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Aristolochic Acid: Listing of Botanical Ingredients of Concern

<< Letter to Industry Associations Regarding Safety Concerns Related to the Use of Botanical Products Containing Aristolochic Acid

 

This document was last revised on April 9, 2001.
 

Attachment A - Botanicals Known or Suspected to Contain Aristolochic Acid

Botanical Name*Common or Other Names
Aristolochia spp.Aristolochia
Guan mu tong
Guang mu tong
Aristolochia acuminata Lam.
Syn. Aristolochia tagala Champ.
Oval leaf Dutchman's pipe
Aristolochia argentina Griseb. 
Aristolochia baetica Linn.
Syn. Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.
 
Aristolochia bracteata Retz.Ukulwe
Aristolochia chilensis Bridges in Lindl. 
Aristolochia cinnabarina C.Y. Cheng & J.L. Wu 
Aristolochia clematitis L.Birthwort
Aristolochia contorta BungeMa dou ling
Tian xian teng
Aristolochia cymbifera Mart. & Zucc.Mil homens
Aristolochia debilis Siebold & Zucc.
Syn. Aristolochia longa Thunb.
Syn. Aristolochia recurvilabra Hance
Syn. Aristolochia sinarum Lindl.
Ma dou ling
Tian xian teng
Qing mu xiang Sei-mokkou (Japanese)
Birthwort
Long birthwort
Aristolochia elegans Mast.
Syn. Aristolochia hassleriana Chodat
 
Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze 
Aristolochia fangchi Y.C. Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. HwangGuang fang ji
Fang ji
Mokuboi (Japanese)
Kwangbanggi (Korean)
Fang chi
Kou-boui (Japanese)
Aristolochia fimbriata Cham. 
Aristolochia indica L.Indian birthwort
Aristolochia kaempferi Willd.
Syn. Aristolochia chrysops (Stapf) E.H. Wilson ex Rehder
Syn. Aristolochia feddei H. Lév.
Syn. Aristolochia heterophylla Hemsl.
Syn. Aristolochia mollis Dunn
Syn. Aristolochia setchuenensis Franch.
Syn. Aristolochia shimadai Hayata
Syn. Aristolochia thibetica Franch.
Syn. Isotrema chrysops Stapf
Syn. Isotrema heterophylla (Hemsl.) Stapf
Syn. Isotrema lasiops Stapf
Yellowmouth Dutchman's pipe
Aristolochia kwangsiensis Chun & F.C. How
Syn. Aristolochia austroszechuanica C. B. Chien & C. Y. Cheng
 
Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.
Syn. Aristolochia sipho L'Hér.
Dutchman's-pipe
Aristolochia manschuriensis Kom.
Syn. Hocquartia manshuriensis (Kom.) Nakai
Syn. Isotrema manchuriensis (Kom.) H. Huber
Manchurian birthwort
Manchurian Dutchman's pipe
Guang mu tong
Kan-Mokutsu (Japanese)
Mokuboi (Japanese)
Kwangbanggi (Korean)
Aristolochia maurorum L. 
Aristolochia maxima Jacq.
Syn. Aristolochia maxima var. angustifolia Duchartre in DC.
Syn. Howardia hoffmannii Klotzsch
 
Aristolochia mollissima Hance 
Aristolochia pistolochia L. 
Aristolochia rigida Duch. 
Aristolochia rotunda Linn. 
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
Syn. Aristolochia serpentaria var. hastata (Nutt.) Duch.
Virginia snakeroot
Serpentaria
Virginia serpentary
Aristolochia watsoni Wooton & Standley or
Aristolochia watsonii Wooton & Standley
Syn. Aristolochia porphyrophylla Pfeifer
 
Aristolochia westlandii Hemsl. or
Aristolochia westlandi Hemsl.
 
Aristolochia zollingeriana Miq.
Syn. Aristolochia kankauensis Sasaki
Syn. Aristolochia roxburghiana subsp. kankauensis (Sasaki) Kitam.
Syn. Hocquartia kankauensis (Sasaki) Nakai ex Masam.
Syn. Aristolochia tagala var. kankauensis (Sasaki) T. Yamaz.
 
