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For Consumers

New Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children

New guidelines, published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are available through the AIDSinfo web site to assist health care workers in preventing and treating the secondary infections that can afflict U.S. children exposed to, or infected with, HIV in the United States.

The new guideline updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children.

The guidelines contain recommendations from the CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics, provide a reference manual for the treatment of secondary infections related to HIV, describe warning signs of potentially hazardous interactions between drugs used to treat HIV and its secondary infections, describe current standards for treating the inflammation accompanying immune system recovery made possible by new anti-HIV drugs, and provide guidance about when to discontinue preventative treatment no longer needed after the immune system has recovered.

Specifically, these pediatric guidelines include:

  • Emphasis on the importance of effective antiretroviral therapy to improve children’s immune function.…
  • Information on diagnosing and managing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
  • Information on the management of antiretroviral therapy in children with opportunistic infections, including potential drug-drug interactions
  • New guidance on use of antibiotic drugs to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in infants
  • Updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and -infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines
  • A new section outlining treatments for malaria, which may become an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected immigrant children or HIV-infected children who travel to countries with malaria
  • New recommendations on when to discontinue medication for preventing opportunistic infections

For more information:

Richard Klein
Office of Special Health Issues
Food and Drug Administration

Kimberly Struble
Division of Antiviral Drug Products
Food and Drug Administration

Page Last Updated: 08/20/2014
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