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Food

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program - 2003

Return to FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring: 1993-2009

 

May 2005

Table of Contents

Figures

  1. Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
  2. Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity
  3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

Tables

  1. Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in 2003
  2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 2003
  3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 2003 Regulatory Monitoring
  4. Summary of 2003 Domestic and Import Feed Samples
  5. Residues Found in Domestic and Import Feeds in 2003
  6. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 2003
  7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 2003

This document is the seventeenth annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. Eight of the sixteen previous reports were published in the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International; these presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994. Results from FY 1995 through FY 2002 were published on FDA's World Wide Web site. This report includes findings obtained during FY 2003 (October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 2003 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

 FDA Monitoring Program

Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e., approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amounts of residues that are permitted in or on a food) if use of a particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (1). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestic foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. Since 1991, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed at raw agricultural products and various processed foods. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

 Regulatory Monitoring

FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed as the unwashed, whole (unpeeled), raw commodity. Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for a given food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination” (previously called automatic detention) may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

Analytical Methods

To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (2).

Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods (2). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. This type of methods is usually more resource­intensive per residue. Therefore, SRMs are much less cost effective than MRMs.

The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace” is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LOQ).

FDA/State Cooperation

FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e., imported vs. domestic products).

Animal Feeds

In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g., laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), CVM's monitoring focuses on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become or produce foods for human consumption.

International Activities

FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and to remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act.

FDA continues to collaborate with the New Zealand Food Safety Authority to implement the Residue Compliance Assurance Program. New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing the Program, whereby its government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the U.S. by the exporters covered under the Program would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

FDA collaborates with the government of Spain to assure the prevention of exports to the U.S. of Spanish clementines and other mandarins containing illegal pesticide residues.

FDA and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) implemented the Action Plan on Food Safety in 2000. The Action Plan expanded to the area of pesticide residues in food in 2002. The intent of the Action Plan on pesticide residues is to facilitate entry of the selected fresh produce from growers/shippers/responsible parties identified by CFIA as being in compliance with U.S. tolerances.

Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the U.S., Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee. One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects has been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this process is difficult, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries.

 Incidence/Level Monitoring

FDA's pesticide program includes incidence/level monitoring to complement regulatory monitoring. This approach increases FDA's knowledge about particular pesticide/commodity combinations. This information is acquired by analyses of randomly selected samples to determine the presence and levels of selected pesticides. In 2003, FDA issued a special assignment, to determine incidences and levels of certain pesticides in ginseng dietary supplements.

 Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study is the other major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (3). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-2002 (4a, 4b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (5) and July 1986-April 1991 (6), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990 (7). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (8, 9).

In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 285 foods that comprise each of the 4 market baskets represent over 3,500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each market basket is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

 Results and Discussion

 Regulatory Monitoring

Under regulatory monitoring, 7,234 samples were analyzed. Of these 2,344 were domestic and 4,890 were imports.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 2,344 domestic samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

 Figure 1. Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity

pie charts of Domestic samples as described in the text.

As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 2003; those two commodity groups comprised 83.0% of the total number of domestic samples. In 2003, no violative residues were found in 97.6% of all domestic samples (99.1% in 1996, 98.8% in 1997, 99.2 % in 1998, 99.2% in 1999, 99.3% in 2000, 98.9% in 2001, 99.2% in 2002).

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 2,344 domestic samples, 62.6% had no detectable residues and 2.4% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 48.6% and 69.2% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected; 2.2% of the fruit samples and 1.9% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group, 74.0% of the samples had no residues detected, and none had violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 76.2% had no detectable residues, and no violative residues were found. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, all of the samples had no residues detected, violative or not violative. Six samples of baby foods or formula were analyzed (see category Other). None of the samples had violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 4,890 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 82.4% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 94.0% of the import samples (97.4% in 1996, 98.4% in 1997, 97.0% in 1998, 96.9% in 1999, 96.2% in 2000, 95.2% in 2001, 95.7% in 2002).

Appendix B contains detailed data on the import samples. Of the 4,890 samples analyzed, 71.8% had no residues detected, and 6.0% had violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 63.6% and 72.5%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had 5.3% and 6.7%, respectively, with violative residues. No residues were found in 84.8% of the milk/dairy products/eggs group and in 89.0% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups. In the grains and grain products group, 88.4% had no detectable residues, and 1.4% had violative residues.