Asarum canadense Linn.
Syn. Asarum acuminatum (Ashe) E.P. Bicknell
Syn. Asarum ambiguum (E.P. Bicknell) Daniels
Syn. Asarum canadense var. ambiguum (E.P. Bicknell) Farw.
Syn. Asarum canadense var. reflexum (E.P. Bicknell) B.L. Rob.
Syn. Asarum furcatum Raf.
Syn. Asarum medium Raf.
Syn. Asarum parvifolium Raf.
Syn. Asarum reflexum E.P. Bicknell
Syn. Asarum rubrocinctum Peattie
Wild ginger
Indian ginger
Canada snakeroot
False coltsfoot
Colic root
Heart snakeroot
Vermont snakeroot
Southern snakeroot
Asarum himalaicum Hook. f. & Thomson ex Klotzsch or
Asarum himalaycum Hook. f. & Thomson ex Klotzsch
Tanyou-saishin (Japanese)
Asarum splendens (F. Maek.) C.Y. Cheng & C.S. YangDo-saishin (Japanese)
Bragantia wallichii R.Br.
Specimen exists at New York Botanical Gardens. Tropicos does not list this species as a synonym for any Thottea species. Kew Gardens Herbarium does not recognize the genera Bragantia. Until additional information is obtained we will use the name as cited in J. Nat. Products 45:657-666 (1982)
 

 


Attachment B - Botanicals which may be Adulterated with Aristolochic Acid

Botanical Name*Common or Other Names
Akebia spp.Akebia
Mu tong
Ku mu tong
Zi mutong
Bai mu tong
Mokutsu (Japanese)
Mokt'ong (Korean)
Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.
Syn. Rajania quinata Houtt.
Chocolate vine
Fiveleaf akebia
Mu tong
Yu zhi zi
Mokutsu (Japanese)
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz.Mu tong
Three leaf akebia
Yu zhi zi
Asarum forbesii Maxim.Batei-saishin (Japanese)
Asarum heterotropoides F. Schmidt
Syn. Asarum heterotropoides F. Schmidt
Syn. Asiasarum heterotropoides (F. Schmidt) F. Maek.
Keirin-saishin (Japanese)
Chinese wild ginger
Manchurian wild ginger
Bei xi xin
Xin xin
Asarum sieboldii Miq.
Syn. Asarum sieboldii fo. seoulense (Nakai) C.Y. Cheng & C.S. Yang
Syn. Asarum sieboldii var. seoulensis Nakai
Syn. Asiasarum heterotropoides var. seoulense (Nakai) F. Maek.
Syn. Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek.
Usuba-saishin (Japanese)
Chinese wild ginger
Xi Xin
Hua Xi Xin
Manchurian wild ginger
Siebold's wild ginger
Clematis spp.Clematis
Mufangji
Clematidis
Ireisen (Japanese)
Wojoksum (Korean)
Clematis armandii Franch.
Syn. Clematis armandii fo. farquhariana (W.T. Wang) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
Syn. Clematis armandii var. biondiana (Pavol.) Rehder
Syn. Clematis biondiana Pavol.
Syn. Clematis ornithopus Ulbr.
Armand's clematis
Chuan mu tong (stem)
Xiao mu tong
Armand's virgin bower
Clematis chinensis Osbeck.Chinese clematis
Wei ling xian (root)
Clematis hexapetala Pall. 
Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC.
Syn. Clematis insulari-alpina Hayata
 
