. (C), and redesignated cls. (B), (C), and (E) as cls. (A), (B), and (C), respectively.

(d) Section 304(d)(3)(iii). of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 334(d)(3)(iii)) Pub. L. 91-513, Sec. 701(d), struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs.

(e) Section 510 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 360) is amended (1) in Subsec. (a) by striking out paragraph (2), and by inserting "and" at the end of paragraph (1), and by redesignating paragraph (3) as paragraph (2); (2) Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91-513 struck out provisions covering establishments engaged in the wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing of depressant or stimulant drugs and the inclusion of the fact of such activity in the annual registration; (3) by striking out the last sentence of subsection (b); (4) Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91-513 struck out provisions covering new registrations of persons first engaging in the wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing of depressant or stimulant drugs and the inclusion of the fact of such activity in the registration; (5) by striking out the last sentence of subsection (c); (6) by striking out "1)" in subsection (d) and by inserting a period after "drug or drugs" in that subsection and deleting the remainder of that subsection; and (7) by striking out "and certain wholesalers" in the section heading.

(f) Sec 702 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 372) is amended 1970 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91-513 struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs.

(g) Section 201(a)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 321(a)(2)) is amended by inserting a period after "Canal Zone" the first time these words appear and deleting all thereafter in such section 201(a)(2).

(h) The last sentence of Section 801(a) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 USC 381(a) is amended (1) by striking out "This paragraph" and inserting in lieu thereof "Clause (2) of the third sentence of this paragraph," and (2) by striking out "section 2 of the Act of May 26, 1922, as amended (USC 1934, edition, title 21, sec 173)" and inserting in lieu thereof "the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act."

(i)

  • (1) Section 1114 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking out "the Bureau of Narcotics" and inserting in lieu thereof "the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs".
  • (2) Section 1952 of such title is amended-
    • (A) by inserting in subsection (b)(1) "or controlled substances (as defined in section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act)" immediately following "narcotics"; and
    • (B) by striking out "or narcotics" in subsection (c).

(j) Subsection (a) of section 302 of the Public Health Service Act (42 USC 242(a)) is amended to read as follows:

  • (a) In carrying out the purposes of section 241 of this title with respect to drugs the use or misuse of which might result in drug abuse or dependency, the studies and investigations authorized therein shall include the use and misuse of narcotic drugs and other drugs. Such studies and investigations shall further include the quantities of crude opium, coca leaves, and their salts, derivatives, and preparations, and other drugs subject to control under the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), together with reserves thereof, necessary to supply the normal and emergency medicinal and scientific requirements of the United States. The results of studies and investigations of the quantities of narcotic drugs or other drugs subject to control under such Acts, together with reserves of such drugs, that are necessary to supply the normal and emergency medicinal and scientific requirements of the United States, shall be reported not later than the first day of April of each year to the Attorney General, to be used at his discretion in determining manufacturing quotas or importation requirements under such Acts.

§ 702 [321 note] Pending Proceedings

(a) Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring prior to the effective date (see Effective Date of 1970 Amendment note above) of section 701 (repealing section 360a of this title, and amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, 372, and 381 of this title, sections 1114 and 1952 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare) shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

(b) Civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of section 701 shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

(c) All administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (now the Drug Enforcement Administration) on the date of enactment of this Act (Oct. 27, 1970) shall be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to such date of enactment. Where a drug is finally determined under such proceedings to be a depressant or stimulant drug, as defined in section 201(v) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (par. (v) of this section), such drug shall automatically be controlled under this title (subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title) by the Attorney General without further proceedings and listed in the appropriate schedule after he has obtained the recommendation of the Secretary. Any drug with respect to which such a final determination has been made prior to the date of enactment of this Act which is not listed in section 202 (section 812 of this title) within schedules I through V shall automatically be controlled under this title (subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title) by the Attorney General without further proceedings, and be listed in the appropriate schedule, after he has obtained the recommendations of the Secretary.

(d) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section or section 1103 (of Pub. L. 91-513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title), section 4202 of title 18, United States Code, shall apply to any individual convicted under any of the laws repealed by this title or title III (subchapter I or subchapter II of chapter 13 of this title) without regard to the terms of any sentence imposed on such individual under such law.

§ 703 [822 note] Provisional Proceedings

  • (a)
    • (1) Any person who -
      • (A) is engaged in manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing any controlled substance on the day before the effective date of section 302 (this section), and
      • (B) is registered on such day under section 510 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 360 of this title) or under section 4722 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (formerly I.R.C. 1954, section 4722 of Title 26),

      shall, with respect to each establishment for which such registration is in effect under any such section, be deemed to have a provisional registration under section 303 (section 823 of this title) for the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing (as the case may be) of controlled substances.

    • (2) During the period his provisional registration is in effect under this section, the registration number assigned such person under such section 510 (section 360 of this title) or under such section 4722 (section 4722 of Title 26) (as the case may be) shall be his registration number for purposes of section 303 of this title (section 823 of this title).
  • (b) The provisions of section 304 (section 824 of this title), relating to suspension and revocation of registration, shall apply to a provisional registration under this section.
  • (c) Unless sooner suspended or revoked under subsection (b), a provisional registration of a person under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be in effect until -
    • (1) the date on which such person has registered with the Attorney General under section 303 (section 823 of this title) or has had his registration denied under such section, or
    • (2) such date as may be prescribed by the Attorney General for registration of manufacturers, distributors, or dispensers, as the case may be, whichever occurs first.

§ 704 [801 note] Effective Dates and Other Transitional Provisions.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this title (see Short Title note below) shall become effective on the first day of the seventh calendar month that begins after the day immediately preceding the date of enactment (Oct. 27, 1970).

(b) Parts A, B, E, and F of this title (Parts A, B, E, and F of this subchapter), section 702 (set out as a note under section 321 of this title), this section, and sections 705 through 709 (sections 901 to 904 of this title and note set out below), shall become effective upon enactment (Oct. 27, 1970).

(c) Sections 305 (relating to labels and labeling) (section 825 of this title), and 306 (relating to manufacturing quotas) (section 826 of this title) shall become effective on the date specified in subsection (a) of this section, except that the Attorney General may by order published in the Federal Register postpone the effective date of either or both of these sections for such period as he may determine to be necessary for the efficient administration of this title (see Short Title note below).

§ 705 [801 note] Continuation of Regulations.

Any orders, rules, and regulations which have been promulgated under any law affected by this title (see Short Title note above) and which are in effect on the day preceding enactment of this title (Oct. 27, 1970) shall continue in effect until modified, superseded, or repealed.

§ 706 [901] Severability

If a provision of this chapter is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable shall remain in effect. If a provision of this chapter is held invalid in one or more of its applications, the provision shall remain in effect in all its valid applications that are severable.

§ 707 [902] Savings Provision

Nothing in this chapter, except this part and, to the extent of any inconsistency, sections 827(e) and 829 of this title, shall be construed as in any way affecting, modifying, repealing, or superseding the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. Sec. 301 et seq.).

§ 708 [903] Application of State Law

No provision of this subchapter shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which that provision operates, including criminal penalties, to the exclusion of any State law on the same subject matter which would otherwise be within the authority of the State, unless there is a positive conflict between that provision of this subchapter and that State law so that the two cannot consistently stand together.

§ 709 [904] Payment of Tort Claims

Notwithstanding section 2680(k) of title 28, the Attorney General, in carrying out the functions of the Department of Justice under this subchapter, is authorized to pay tort claims in the manner authorized by section 2672 of title 28, when such claims arise in a foreign country in connection with the operations of the Drug Enforcement Administration abroad.

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