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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996

Public Law 104-134
April 26, 1996

CHAPTER 1A

FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996

FOOD AND DRUG EXPORT REFORM

SEC. 2101. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCE.

(a) <<NOTE: 21 USC 301 note.>> Short Title.--This chapter may be cited as the "FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996".

 

(b) Reference.--Wherever in this chapter (other than in section 2104) an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (21 U.S.C. 321 et seq.)

SEC. 2102. EXPORT OF DRUGS AND DEVICES.

(a) Imports for Export.--Section 801 (21 U.S.C. 381) is amended--

(1) in subsection (d), by adding at the end thereof the following:

"(3) No component of a drug, no component part or accessory of a device which is ready or suitable for use for health-related purposes, and no food additive, color additive, or dietary supplement, including a product in bulk form, shall be excluded from importation into the United States under subsection (a) if--

"(A) the importer of such article of a drug or device or importer of the food additive, color additive, or dietary supplement submits a statement to the Secretary, at the time of initial importation, that such article of a drug or device, food additive, color additive, or dietary supplement is intended to be incorporated by the initial owner or consignee into a drug, biological product, device, food, food additive, color additive, or dietary supplement that will be exported by such owner or consignee from the United States in accordance with section 801(e) or 802 or section 351(h) of the Public Health Service Act;

"(B) <<NOTE: Records. Reports.>> the initial owner or consignee responsible for such imported article maintains records that identify the use of such imported article and upon request of the Secretary submits a report that provides an accounting of the exportation or the disposition of the imported article, including portions that have been destroyed, and the manner in which such person complied with the requirements of this paragraph; and

"(C) any imported component, part, or accessory of a drug or device and any food additive, color additive, or dietary supplement not incorporated as described in subparagraph (A) is destroyed or exported by the owner or consignee.

"(4) The importation into the United States of blood, blood components, source plasma, or source leukocytes or of a component, accessory, or part thereof is not permitted pursuant to paragraph (3) unless the importation complies with section 351(a) of the Public Health Service Act or the Secretary permits the importation under appropriate circumstances and conditions, as determined by the Secretary. The importation of tissue or a component or part of tissue is not permitted pursuant to paragraph (3) unless the importation complies with section 361 of the Public Health Service Act.";

 

(b) Export of Certain Products.--Section 801 (21 U.S.C. 381) is amended--

(1) in subsection (e)(1), by striking the second sentence;

(2) in subsection (e)(2)--

(A) by striking "the Secretary" and inserting "either (i) the Secretary"; and

(B) by inserting before the period at the end thereof the following: "or (ii) the device is eligible for export under section 802"; and

(3) in subsection (e), by adding at the end thereof the following:;

"(3) A new animal drug that requires approval under section 512 shall not be exported pursuant to paragraph (1) if such drug has been banned in the United States.

"(4)(A) Any person who exports a drug, animal drug, or device may request that the Secretary--

"(i) certify in writing that the exported drug, animal drug, or device meets the requirements of paragraph (1) or section 802; or

"(ii) certify in writing that the drug, animal drug, or device being exported meets the applicable requirements of this Act upon a showing that the drug or device meets the applicable requirements of this Act.

The <<NOTE: Certification.>> Secretary shall issue such a certification within 20 days of the receipt of a request for such certification.

"(B) If the Secretary issues a written export certification within the 20 days prescribed by subparagraph (A), a fee for such certification may be charged but shall not exceed $175 for each certification. Fees collected for a fiscal year pursuant to this subparagraph shall be credited to the appropriation account for salaries and expenses of the Food and Drug Administration and shall be available in accordance with appropriations Acts until expended without fiscal year limitation. Such fees shall be collected in each fiscal year in an amount equal to the amount specified in appropriations Acts for such fiscal year and shall only be collected and available for the costs of the Food and Drug Administration.".

 

(c) Labeling of Exported Drugs.--Section 801 (21 U.S.C. 381) is amended by adding at the end the following:

"(f)(1) If a drug being exported in accordance with subsection (e) is being exported to a country that has different or additional labeling requirements or conditions for use and such country requires the drug to be labeled in accordance with those requirements or uses, such drug may be labeled in accordance with such requirements and conditions for use in the country to which such drug is being exported if it also is labeled in accordance with the requirements of this Act.