 Figure 2. Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity

pie charts of import samples as described in the text.

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 2003 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 2003 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes the monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-2002 is provided at the end of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic. A total of 2,344 domestic samples was collected in 2003 from 45 states (no samples were collected from Alabama, Hawaii, Nevada, Mississippi, or South Dakota) and from Puerto Rico. The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic samples from each location, in descending order of numbers of samples.

Import. A total of 4,890 samples representing food shipments from 99 countries was collected. (The origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 2 lists numbers of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

 
Table 1. Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State*, in 2003
California361Utah51Rhode Island27New Hampshire11
New York205Texas50Montana26North Dakota10
Louisiana204Minnesota48Connecticut25Oklahoma10
Florida148Massachusetts43South Carolina25Indiana8
Oregon107Illinois41Iowa22West Virginia8
New Jersey89Colorado39New Mexico18Arkansas4
Washington88Maryland38Michigan17Alaska4
Virginia80Idaho34Delaware16Georgia2
Ohio66Pennsylvania34Kentucky16Tennessee1
Missouri64North Carolina32Maine14 
Arizona62Wyoming30Vermont13 
Wisconsin58Kansas29Nebraska11 
*Other domestic samples: Puerto Rico, 30 samples; no state identified, 25 samples.

Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison

In 2003, 2,344 domestic and 4,890 import samples were collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 37.3% of the domestic samples and in 28.2% of the import samples. Only 2.4% of the domestic samples and only 6.1% of the import samples were violative. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was 0.0% domestic vs. 1.4% import. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group or the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group among either domestic or import samples. Of domestic fruits, 2.2% were violative; of import fruits, the violation rate was 5.3%. Of vegetables, 1.9% of domestic samples and 6.7% of import samples were violative. In the category "Other” the rates for domestic and import samples were, respectively, 16.7% and 14.1%. Except for this last category, the overall rate of violations is approximately one domestic violation for three import violations. Of the violative samples, nine of the domestic ones and 26 of the import ones contained pesticide residues at levels which exceeded the tolerance for the given chemical in the given commodity. The remainder of the violative samples contained pesticide residues which were not registered in the U.S. for use in the commodities in which they were found; 48 domestic samples and 270 import samples fell in this category.

 

Table 2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 2003
Mexico966Honduras39
China, Peoples Rep.377Jamaica38
Netherlands335Korea, Rep. of (South)38
Chile313France37
Canada288Unspecified37
Dominican Republic181Colombia36
Spain (inc. Canary Is.)176Greece34
Israel141Pakistan34
Guatemala126Iran33
India117Egypt32
Ecuador113South Africa32
Thailand111Taiwan, Republic of32
Poland106El Salvador22
Costa Rica103Australia21
Peru102Japan20
Italy92Trinidad & Tobago18
Viet-Nam, Rep. of73Haiti16
Philippines69Lebanon16
New Zealand66Panama16
Turkey66Indonesia15
Belgium55Myanmar (Burma)13
Brazil55Hungary12
Argentina47Germany, Fed. Rep. of11
Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:
AlgeriaGhanaRussia
Antigua and BarbudaHong KongSaint Lucia
ArmeniaIcelandSaudi Arabia
AustriaIrelandSingapore
BangladeshIvory CoastSomalia
BelizeJordanSweden
BoliviaKenyaSwitzerland
Bosnia-HercegovinaKuwaitSyrian Arab Republic
BulgariaLithuaniaTonga
CroatiaMacedoniaTunisia
CyprusMalaysiaUganda
Czech RepublicMorroccoUkraine
DenmarkMozambiqueUnited Arab Emirates
DominicaNicaraguaUnited Kingdom
EstoniaNigeriaUruguay
EthiopiaNorwayUzbekistan
Faroe IslandsPortugal (inc. Azores)Venezuela
FijiRomaniaYugoslavia

Pesticide Coverage

Table 3 lists the 360 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used; each of the 144 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk.

FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the U.S. The list of pesticides detectable for 2003 (Table 3) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research. Pesticides that were not detectable in previous years are indicated by a dagger.

