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Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1996

Return to FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring: 1993-2006

 

Food Picture

Table of Contents

 


This is the tenth annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. The nine previous reports, eight of which were published in the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International, presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994, and the ninth, which was published on FDA's World Wide Web site, presented the results from FY 1995. This current report includes findings obtained during FY1996 (October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 1996 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

FDA Monitoring Program

Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides (1). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e., approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amount of a residue that is permitted in or on a food) if use of that particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (2). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestically produced foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. For six years, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed primarily at raw agricultural products. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

Regulatory Monitoring

Under this approach to pesticide residue monitoring, FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed as the unwashed, whole (unpeeled), raw commodity. Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for that particular food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination" (previously called automatic detention) may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

Domestic and import food samples collected are classified as either "surveillance" or "compliance". Most samples collected by FDA are the surveillance type; that is, there is no prior knowledge or evidence that a specific food shipment contains illegal pesticide residues. Compliance samples are taken as follow-up to the finding of an illegal residue or when other evidence indicates that a pesticide residue problem may exist.

Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

Analytical Methods

To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (3).

Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods (3). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. These types of methods are usually more resource-intensive per residue. Therefore, they are much less cost effective than MRMs.

The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace" is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LQ).

FDA/State Cooperation

Personnel in FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. In many cases, Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e., imported vs. domestic products).

FDA also acquires and uses state-generated pesticide residue data to complement its own and other federally sponsored residue programs. Through 1996, FDA supported a contract with Mississippi State University (MSU) for the "Foodcontam" database, a compilation of state-collected residue data.

Animal Feeds

In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g., laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), the major focus of CVM's monitoring is on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become, or produce, foods for human consumption.

International Activities

FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act. FDA annually supplies foreign countries with reports on FDA's regulatory monitoring coverage and the findings in foods imported from their respective countries, as well as a personal computer database in which coverage and findings are summarized by country/commodity/pesticide combination.

Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United States, Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The NAFTA Pesticide TWG now serves as the focal point for all pesticide issues that arise among the three NAFTA countries. The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee.

One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects have been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this is a difficult process, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries. FDA's activities on the TWG complement its ongoing bilateral cooperation with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada.

Beyond the North American agreements, FDA continues to collaborate with New Zealand to implement a "residue compliance assurance program." New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing a plan whereby their government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the United States would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

Incidence/Level Monitoring

A complementary approach to regulatory monitoring, incidence/level monitoring is used to increase FDA's knowledge about particular pesticide/commodity combinations by analyzing certain foods to determine the presence and levels of selected pesticides. In 1996, a survey of triazine herbicides in various commodities, which had been initiated in 1995, was completed.

Results of the statistically based monitoring survey for fresh apples and processed rice, which was initiated in 1994, has been published (4). This is the second of two FDA surveys of this type; the first covered domestic and imported pears and tomatoes (5). These statistically based surveys were initiated to determine whether FDA data acquired under regulatory monitoring are statistically representative of the overall residue situation for a particular pesticide, commodity, or place of origin. In FDA's surveillance sampling for pesticide residues, sampling bias may occur by weighting sampling toward such factors as commodity or place of origin with a past history of violations or large volume of import shipments. In addition, the total number of samples of a given commodity analyzed for a particular pesticide each year may not be sufficient to draw specific conclusions about the residue situation for the whole volume of that commodity in commerce. Therefore, the objective of these statistically based surveys is to determine whether violation rates, frequency of occurrence of residues, and residue levels obtained from such a sampling regimen differ from those obtained through FDA's traditional surveillance approach.

Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study is another major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (6). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-1995 (7a, 7b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (8) and July 1986-April 1991 (9), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990 (10). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number (to 261) of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (11, 12).

In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 261 foods that comprise each market basket represent over 3500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each collection is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, vitamin B6, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

Results and Discussion

Regulatory Monitoring

In 1996, 10,374 samples (9,881 surveillance and 493 compliance) were analyzed under regulatory monitoring. Of these, 5,062 were domestic and 5,312 were imports.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 4960 domestic surveillance samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.) As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 1996; those two commodity groups comprised 63.5% of the total number of domestic surveillance samples. In 1996, no violative residues were found in more than 99% of all domestic surveillance samples (a similar percentage to those of the past several years).