"(2) If, pursuant to paragraph (1), the labeling of an exported drug includes conditions for use that have not been approved under this Act, the labeling must state that such conditions for use have not been approved under this Act.".

 

(d) Export of Certain Unapproved Drugs and Devices.--

(1) Amendment.--Section 802 (21 U.S.C. 382) is amended to read as follows:

"exports of certain unapproved products

"Sec. 802. (a) A drug or device--

"(1) which, in the case of a drug--

"(A)(i) requires approval by the Secretary under section 505 before such drug may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce; or

"(ii) requires licensing by the Secretary under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act or by the Secretary of Agriculture under the Act of March 4, 1913 (known as the Virus-Serum Toxin Act) before it may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce;

"(B) does not have such approval or license; and

"(C) is not exempt from such sections or Act; and

"(2) which, in the case of a device--

"(A) does not comply with an applicable requirement under section 514 or 515;

"(B) under section 520(g) is exempt from either such section; or

"(C) is a banned device under section 516, is adulterated, misbranded, and in violation of such sections or Act unless the export of the drug or device is, except as provided in subsection (f), authorized under subsection (b), (c), (d), or (e) or section 801(e)(2). If a drug or device described in paragraphs (1) and (2) may be exported under subsection (b) and if an application for such drug or device under section 505 or 515 or section 351 of the Public Health Service Act was disapproved, the Secretary shall notify the appropriate public health official of the country to which such drug will be exported of such disapproval.

"(b)(1)(A) A drug or device described in subsection (a) may be exported to any country, if the drug or device complies with the laws of that country and has valid marketing authorization by the appropriate authority--

"(i) in Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland, or South Africa; or

"(ii) in the European Union or a country in the European Economic Area (the countries in the European Union and the European Free Trade Association) if the drug or device is marketed in that country or the drug or device is authorized for general marketing in the European Economic Area.

"(B) The Secretary may designate an additional country to be included in the list of countries described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) if all of the following requirements are met in such country:

"(i) Statutory or regulatory requirements which require the review of drugs and devices for safety and effectiveness by an entity of the government of such country and which authorize the approval of only those drugs and devices which have been determined to be safe and effective by experts employed by or acting on behalf of such entity and qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and devices on the basis of adequate and well- controlled investigations, including clinical investigations, conducted by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and devices.

"(ii) Statutory or regulatory requirements that the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for--

"(I) the manufacture, processing, and packing of drugs in the country are adequate to preserve their identity, quality, purity, and strength; and

"(II) the manufacture, preproduction design validation, packing, storage, and installation of a device are adequate to assure that the device will be safe and effective.

"(iii) Statutory or regulatory requirements for the reporting of adverse reactions to drugs and devices and procedures to withdraw approval and remove drugs and devices found not to be safe or effective.

"(iv) Statutory or regulatory requirements that the labeling and promotion of drugs and devices must be in accordance with the approval of the drug or device.

"(v) The valid marketing authorization system in such country or countries is equivalent to the systems in the countries described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).

The Secretary shall not delegate the authority granted under this subparagraph.

"(C) An appropriate country official, manufacturer, or exporter may request the Secretary to take action under subparagraph (B) to designate an additional country or countries to be added to the list of countries described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) by submitting documentation to the Secretary in support of such designation. Any person other than a country requesting such designation shall include, along with the request, a letter from the country indicating the desire of such country to be designated.

"(2) A drug described in subsection (a) may be directly exported to a country which is not listed in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) if--

"(A) the drug complies with the laws of that country and has valid marketing authorization by the responsible authority in that country; and

"(B) the Secretary determines that all of the following requirements are met in that country:

"(i) Statutory or regulatory requirements which require the review of drugs for safety and effectiveness by an entity of the government of such country and which authorize the approval of only those drugs which have been determined to be safe and effective by experts employed by or acting on behalf of such entity and qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs on the basis of adequate and well-controlled investigations, including clinical investigations, conducted by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs.

"(ii) Statutory or regulatory requirements that the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for the manufacture, processing, and packing of drugs in the country are adequate to preserve their identity, quality, purity, and strength.