Animal Feeds

In 2003, 438 domestic and 60 import feed samples were collected and analyzed for residues. Of the 438 domestic feed samples, 303 (69.2%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 8 (1.8%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance. Of the 60 import feed samples, 50 (83.3%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 3 (5.0%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance (Table 4).

Eight domestic surveillance samples contained 11 residues that exceeded regulatory guidance. Two corn samples from Ohio, collected by the Cincinnati District, contained 0.010 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl. One corn sample from Missouri, collected by the Kansas City District, contained 0.086 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl. A soybean sample from Kansas, collected by the Kansas City District, contained 0.094 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl. One sample of alfalfa hay from Colorado, collected by the Denver District, contained 0.514 ppm of o-phenylphenol. The EPA has not established a tolerance for chlorpyrifos-methyl on corn or soybeans in 40 CFR 180.419 or for o-phenylphenol on alfalfa in 40 CFR 180.129.

One sample of soybean deodorizer distillate from Iowa, collected by the Kansas City District, contained 0.062 ppm of endosulfan (I + sulfate) and 0.185 ppm of heptachlor epoxide. The EPA has not established a tolerance for endosulfan on soybeans in 40 CFR 180.182. The level of heptachlor epoxide found exceeds an FDA action level [FDA Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 575.100 Pesticide Residues in Food and Feed - Enforcement Criteria (CPG 7141.01)]. The applicable FDA action level for heptachlor epoxide in this sample is likely either 0.03 ppm in processed animal feed or 0.05 ppm in beans (except snap beans).

On January 27, 2003, two corn samples were collected by the Kansas City District from different bins at the same establishment in Kansas. These corn samples contained 26.7 ppm and 11.3 ppm of malathion and 0.642 ppm and 0.249 ppm of methoxychlor, respectively. The malathion levels in the corn samples exceeded the 8 ppm tolerance established by the EPA in 40 CFR 180.111. All pesticide tolerances for methoxychlor in 40 CFR 180.120 were revoked effective October 15, 2002 (Federal Register, July 17, 2002, vol. 67, number 137, pages 46906-46909). Prior to October 15, 2002, the tolerance for methoxychlor on corn was 2 ppm from storage bin treatment.

Three import samples contained 3 residues that exceeded regulatory guidance. A corn sample from Argentina, collected by the San Juan District, contained 1.66 ppm of fenitrothion. A sample of wheat pellets from Sierra Leone, collected by the San Juan District, contained 0.187 ppm of pirimiphos-methyl. A sample of canola fines from Canada, collected by the Seattle District, contained 0.052 ppm of malathion. The EPA has not established a tolerance for fenitrothion on corn in 40 CFR 180.540, for pirimiphos-methyl on wheat in 40 CFR 180.409, or for malathion on canola in 40 CFR 180.111.

In the 135 domestic surveillance and 10 import samples of feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 206 residues (136 quantifiable and 70 trace). Malathion, methoxychlor, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and chlorpyrifos were the most frequently found and accounted for 76.7% of all residues detected (Table 5).

 