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic surveillance monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 4960 domestic surveillance samples, 64.4% had no detectable residues and less than 1% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 46.1% and 64.2% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected. 1.3% of the fruit samples and 1.1% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 97.4% of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. Forty-four samples of baby foods/formula were analyzed (see category Other). This included 28 vegetable, 10 cereal, 2 fruit juice, and 4 formula samples. None of the samples had violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 4921 import surveillance samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 83.6% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 97.4% of the import surveillance samples (96.5% in 1994 and 96.8% in 1995).

Appendix B contains detailed data on the import surveillance samples. Of the 4921 samples analyzed, 64.4% had no residues detected, and less than 3% violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 57.0 and 63.0%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had less than 3% each with violative residues. No residues were found in 94.6% of the dairy products/eggs group and 87.9% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups.

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1996 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 1996 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes the monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 is provided at the end of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic. In 1996, domestic surveillance samples were collected from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and American Samoa. The largest numbers of samples were collected from the states in which agriculture is a major industry.

Import. Samples representing food shipments from 91 countries were collected. (Origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 1 lists numbers of samples (surveillance and compliance) collected from each country. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

Surveillance/Compliance Violation Rate Comparison

In 1996, 102 domestic and 391 import compliance samples were collected and analyzed (Table 2). Because compliance samples are collected when a pesticide residue problem is known or suspected, violation rates are expectedly higher than those for surveillance samples: 7.8% for domestic (12% in 1995) and 11.5% for imports (11% in 1995). The corresponding violation rates for surveillance samples were 0.9% for domestic and 2.6% for imports.

Most of the 1996 compliance samples were collected as follow-up to violative surveillance samples. These included follow-up samples from the same shipment as the violative surveillance sample, follow-up samples of the same commodity from the same grower or shipper, and audit samples from shipments presented for entry into the United States with a certificate of analysis (i.e., shipments subject to detention without physical examination).

Pesticide Coverage

Table 3 lists the 397 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used; the 92 pesticides that were actually found are indicated.

FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the United States. The list of pesticides detectable for 1996 (Table 3) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research.

Foodcontam Data

In 1996, 10 states contributed data to the Foodcontam program. Wisconsin, which had participated during 1995, did not participate in 1996, resulting in one fewer state. These 10 states submitted data on 6,520 samples from their regulatory food quality programs, down 3,955 compared to the number in 1995. Table 4 lists the 10 states, the number of samples for each, and the number and percentage of samples with positive and "significant" findings. In this program, a significant finding indicates a residue that exceeds federal or state regulatory limits, is not covered by a tolerance for the particular chemical/commodity combination, or denotes some unusual finding(s). For the 6,520 samples reported, 1.9% (126 samples) contained significant residues.

The 1996 Foodcontam report was the final one. The contract under which FDA has supported the data compilation for 10 years has been completed and will not continue in the future.

Animal Feeds

In 1996, FDA collected and analyzed 513 domestic feed samples (506 surveillance, 7 compliance) and 86 import feed samples (76 surveillance, 10 compliance) for pesticides. Of the 506 domestic surveillance samples, 308 (60.9%) had no pesticide residues detected and 5 (1.0%) contained violative residues (Table 5). The latter involved two samples with pirimiphos-methyl and one sample each with dieldrin, chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos-methyl. Of 76 import surveillance samples, 57 (75.0%) had no pesticide residues detected and 4 (5.3%) contained violative residues of chlorpyrifos, malathion, and/or captan.

In the 198 domestic surveillance feed samples in which one or more pesticides weredetected, a total of 290 residues were detected (221 quantifiable and 69 trace). Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and pirimiphos-methyl were the most frequently found and accounted for 90.0% of all residues detected. The findings in samples with quantifiable residues are displayed in Table 6.