"(iii) Statutory or regulatory requirements for the reporting of adverse reactions to drugs and procedures to withdraw approval and remove drugs found not to be safe or effective.

"(iv) Statutory or regulatory requirements that the labeling and promotion of drugs must be in accordance with the approval of the drug.

"(3) The exporter of a drug described in subsection (a) which would not meet the conditions for approval under this Act or conditions for approval of a country described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) may petition the Secretary for authorization to export such drug to a country which is not described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) or which is not described in paragraph (2). The Secretary shall permit such export if--

"(A) the person exporting the drug--

"(i) certifies that the drug would not meet the conditions for approval under this Act or the conditions for approval of a country described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A); and

"(ii) provides the Secretary with credible scientific evidence, acceptable to the Secretary, that the drug would be safe and effective under the conditions of use in the country to which it is being exported; and

"(B) the appropriate health authority in the country to which the drug is being exported--

"(i) requests approval of the export of the drug to such country;

"(ii) certifies that the health authority understands that the drug is not approved under this Act or in a country described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A); and

"(iii) concurs that the scientific evidence provided pursuant to subparagraph (A) is credible scientific evidence that the drug would be reasonably safe and effective in such country.

The Secretary shall take action on a request for export of a drug under this paragraph within 60 days of receiving such request.

"(c) A drug or device intended for investigational use in any country described in clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (b)(1)(A) may be exported in accordance with the laws of that country and shall be exempt from regulation under section 505(i) or 520(g).

"(d) A drug or device intended for formulation, filling, packaging, labeling, or further processing in anticipation of market authorization in any country described in clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (b)(1)(A) may be exported for use in accordance with the laws of that country.

"(e)(1) A drug or device which is used in the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a tropical disease or another disease not of significant prevalence in the United States and which does not otherwise qualify for export under this section shall, upon approval of an application, be permitted to be exported if the Secretary finds that the drug or device will not expose patients in such country to an unreasonable risk of illness or injury and the probable benefit to health from the use of the drug or device (under conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling or proposed labeling of the drug or device) outweighs the risk of injury or illness from its use, taking into account the probable risks and benefits of currently available drug or device treatment.

"(2) <<NOTE: Reports.>> The holder of an approved application for the export of a drug or device under this subsection shall report to the Secretary--

"(A) the receipt of any credible information indicating that the drug or device is being or may have been exported from a country for which the Secretary made a finding under paragraph (1)(A) to a country for which the Secretary cannot make such a finding; and

"(B) the receipt of any information indicating adverse reactions to such drug.

"(3)(A) If the Secretary determines that--

"(i) a drug or device for which an application is approved under paragraph (1) does not continue to meet the requirements of such paragraph; or

"(ii) the holder of an approved application under paragraph (1) has not made the report required by paragraph (2),

the Secretary may, after providing the holder of the application an opportunity for an informal hearing, withdraw the approved application.

"(B) If the Secretary determines that the holder of an approved application under paragraph (1) or an importer is exporting a drug or device from the United States to an importer and such importer is exporting the drug or device to a country for which the Secretary cannot make a finding under paragraph (1) and such export presents an imminent hazard, the Secretary shall immediately prohibit the export of the drug or device to such importer, provide the person exporting the drug or device from the United States prompt notice of the prohibition, and afford such person an opportunity for an expedited hearing.

"(f) A drug or device may not be exported under this section--

"(1) if the drug or device is not manufactured, processed, packaged, and held in substantial conformity with current good manufacturing practice requirements or does not meet international standards as certified by an international standards organization recognized by the Secretary;

"(2) if the drug or device is adulterated under clause (1), (2)(A), or (3) of section 501(a) or subsection (c) or (d) of section 501;

"(3) if the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 801(e)(1) have not been met;

"(4)(A) if the drug or device is the subject of a notice by the Secretary or the Secretary of Agriculture of a determination that the probability of reimportation of the exported drug or device would present an imminent hazard to the public health and safety of the United States and the only means of limiting the hazard is to prohibit the export of the drug or device; or

"(B) if the drug or device presents an imminent hazard to the public health of the country to which the drug or device would be exported;

"(5) if the drug or device is not labeled--

"(A) in accordance with the requirements and conditions for use in--

"(i) the country in which the drug or device received valid marketing authorization under subsection (b); and

"(ii) the country to which the drug or device would be exported; and

"(B) in the language and units of measurement of the country to which the drug or device would be exported or in the language designated by such country; or

"(6) if the drug or device is not promoted in accordance with the labeling requirements set forth in paragraph (5).