Table 3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 2003 Regulatory Monitoringa,b,c
1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene*†Dilannuarimol
1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene*†dimethachlorocthilinone
1-naphthol*dimethipinofurace†
2,3,5,6-tetraachloroaniline*dimethoate*omethoate*
3,4-dichloroaniline*†dinitramineovex
3-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazoledinobuton†oxadiazon
4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decanedinocapoxadixyl*
4(phenylamino)phenoldioxabenzofosoxamyl*
acephate*dioxathionoxydemeton-methyl
acetochlordiphenylamine*oxyfluorfen
acibenzolar-S-methyldisulfotonoxythioquinox
acrinathrin*diuron†paclobutrazol†
alachlorDPX-MP062parathion*
aldicarb*edifenphosparathion-methyl*
aldrinendosulfan*pebulate
allethrinendrin*penconazole*
alpha-cypermethrinEPNpendimethalin
ametryn*epoxiconazolepentachlorobenzene*
amitraz*EPTCpentachlorobenzonitrile*
anilazineesfenvalerate*pentachlorophenyl methyl ether*
Aramiteetaconazolepermethrin*
atrazineethalfluralinPerthane
azinphos-ethylethephon†phenmedipham†
azinphos-methyl*ethiofencarb†phenothrin†
azoxystrobin*, (E)- and (Z)-†ethion*phenthoate*
benfluralinethion oxygen analog*phenylphenol, ortho-*
benodanil†ethofumesate†phorate
benoxacorethoprop*phosalone*
bensulideethoxyquin*phosmet*
benzoylprop-ethyletofenprox*†phosphamidon*
BHC*etridiazolephoxim
bifenoxetrimfospiperonyl butoxide*
bifenthrin*famphurpiperophos
binapacrylfenamidonepirimicarb*
biphenyl*fenamiphospirimiphos-ethyl
bitertanol*†fenarimol*pirimiphos-methyl*
bromacilfenbuconazole*pretilachlor
bromophosfenhexamid*prochloraz*
bromophos-ethylfenitrothion*procymidone*
bromopropylate*fenoxaprop ethyl esterprofenofos*
bromuconazole†fenpropathrin*profluralin
BulanfensulfothionProlan
bupirimate*fenthionprometryn*
buprofezin*fenvalerate*pronamide*
butachlorfipronil*propachlor
butralinflamprop-M-isopropyl†propanil
butylateflamprop-methylpropargite*
cadusafos*fluazifop butyl esterpropazine
captafolfluazinampropetamphos
captan*fluchloralinpropham
carbaryl*flucythrinatepropiconazole*
carbofuran*fludioxinil*prothiofos*
carbophenothionflufenacetprothoate
carboxinfluridone*†pyracarbolid*†
carfentrazone ethyl esterflusilazole*pyraclostrobin
chlorbensideflutolanil*†pyrazon
chlorbromuronfluvalinate*pyrazophos
chlorbufamfolpet*pyrethrins*
chlordane*fonofospyridaben*
chlordeconeformothion†pyridaphenthion†
chlordimeformfosthiazate†pyrimethanil*
chlorethoxyfosfuberidazole†pyriproxyfen*
chlorfenapyr†furilazole†quinalphos*
chlorfenvinphos*Gardonaquinoxyfen
chlorflurecol methyl estherheptachlor*quintozene*
chlornitrofenhexachlorobenzene*ronnel
chlorobenzilatehexaconazoleS-bioallethrin
chloroneb*hexazinone†schradan†
chloropropylatehexythiazoxsimazine*
chlorothalonil*imazalil*simetryn
chloroxuronimazamethabenz methyl esterStrobane
chlorpropham*iprobenfossulfallate
chlorpyrifos*iprodione*sulfotep*
chlorpyrifos-methyl*isazofosSulphenone
chlortetracycline*†isocarbamid†sulprofos
chlorthiophosisofenphosTCMTB
clodinafop-propargylisopropalintebuconazole*
clomazone*isoprothiolane*tebupirimfos
clopyralid*isoxaflutoletebuthiuron†
cloquintocet-mexylkresoxim-methyl*tecnazene*
coumaphos*lactofentefluthrin
crotoxyphoslambda-cyhalothrin*TEPP†
crufomateleptophosterbacil
cyanazinelindane*terbufos
cyanofenphos†linuron*terbuthylazine
cyanophosmalathion*terbutryn
cycloatemalathion oxygen analog*tetradifon*
cyfluthrin*mecarbamtetraiodoethylene
cyhalofop butyl estermephosfolantetramethrin*†
cymoxanilmerphostetrasul
cypermethrin*metalaxyl*thiabendazole*
cyprazinemetaldehyde*thiamethoxam
cyproconazolemetasystox thiolthiazopyr
cyprodinil*metazachlorthiobencarb
DCPA*methabenzthiazuron†thiometon†
DDT*methamidophos*thionazin
deltamethrin*methidathion*THPI*
deltamethrin, transmethiocarb*tolylfluanid*
demetonmethomyl*toxaphene
desmetryn†methoprotrynetralomethrin
dialiformethoxychlor*traloxydim†
di-allatemetobromurontriadimefon*
diazinon*metolachlortriadimenol*
diazinon oxygen analog*metribuzintri-allate
dichlobenil*mevinphos*triazamate†
dichlofenthionMGK 264triazophos*
dichlofluanid*mirex*tribufos
dichlonemolinatetrichlorfon
dichlormidmonocrotophos*tricyclazole
dichlorobenzophenone, p,p'-†monolinurontridiphane
dichlorvos*myclobutanil*trietazine
diclobutrazolnaledtriflumizole
diclofop-methylN-desmethyl flucarbazonetrifluralin*
dicloran*neburon†triflusulfuron methyl ester†
dicofol*nitralintris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate*
dicrotophosnitrapyrintris(b-chloroethyl) phosphate*†
dieldrin*nitrofenvamidothion sulfone†
diethatyl-ethyl†nitrofluorfenvernolate
diethofencarb*†nitrothal-isopropyl†vinclozolin*
difenoconazole*norflurazonzoxamide
aThe list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
bSome of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
cChemicals indicated by a dagger (†) were not looked for by methods used in previous years.