Clematis uncinata Champ. ex Benth.
Syn. Clematis alsomitrifolia Hayata
Syn. Clematis chinensis var. uncinata (Champ. ex Benth.) Kuntze
Syn. Clematis drakeana H. Lév. & Vaniot
Syn. Clematis floribunda (Hayata) Yamam.
Syn. Clematis gagnepainiana H. Lév. & Vaniot
Syn. Clematis leiocarpa Oliv.
Syn. Clematis ovatifolia T. Ito ex Maxim.
Syn. Clematis uncinata var. biternata W.T. Wang
Syn. Clematis uncinata var. coriacea Pamp.
Syn. Clematis uncinata var. floribunda Hayata
Syn. Clematis uncinata var. ovatifolia (T. Ito ex Maxim.) Ohwi ex Tamura
Syn. Clematis uncinata var. taitongensis Y.C. Liu & C.H. Ou
 
Cocculus spp.Cocculus
Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC.
Syn. Cebatha carolina Britton
Syn. Epibaterium carolinum (L.) Britton
Syn. Menispermum carolinum L.
 
Cocculus diversifolius DC.
Syn. Cocculus madagascariensis Diels
 
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels
Syn. Cocculus villosus DC.
Syn. Menispermum hirsutum L.
 
Cocculus indicus Royle
Syn. Anamirta paniculata Colebr.
Indian cockle
Cocculus laurifolius DC.
Syn. Cinnamomum esquirolii H. Lév.
 
Cocculus leaebe DC. 
Cocculus madagascariensis Diels
Syn. Cocculus diversifolius DC.
 
Cocculus orbiculatus DC.
Syn. Cissampelos pareira Linn.
 
Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC.
Syn. Cocculus cuneatus Benth.
Syn. Cocculus sarmentosus (Lour.) Diels
Syn. Cocculus sarmentosus var. linearis Yamam.
Syn. Cocculus sarmentosus var. pauciflorus Y.C. Wu
Syn. Cocculus sarmentosus var. stenophyllus Merr.
Syn. Cocculus thunbergii DC.
Syn. Cocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC.
Syn. Menispermum orbiculatus L.
Syn. Menispermum trilobum Thunb.
Syn. Nephroia sarmentosa Lour.
Moku-boui (Japanese)
Cocculus palmatus (Lam.) DC.Columba
Columbo
Cocculus pendulus Diels
Syn. Cebatha pendula (J.R. & C. Forst.) Kuntze
Syn. Epibaterium pendulus Forst. f.
Syn. Cocculus Epibaterium DC.
 
Cocculus pendulus (Forst. & Forst.) Diels 
Cocculus palmatus Hook.
Syn. Jateorhiza Miersii Oliver
Colombo
Cocculus thunbergii DC. 
Diploclisia affinis (Oliv.) Diels
Syn. Diploclisia chinensis Merr.
Syn. Cocculus affinis Oliv.
 
Diploclisia chinensis MerrillXiangfangchi
Menispernum dauricum 
Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch. Bip.Mokkou (Japanese)
Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
Syn. Cocculus diversifolius var. cinereus Diels
Syn. Cocculus heterophyllus Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson
Syn. Menispermum acutum Thunb.
Syn. Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson var. cinereum (Diels) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
Syn. Sinomenium diversifolium (Diels) Diels
Orientvine
Xunfengteng
Dafengteng
Daqingmuxinag
Zhuigusan
Da ye qingshener
Mufangji
Hanfangji
Tuteng
Zhuigufeng
Maofangji
Stephania spp.Stephania
Stephania tetrandra S. MooreFen fang ji , fang ji
Fang ji (root)
Han fang ji
Kanboi (Japanese)
Hanbanggi (Korean)
Fun-boui (Japanese)
Vladimiria souliei (Franch.) LingSen-mokkou

 


Attachment C - Mu Tong and Fang Ji are Declared Ingredients in the Following Products 

Ba Zheng Wan
Chun Yang Zheng Ji Wan
Da Huang Qing Wei Wan
Dang Gui Si Ni Wan
Dao Chi Wan
Dieda Wan
Fu Ke Fen Quing Wan
Guan Xin Su He Wan
Ji Sheng Ju He Wan
Kat Kit Wan
Long Dan Xie Gan Wan
Quell Fire
Shi Xiang Fan Shen Wan
Xin Yi Wan

Revised as of 04/09/2001