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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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FDA Report on the Occurrence of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors in Selected Institutional Foodservice, Restaurant, and Retail Food Store Facility Types (2009)

In 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) National Retail Food Team conducted the third phase of a three-phase,10-year study to measure the occurrence of practices and behaviors commonly identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as contributing factors in foodborne illness outbreaks. Specifically, the study called for conducting data collection inspections of various types of foodservice and retail food establishments at five-year intervals to observe and document practices and behaviors that relate to the following CDC contributing factor categories associated with foodborne illness outbreaks within foodservice and retail food establishments, herein referred to as foodborne illness risk factors (risk factors):

  • Food from Unsafe Sources
  • Poor Personal Hygiene
  • Inadequate Cooking
  • Improper Holding/Time and Temperature
  • Contaminated Equipment/Protection from Contamination

This 2009 report is the third report in a series and presents findings based on data collected in 2008.  The first report in the study was issued in August 2000 and presented the findings from the first data collection effort in 1998. A second report was issued in 2004 and presented data collected in 2003. FDA intends to publish a report in 2010 that compares the results from the three data collection periods and examines what trends, if any, were observed.   
 

Available in PDF (10.03 MB).    


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE
    1. Background
    2. Study Design and Objectives
    3. Introduction
  2. METHODOLOGY
    1. Selection of Facility Types
    2. Eligibility of Establishments for Selection
    3. Selection of Data Collectors
    4. Selection of Geographic Locations
    5. Random Selection of Establishments Using Comparison Set Lists
    6. Number of Inspections Conducted 
    7. Data Collection Form
    8. Data Collection Procedures 
    9. Average Time Per Data Collection
  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
    Institutional Food Service
      Hospitals 
      Nursing Homes 
      Elementary Schools
    Restaurants
      Fast Food 
      Full Service
    Retail Food
      Deli 
      Meat & Poultry 
      Seafood
      Produce
  4. RECOMMENDATIONS
    1. Recommendation for the Foodservice and Retail Food Store Industries
    2. Recommendations for Regulatory Retail Food Protection Programs
  5. FIELD AND STATISTICAL LIMITATIONS
    1. Field Operational Limitations
    2. Statistical Limitations 155
  6. ADDITIONAL AREAS OF STUDY
    1. Impact of Certified Food Protection Managers on the control of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors
    2. Supplemental Data Items
        Cook Temperatures Pork, Ratites, Injected Meats
        Hot Holding Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)/Time
        Temperature Control for Safety Foods (TCS Food) at 135○F (57○C)
        Employee Health Juice and Eggs
        Highly Susceptible Populations

APPENDICES
Appendix A Data Summary – Hospitals
Appendix B Data Summary – Nursing Homes
Appendix C Data Summary – Elementary Schools
Appendix D Data Summary – Fast Food Restaurants
Appendix E Data Summary – Full Service Restaurants
Appendix F Data Summary – Deli Departments/Stores
Appendix G Data Summary – Meat & Poultry Departments
Appendix H Data Summary – Seafood Departments/Markets
Appendix I Data Summary – Produce Departments/Stores 
Appendix J Directory – FDA National Retail Food Team 
Appendix K Resources – Web Site Locations for Referenced Documents 
       


    

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following individuals and/or entities are to be recognized for their invaluable contributions to the development of this report and the implementation of this project:

FDA:

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

  • Marc Boyer, Biostatistics Branch
  • Martine Ferguson, Biostatistics Branch
  • Jerome Schneidman, Biostatistics Branch

Office of Information Management

  • Jack Jentai Su, IT Specialist

Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA)

  • Regional State Cooperative Program Directors
  • Regional Retail Food Specialists
  • Richard Barnes, Division of Federal-State Relations (DFSR)

National Retail Food Steering Committee

  • Kevin Smith, CFSAN, Director – Retail Food and Cooperative Programs, Coordination Staff, Committee Chair
  • Elizabeth O’Malley, Director of Cooperative Programs – Northeast Region, Field Team Representative
  • Glenda Lewis, CFSAN, OC/DCP/Retail Food Protection Team (RFPT) –Team Leader, Team Representative
  • Shirley Bohm, CFSAN, OC/DCP/RFPT, Team Representative
  • Kathryn Kennedy, ORA, Regional Retail Food Specialist, Field Team Representative
  • Steve Nattrass, ORA, Regional Retail Food Specialist, Field Team Representative
  • Jim Fear, ORA, Manager State Training Team, Division of Human Resource Development (DHRD), DHRD Team Representative

OTHER REGULATORY:
State and local regulatory jurisdiction representatives who accompanied the FDA Regional Retail Food Specialists on data collection inspections.

INDUSTRY:
Industry food service managers of selected participant establishments for their cooperation and assistance during the data collection.