 

Table 4. Summary of 2003 Domestic and Import Feed Samples
Type of FeedTotal
# Samples
Without residuesExceeding Guidance
#%#%
Whole/Ground Grains22416573.783.6
Plant By-products1218368.621.7
Mixed Feed Rations553563.600.0
Animal By-products362672.200.0
Hay & Hay Products342573.512.9
Supplements281967.900.0
Total49835370.9112.2

 

Table 5. Residues Found in Domestic and Import Feeds in 2003
Pesticide# of Samples withRangeb
(ppm)
Medianb
(ppm)
Trace
Amounta
Quantifiable
Levels
malathion29620.009 - 26.70.103
chlorpyrifos-methyl8130.009 - 0.5600.039
methoxychlor (p,p' + o,p')1070.010 - 0.6420.062
chlorpyrifos4110.008 - 0.4000.018
diazinon3110.010 - 0.3070.029
ethoxyquin090.103 - 50.01.200
pirimiphos-methyl330.009 - 0.1870.031
azoxystrobin030.016 - 0.0430.020
tribufos (DEF)210.025N/A
dieldrin210.277N/A
endosulfan (I + sulfate)120.062-0.067N/A
ethion110.008N/A
heptachlor epoxide110.185N/A
lambda-cyhalothrin020.023-0.059N/A
all othersc690.012 - 1.6600.041
aResidue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.
bIn samples containing quantifiable levels.
cn=1 for the following: b-BHC (0.036 ppm), bifenthrin (trace), carbaryl (0.058 ppm), chlorpropham (0.025 ppm), cyprodinil (0.012 ppm), diphenylamine (trace), fenitrothion (1.66 ppm), iprodione (0.370 ppm), lindane (trace), octrachlor epoxide (trace), parathioin-methyl (0.013 ppm), PCB (trace), permethrin (0.041 ppm), o-phenylphenol (0.514 ppm), and TDE (p,p'-) (trace).

Summary: Regulatory Monitoring

No residues were found in 62.7% of domestic and in 71.8% of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 2003. Only 2.4% of domestic and 6.1% of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 2003 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (4a, 4b). Animal feed samples (438 domestic, 60 import) were analyzed. No residues were found in 69.2% of the domestic samples and in 83.3% of the import samples.

 Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

pie charts of import spie charts comparing domestic and imported samples as described in the text.amples as described in the text.

 Incidence/Level Monitoring

Special Surveys

Ginseng Dietary Supplements. Ginseng is one of the most widely onsumed herbal products. Information available to FDA suggested that ginseng-containing dietary supplements may contain unlawful pesticide residues. In FY 2003, FDA issued a special assignment to determine incidences and levels of pesticide residues and to take appropriate regulatory action against ginseng products that contain unlawful pesticide residues. The survey focuses on Panax species of ginseng, Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquifolius L).

The goal was to collect 60 samples of imported bulk ginseng from the major export countries and 83 samples of ginseng dietary supplements sold in the U.S.

Summary: Incidence/Level Monitoring

The study is expected to be completed in FY 2004.

 Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study (TDS) is distinct from regulatory monitoring in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (3). To measure the low levels of residues found in the TDS foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured. Of the over 300 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, 118 individual residues were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here (Market Baskets 02-4, 03-1, 03-2, and 03-3). Among these were 73 pesticides, including 15 which represent more than one related compound counted are now being examined, and 13 other organic compounds.