Summary: Regulatory Monitoring

In summary, no residues were found in over 64% of both domestic and import surveillance samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1996. Less than 1% of domestic and less than 3% of import surveillance samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 1996 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (7a, 7b). Ten states contributed data on 6,520 samples to the Foodcontam database. Among these, 26.1% contained measurable residues and 1.9% contained significant residues. Animal feed samples (513 domestic, 86 import) were analyzed. Over 60% of the domestic surveillance samples and 75% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

Incidence/Level Monitoring

Triazine Herbicides

The triazines are one of the most widely used classes of herbicides, and EPA has established tolerances for them on many commodities. Interest in triazines has increased recently because of potential leaching of the herbicides and their degradation products into ground and surface water. Residues of these chemicals have rarely been detected in foods, although FDA has routinely looked for the parent compounds.

Recently, FDA's Southeast Regional Laboratory in Atlanta developed a method capable of determining 19 triazine herbicides and 4 metabolites (13). Average recoveries ranged from 81 to 106% for the parent herbicides and 60 to 88% for the metabolites. The method was validated by the Minneapolis District Laboratory (14) and used to analyze a number of food samples in 1995 and 1996. In 1996, this method was used to analyze 103 samples (56 domestic samples from 9 states and 47 import samples from 9 countries) (Table 7). Residues were found in six domestic samples, all of simazine in oranges. Four samples had trace amounts and two samples had 0.03 and 0.01 ppm, respectively. None was violative. No triazine residues were detected in the import samples.

Statistically Based Survey

Apples. The original goal of the project was to collect 1600 samples of apples (800 domestic and 800 import). Actually, 769 domestic and 1062 imported samples were collected and analyzed using both MRMs and SRMs. (These numbers are not included in the counts under Fruits in Appendixes A and B.) The incidence of residues was 85% for domestic and 86% for imported apples. Benomyl, a widely used fungicide, was found with greatest frequency in domestic apples, while diphenylamine was found most often in imported apples. One domestic and 4 imported samples contained violative residues of pesticides for which there are no U.S. tolerances on apples. The statistically weighted violation rates for domestic and imported apples were 0.30% (0.13 unweighted) and 0.41% (0.38 unweighted), respectively (4).

Rice. About 575 domestic and 800 imported samples were scheduled for collection. A total of 598 domestic and 612 imported samples were collected and analyzed using both MRMs and SRMs. (Numbers are not included in Appendixes A and B.) The incidence of residues was 56% in domestic and 12% in imported rice. Malathion had the greatest frequency of occurrence in both groups of rice. Eight domestic and nine imported samples were violative, all as a result of the use of pesticides for which there are no U.S. tolerances on rice. The statistically weighted violation rates for domestic and imported rice were 0.43% (1.3 unweighted) and 1.1% (1.5 unweighted), respectively (4).

Although there may be specific differences between results obtained from regulatory monitoring and statistically based monitoring of domestic and imported apples and rice, in general, the results are in agreement, as was the case in similar monitoring of domestic and imported pears and tomatoes (5). These two studies of four commodities corroborate the low levels of pesticide residues found in FDA's regulatory monitoring and demonstrate that FDA's regulatory monitoring provides a reasonably reliable estimate of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply.

Summary: Incidence/Level Monitoring

A survey of triazine herbicides in various commodities was carried out. Few residues were found, and none were violative. Results of the statistically based study for apples and rice show that, as in FDA's regulatory monitoring, the levels of most pesticide residues found in these two commodities are generally well below U.S. tolerances, and few violative residues are found.

Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study is unique in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (6). Of the nearly 300 chemicals that can be determined by the analytical methods used, 99 pesticide and pesticide-related chemicals were found in the foods analyzed in the three collections reported here. To measure the low levels of pesticides found in the Total Diet Study foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured.

Table 8 lists the 20 most frequently found residues (thosefound in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the three market baskets (778 food items)analyzed in 1996. The three most frequently observed chemicals, p,p'-DDE, malathion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, repeat a pattern observed for the past several years. The levels of these pesticides, as well as the others listed in Table 8, were well below regulatory limits.

Information obtained through the Total Diet Study is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides; these intakes are then compared with established standards. Food consumption data to be used in estimating dietary intakes for the revised food list have only recently been finalized. Therefore, dietary intake information for the market baskets collected since 1991 will be reported separately.

For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under the Total Diet Study. Between 1991 and 1996, this adjunct to the Total Diet Study included 23 different food items (14 fruit juices or fruits, 4 fruit desserts, 4 grain products, and 1 vegetable). Table 9 lists the 18 most frequently found pesticide residues in three collections of these 23 foods (69 samples total) in 1996. Levels found were in the low part per billion (ppb) range.