In making a finding under paragraph (4)(B), (5), or (6) the Secretary shall consult with the appropriate public health official in the affected country.

"(g) The exporter of a drug or device exported under subsection (b)(1) shall provide a simple notification to the Secretary identifying the drug or device when the exporter first begins to export such drug or device to any country listed in clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (b)(1)(A). When an exporter of a drug or device first begins to export a drug or device to a country which is not listed in clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (b)(1)A), the exporter shall provide a simple notification to the Secretary identifying the drug or device and the country to which such drug or device is being exported. <<NOTE: Records.>> Any exporter of a drug or device shall maintain records of all drugs or devices exported and the countries to which they were exported.

"(h) For purposes of this section--

"(1) a reference to the Secretary shall in the case of a biological product which is required to be licensed under the Act of March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. 832-833) (commonly known as the Virus-Serum Toxin Act) be considered to be a reference to the Secretary of Agriculture, and

"(2) the term `drug' includes drugs for human use as well as biologicals under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act or the Act of March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. 832-833) (commonly known as the Virus-Serum Toxin Act).".

(2) Conforming amendments.--Section 351(h) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262(h)) is amended by striking

"802(b)(A)" and inserting "802(b)(1)" and by striking "802(b)(4)" and inserting "802(b)(1)".

SEC. 2103. PROHIBITED ACT.

Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331) is amended--

(1) by redesignating the second subsection (u) as subsection (v); and

(2) by adding at the end thereof the following:

"(w) The making of a knowingly false statement in any record or report required or requested under subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 801(d)(3), the failure to submit or maintain records as required by sections 801(d)(3)(A) and 801(d)(3)(B), the release into interstate commerce of any article imported into the United States under section 801(d)(3) or any finished product made from such article (except for export in accordance with section 801(e) or 802 or section 351(h) of the Public Health Service Act), or the failure to export or destroy any component, part or accessory not incorporated into a drug, biological product or device that will be exported in accordance with section 801(e) or 802 or section 351(h) of the Public Health Service Act.".

SEC. 2104. PARTIALLY PROCESSED BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS.

Subsection (h) of section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262) is amended to read as follows:

"(h) A partially processed biological product which--

"(1) is not in a form applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of diseases or injuries of man;

"(2) is not intended for sale in the United States; and

"(3) is intended for further manufacture into final dosage form outside the United States,

shall be subject to no restriction on the export of the product under this Act or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321 et. seq.) if the product is manufactured, processed, packaged, and held in conformity with current good manufacturing practice requirements or meets international manufacturing standards as certified by an international standards organization recognized by the Secretary and meets the requirements of section 801(e)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 381(e)).".

SEC. 2105.

(a) In General.--Any owner on the date of enactment of this Act of the right to market a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that--

(1) contains a previously patented active agent;

(2) has been reviewed by the Federal Food and Drug Administration for a period of more than 120 months as a new drug application; and

(3) was approved as safe and effective by the Federal Food and Drug Administration on October 29, 1992,

shall be entitled, for the 2-year period beginning on October 29, 1997, to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing into the United States such active agent, in accordance with section 154(a)(1) of title 35, United States Code.

 

(b) Infringement.--Section 271 of title 35, United States Code shall apply to the infringement of the entitlement provided under subsection (a). No application described in section 271(e)(2)(A) of title 35, United States Code, regardless of purpose, may be submitted prior to the expiration of the entitlement provided under subsection (a).

 

(c) Notification.--Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, any owner granted an entitlement under subsection (a) shall notify the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks and the Secretary for Health and Human Services of such entitlement. <<NOTE: Publication.>> Not later than 7 days after the receipt of such notice, the Commissioner and the Secretary shall publish an appropriate notice of the receipt of such notice.

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