Table 6 lists the 35 most frequently found residues (those found in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in 2003 (285 food items). The five most frequently observed chemicals, DDT, malathion, endosulfan, dieldrin, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these and residues, as well as the others listed in Table 6, are well below regulatory limits.

Information obtained through the TDS is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides which are then compared with established standards. Dietary intakes based on TDS samples collected through mid-1991 have been published previously. (5, 6)

For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under TDS. Table 7 lists the 21 pesticide residues found in four collections of these foods (93 samples total) in 2003, the percentage occurrence, and ranges of levels found.

Summary: Total Diet Study

In 2003, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports (4a, 4b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-2003 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

 

Table 6. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 2003
PesticidebTotal No. of FindingsOccurrence, %Range, ppm
DDT123120.0001-0.171
malathion7170.0006-0.121
endosulfan7070.0001-0.116
dieldrin6460.0001-0.0141
chlorpyrifos-methyl6360.0005-0.092
chlorpyrifos5050.0002-0.110
chlorpropham3330.0007-2.627
permethrin3130.0008-4.713
thiabendazolec2730.001-2.105
o-phenylphenol2120.006-1.266
carbaryld2020.003-0.190
dicloran2020.0002-4.4179
methamidophos1920.0002-0.123
quintozene1920.00002-0.0095
diazinon1920.0002-0.043
pirimiphos-methyl1820.0004-0.1347
acephate1620.0007-0.459
lindane1620.0001-0.007
aBased on 4 market baskets analyzed in 2003 consisting of 1039 total items. Only those found in >2% of the samples are shown.
bIsomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
cReflects overall incidence; however, only 67-79 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 304 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides.
dReflects overall incidence; however, only 93-97 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 384 items total) were analyzed for N- methylcarbamates.

 

 Table 7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 2003
PesticidebTotal No. of FindingsOccurrence, %Range, ppm
thiabendazolec9100.001-0.102
captan + THPI890.009-0.149
endosullfan890.0001-0.0054
diphenylamine890.002-0.050
carbaryld660.001-0.030
DDT660.0001-0.0007
ethylenethioureae550.003-0.008
dimethoate440.0005-0.019
permethrin440.0013-0.075
dieldrin330.0001
malathion330.001-0.033
chlorpropham220.005-0.013
biphenyl220.002
phosmet220.003-0.004
benomylc220.032-0.052
acephate220.003-0.006
chlorpyrifos-methyl220.0187-0.024
fenvalerate220.003-0.005
chlorpyrifos220.0002-0.0011
fenpropathrin110.035
hexachlorobenzene110.0009
aBased on 4 market baskets consisting of 93 total items.
bIsomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
cReflects overall incidence; however, only 13-16 selected foods per collection (i.e., 60 items total) were analyzed for benzimidazole fungicides (thiabendazole and benomyl).
dReflects overall incidence; however, only 13-17 selected foods per collection (i.e., 63 items total) were analyzed for N- methylcarbamates.
eReflects overall incidence; however, only 12-17 selected foods per collection (i.e., 62 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.

 Summary

A total of 7,234 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 99 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 2003. No residues were found in 62.7% of domestic and in 71.8% of import samples. FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (438 domestic, 60 import) for pesticides. No residues were found in 69.2% of the domestic feed samples and in 83.3% of the import feed samples. Total Diet Study findings for 2003 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately.

This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC: Office of Plant and Dairy Foods: Carolyn M. Makovi, Mark S. Wirtz, Young H. Lee, Alexander J. Krynitsky, and Stephen G. Capar, Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals; Office of Management Systems: Sharon A. Macuci, Division of Information Resources Management; Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD: Randall Lovell; Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS: Chris A. Sack.

The database containing the data from which this report was derived is also available from FDA's World Wide Web site, at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov. The 1996 through 2002 reports and databases are available at the same site. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 1-800-553-6847); or from NTIS's website at http://www.ntis.gov. Order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

 References

(1) Code of Federal Regulations (2003) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

(2) Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions), available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov, and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC.

(3) Pennington, J.A.T., Capar, S.G., Parfitt, C.H., & Edwards, C.W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993. J. AOAC Int. 79, 163-170.

(4a) Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994.
J. AOAC Int. 78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

(4b) Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995, 2002 (and earlier reports in the series). Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.

