The GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon.
Magnesium gluconate; Potassium gluconate; Sodium gluconate; Zinc gluconate
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21 CFR Section
Gluconates are useful as nutritional supplements since their high solubility allows relatively rapid absorption of the cations. Evidence suggests that any possible toxicity is a function of the cation rather than of the gluconate portion of these substances. Thus, the acute toxic responses to the various gluconate salts are comparable with other salts of the same metals and long-term toxicities seem related to the tissue deposition of these metals. These observations could have been anticipated because gluconic acid is a normal metabolic product of glucose. The amount of gluconic acid produced endogenously is many times greater than the largest amounts likely to be consumed from food. Because the toxicological activities of these gluconates appear to be a function of their cationic components, safe and acceptable levels in foods are limited only by the nature of the specific cations.
Based on the foregoing, the Select Committee concludes that:
There is no evidence in the available information on sodium gluconate, potassium gluconate, magnesium gluconate, and zinc gluconate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future.
*Complete reports containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions and are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 605-6000.