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Report of 1997 Inspections of Fresh, Unpasteurized Apple Cider Manufacturers, Summary of Results - Attachment 3

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January 1999

Table of Contents

Summary of Good Manufacturing Practices Applied by Selected Apple Juice/Cider Producing States and Canada

GMP Requirements IL* MA MI MD NY Canada*
I. HARVESTING
  • Avoid use of drops for unpasteurized product
X     X X X
  • Fruit soiled by birds should not be used
X         X
Use of drops carefully managed:            
  • Dropped apples harvested frequently
    X      
  • Drops separated from tree-picked apples
    X      
  • Rotten apples not in contact with wholesome apples
  X X      
  • Machine harvested drops not used for cider
  X        
  • Apples must meet standards for U.S. cider (26FR3604.51.342)
           
  • Rejected fruit dried before dumping
        X*  
Good hygienic practices applied by pickers:         X*  
  • Toilets readily accessible
X   X     X
  • Handwashing facilities readily accessible
X   X     X
Clean containers used to harvest apples:            
  • Containers maintained in sanitary condition
X   X     X
  • Containers inspected regularly
    X     X
Clean containers used to transport apples: X X X X X X
  • Containers maintained in sanitary condition
  X X     X
  • Containers inspected regularly
    X     X
Apples for unpasteurized cider not from orchards fertilized with human or animal wastes/eliminate animal droppings and manure X   X X X* X

II. RECEIVING
Adequate records kept for each lot of apples:       X   X
  • Identify date of purchase
    X      
  • Identify source of product
  X X      
  • Identify type of product
           
Apples stored properly:            
  • Stored in an enclosed or otherwise protected area
  X X     X
  • Protected from insects, rodents, and other pests
  X X     X
  • Animals prohibited from storage areas
  X X     X
  • Apples kept in cold storage (≤45°F)
  X       X
Containers or bags inspected upon receipt:            
  • Containers free of visible filth
X X X      

III. PROCESSING
Apples are inspected before washing/processing:   X        
  • Only intact, wholesome apples used
X   X X X X
  • Wormy, decayed, or rotten apples are discarded
X X X   X X
Apples are effectively washed and thoroughly cleaned before crushing: X X   X   X
  • Apples are free of visible filth and debris
    X   X  
  • Apples are cleaned with a wet brush
  X X   X X
  • Food grade detergents and sanitizers are used
    X   X* X
  • If used, flume water contains an adequate level of a sanitizer
    X   X* X
  • If shipping crates are floated in flume water, crates are pressure washed prior to floating
        X*  
  • Wash water is 6°C warmer then fruit to prevent absorption of wash water into the fruit
          X
Crushing and pressing equipment, and tubing are properly cleaned, sanitized, and handled in a sanitary manner:            
  • Equipment and tubing are cleaned and sanitized prior to start-up
    X      
  • Equipment and tubing are cleaned and sanitized at end of day’s operation/between runs
X X X X   X
  • Equipment is dismantled/disassembled as needed for cleaning
X X X     X
  • All tubing, couplings, and connections are periodically disassembled, cleaned and sanitized
X X       X
  • Press racks are kept off the floor, and allowed to dry
X X X      
  • Each batch of sanitizing solution is tested for the proper concentration
X X        
  • Cleaning water must be under adequate pressure and in sufficient volume---a high pressure washer is highly recommended
X X        
Crushing and pressing equipment, and tubing are properly designed and used:            
  • Equipment is made of durable materials and replaced as necessary
X X X     X
  • Press racks are made of food-grade plastic or hardwood, and are maintained in a sanitary manner
X X X     X
  • Press racks are properly coated with paraffin or other food-approved coating prior to the start of the cider season
  X        
  • All tubing must be approved for food use, plastic tubing must be transparent, and tubing must be as continuous as possible
X X       X
Pressing/filter cloths are properly designed and used:            
  • Press cloths specifically designed for cider production
X X X     X
  • Equipment including press cloths are made of durable materials and replaced as necessary
X X X     X
  • Press cloths are handled, dried and stored in a sanitary manner between uses
X X X     X
  • Press cloths are washed, rinsed, sanitized, and dried at end of each day's operation
X X X     X
  • If a washing machine is used, it is dedicated solely to the press cloths
X X X      
Processing waste/pomace are handled in a sanitary manner:            
  • Waste/pomace are promptly removed from the processing area
  X X      
  • Waste/pomace are properly disposed of .
  X X      
Additives, such as sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate:            
  • Recommended that additives are used
        X X
  • If used, are weighed properly and added at safe and effective levels.
    X      
Bottling of the apple juice/cider is done in a sanitary manner:            
  • New containers and caps are used and inspected prior to use
X X X     X
  • Containers are stored in a sanitary manner
    X     X
  • Refilling of consumer containers is managed in a safe and sanitary manner
    X     X
  • Processing and filling area physically separate from apple storage
X         X
Microbiological samples are collected and testing is done:            
  • Total coliform, fecal coliform and E. coli tests are run on samples from each production batch
    X X    
  • Sample results are evaluated to identify sanitation failures or product contamination
    X X    
Retail containers are properly labeled including listing of additives if used:            
  • "Keep Refrigerated" statement appears on label
  X X     X
  • Recommended that label includes statement whether cider is fresh and has not received a bactericidal treatment (e.g. pasteurization, irradiation, pulsed light, etc.)
    X   X X
  • Product coding with date and lot, and associated records
      X X* X
Cider is stored and transported at temperatures of 45°F or below            
QA controls are provided as appropriate:            
  • Firm has and applies approved SSOP’s
      X   X
  • Firm has SSOP records
          X
  • Recommended that firms producing unpasteurized cider applies a HACCP plan specific to the operation
      X X X
Recommend that cider is pasteurized         X X
* Indicates that the state recommends but does not require the application of the GMP.

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