(5) Gunderson, E.L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986. J. AOAC Int. 78, 910-921.

(6) Gunderson, E.L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J. AOAC Int. 78, 1353-1363.

(7) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply. Food Addit. Contam. 9, 253-264.

(8) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study. J. Nutr. Educ. 24, 173-178.

(9) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.


 

Appendix A. Analysis of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group in 2003
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativesa, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products1172.70.0  
Corn & corn products2483.30.0  
Oats & oat products650.00.0  
Rice & rice products2281.80.0  
Soybeans & soybean products10.00.0  
Wheat & wheat products6968.10.0  
Other grains & grain products1100.00.0  
Breakfast cereals1989.50.0  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.10.00.0  
Total15474.00.000
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Butter1100.00.0  
Cheese & cheese products5100.00.0  
Eggs6100.00.0  
Milk/cream & milk products9100.00.0  
Total21100.00.000
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products100.072.00.0  
Shellfish & Crustaceans2295.50.0  
Total12276.20.000
D. FruitsBlackberries875.00.0  
Blueberries4085.00.0  
Cranberries1050.00.0  
Grapes, raisins2867.90.0  
Raspberries1492.90.0  
Strawberries7944.33.803
Other berries1100.00.0  
Grapefruit1225.00.0  
Lemons1338.50.0  
Oranges12030.82.503
Other citrus fruit650.00.0  
Apples18348.61.102
Pears4346.50.0  
Apricots714.328.602
Avocadoes10100.00.0  
Cherries1827.816.703
Nectarines450.00.0  
Peaches9532.62.102
Plums1060.020.002
Bananas, plantains12100.00.0  
Papaya580.00.0  
Pineapple10.00.0  
Cantaloupe2245.50.0  
Watermelon2070.05.001
Other melons60.00.0  
Other fruits450.00.0  
Apple juice1190.90.0  
Other fruit juices5100.00.0  
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings2650.00.0  
Total81348.62.2018
E. VegetablesCorn4695.70.0  
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)13100.00.0  
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)6167.23.3 2
Other beans & peas & products6090.00.0  
Cucumbers4470.56.8 3
Eggplant1770.65.9 1
Okra771.414.3 1
Peppers, hot5100.00.0  
Peppers, sweet3574.30.0  
Squash/pumpkins7963.31.31b0
Tomatoes8976.40.0  
Other fruiting vegetables2100.00.0  
Artichokes333.30.0  
Asparagus1782.30.0  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage366.70.0  
Broccoli2781.50.0  
Cabbage7380.80.0  
Cauliflower887.50.0  
Celery238.70.0  
Collards862.50.0  
Endive850.00.0  
Kale1040.010.001
Lettuce, head1861.10.0  
Lettuce, leaf4940.86.103
Mustard greens666.70.0  
Radicchio366.70.0  
Spinach2236.44.501
Other leaf & stem vegetables3871.013.205
Mushrooms and Truffles366.70.0  
Carrots5669.60.0  
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots6492.20.0  
Potatoes10564.80.0  
Radishes650.00.0  
Red beets1163.60.0  
Sweet potatoes3568.60.0  
Turnips1330.80.003
Other root & tuber vegetables2924.110.3  
Vegetables with sauce3100.00.0  
Vegetables, dried or paste1100.00.0  
Other vegetables/vegetable products3271.93.101
Total113269.21.91b21
F. OtherCashews2100.00.0  
Peanuts & peanut products1080.00.0  
Other nuts & nut products771.40.0  
Edible seeds & seed products250.00.0  
Vegetable oil, crude1100.00.0  
Spices & condiments & flavors450.00.0  
Beverages & water1100.00.0  
Coffee/tea/wine2330.434.85b3
Honey & other sweeteners2391.30.0  
Baby foods/formula666.70.0  
Other food products, incl. prepared foods10.00.0  
Nonfood items2245.540.93b6
Total10260.816.78b9
Total A-F 234462.62.49b48
a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
b Residue in one or more samples exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

 

Appendix B. Analysis of Import Samples by Commodity Group in 2003
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativesa, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products977.80.0  
Corn & corn products1369.20.0  
Oats & oat products7100.00.0  
Rice & rice products4484.12.301
Wheat & wheat products1593.36.701
Other grains & grain products1989.55.301
Breakfast cereals1291.70.0  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.4995.90.0  
Pasta and noodles4787.20.0  
Total21588.41.403
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products4097.50.0  
Eggs1442.90.0  
Milk/cream & milk products5100.00.0  
Total5984.80.000
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products22589.30.0  
Shellfish & Crustaceans4488.60.0  
Other Aquatic Animals & Products475.00.0  
Total27389.00.000
D. FruitsBlackberries3050.013.304
Blueberries5678.60.0  
Cranberries6100.00.0  
Grapes, raisins6038.30.0  
Raspberries6454.70.0  
Strawberries8040.015.0111
Other berries683.316.701
Clementines90.00.0  
Grapefruit560.00.0  
Lemons988.90.0  
Limes3100.00.0  
Oranges3086.76.702
Other citrus fruit3100.00.0  
Apples6245.20.0  
Pears5141.27.804
Other pome fruit250.00.0  
Apricots2213.663.6014
Avocadoes3497.10.0  
Cherries3246.915.605
Dates1190.99.101
Nectarines119.10.0  
Olives4195.10.0  
Peaches3644.42.810
Plums1533.30.0  
Other pit fruit8100.00.0  
Ackees, lychees, longans1266.733.304
Bananas, plantains14639.70.701
Breadfruit, jackfruit11100.00.0  
Figs366.733.301
Guavas450.025.001
Kiwi fruit771.414.301
Mangoes6492.20.0  
Papaya7067.110.007
Pineapple5072.00.0  
Other sub-tropical fruit3193.53.201
Bitter melon1154.527.303
Cantaloupe1844.40.0  
Honeydew3746.00.0  
Watermelon1566.70.0  
Other melons1478.67.101
Other fruits1384.67.701
Apple juice3296.90.0  
Citrus juice9100.00.0  
Other fruit juices6782.13.002
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings23775.56.3114
Total153763.65.3379
E. VegetablesCorn2596.00.0  
Mung beans and bean sprouts2181.00.0  
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)8254.924.4020
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)7452.723.1116
Other beans & peas & products15771.37.04b7
Cucumbers10552.40.0  
Eggplant5893.10.0  
Okra1788.211.802
Peppers, hot18543.89.2017
Peppers, sweet42578.67.1327
Squash/pumpkins15550.33.205
Tomatoes19976.44.518
Other fruiting vegetables7776.67.82b4
Artichokes1190.90.0  
Asparagus7290.31.401
Bamboo shoots2100.00.0  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage966.70.0  
Broccoli4553.30.0  
Cabbage875.00.0  
Cauliflower1593.30.0  
Celery911.111.101
Collards1100.00.0  
Endive12100.00.0  
Kale40.00.0  
Lettuce, head955.611.101
Lettuce, leaf633.316.701
Mustard greens560.020.010
Radicchio6100.00.0  
Spinach1752.95.901
Other leaf & stem vegetables12569.619.2024
Mushrooms and Truffles6994.21.401
Carrots2475.04.201
Cassava32100.00.0  
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots8786.20.0  
Potatoes5889.70.0  
Radishes2075.00.0  
Red beets1100.00.0  
Sweet potatoes3183.912.922
Turnips366.733.301
Water chestnuts9100.00.0  
Other root & tuber vegetables4397.72.31b0
Vegetables with sauce12100.00.0  
Vegetables, dried or paste11280.48.9010
Other vegetables/vegetable products5787.73.502
Total249472.56.715b152
F. OtherCashews3997.42.601
Coconut & coconut products683.30.0  
Peanuts & peanut products1181.89.101
Other nuts & nut products2696.20.0  
Edible seeds & seed products3594.35.702
Vegetable oil, crude3100.00.0  
Vegetable oil, refined10100.00.0  
Spices & condiments & flavors3470.617.606
Beverages & water1392.30.0  
Beverage bases988.90.0  
Coffee/tea/wine2030.050.04b6
Honey & other sweeteners3997.42.601
Baby foods/formula5100.00.0  
Other food products, incl. prepared foods1586.713.31b1
Nonfood items4731.944.73b18
Total31278.214.18b36
Total A-F 489071.86.026b270

 

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