Summary: Total Diet Study

In 1996, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in the Total Diet Study were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports (7a, 7b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1996 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

Summary

A total of 10,374 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 92 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 1996. Of these, 9,881 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no evidence of a pesticide problem. No residues were found in 64.4% of both domestic surveillance and import surveillance samples. The higher violation rates in the 493 compliance samples reflect the fact that they are collected and analyzed when a pesticide problem is suspected.

In the final year during which state residue data were collected in the Foodcontam database, 10 states contributed data on 6,520 samples. Among these, 26.1% contained measurable residues and 1.9% contained significant residues. FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (513 domestic, 86 import) for pesticides. Over 60% of the domestic surveillance samples and 75% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

A survey of fruits analyzed for residues of triazine herbicides was performed. Few residues were found, and none were violative. Results of the statistically based study for apples and rice show that, as in FDA's regulatory monitoring, the levels of most pesticide residues found in these two commodities are generally well below U.S. tolerances, and few violative residues are found.

Most of the Total Diet Study findings for 1996 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1996 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

 

This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Bernadette M. McMahon, Mark S. Wirtz, and Charles H. Parfitt (Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals), Byron O. Bohannon and Young H. Lee (Division of Programs and Enforcement Policy), Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages; Sharon A. Macuci (Division of Information Resources Management), Office of Management Systems, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC., Randall Lovell, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD, Sheila K. Egan, James L. Daft, and David Graham, Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS.

 The database containing the data from which this report was derived is also available from FDA's World Wide Web site. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 703-487-4650); order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

References

 (1) Yess, N.J. (1995) U.S. Food and Drug Administration monitoring of pesticide residues in foods. Pestic. Outlook 6, 28-31.

 (2) Code of Federal Regulations (1996) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

 (3) Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions) and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161).

 (4) Roy, R.R., Wilson, P., Laski, R.R., Roberts, J.I., Weishaar, J.A., Bong R.L., & Yess N.J. (1997) Monitoring of domestic and imported apples and rice by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program. J. AOAC Int. 80, 883-894.

 (5) Roy, R.R., Albert, R.H., Wilson, P., Laski, R.R., Roberts, J.I., Hoffman, T.J., Bong R.L., Bohannon, B.O., & Yess, N.J. (1995) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program: Incidence/Level Monitoring of Domestic and Imported Pears and Tomatoes. J AOAC Int 78, 930-940.

 (6) Pennington, J.A.T., Capar, S.G., Parfitt, C.H., & Edwards, C.W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993. J. AOAC Int. 79, 163-170.

 (7a) Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994. J. AOAC Int. 78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

(7b) Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995. Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at HTTP://VM.CFSAN.FDA.GOV.

 (8) Gunderson, E.L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986. J. AOAC Int. 78, 910-921.

 (9) Gunderson, E.L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J. AOAC Int. 78, 1353- 1363.

 (10) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply. Food Addit. Contam. 9, 253-264.

 (11) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study. J. Nutr. Educ. 24, 173-178.

 (12) Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

 (13) Pardue, J.R. (1995) Multiresidue method for the chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in raw agricultural products. J. AOAC Int. 78, 856-862.

 (14) Bong, R., Kramer, J., Heaney, L., & Murphy, L. (1995) Validation of a multiresidue method for triazine herbicides in various food commodities. Lab. Inf. Bull. 3998, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD.

 Figure 1.
Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity

Figure 1: pie charts showing percentages of residue found in domestic surveillance samples

 

 Figure 2.
Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity

Figure 2: pie charts showing percentages of residue found in import surveillance samples

 

 Figure 3.
Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

Figure 3: pie charts showing percentages of residue found in domestic versus import surveillance samples

 


Mexico

1752

  Taiwan (Formosa)

44

Chile

409

  Philippines

42

Canada

329

  Unspecified

37

Netherlands (Holland)

238

  Japan

36

Guatemala

186

  France

35

Thailand

175

  Argentina

30

China, Peoples Rep.

172

  Australia

29

Italy

164

  Brazil

27

Costa Rica

141

  Jamaica

27

India

123

  Hong Kong

24

Spain (inc. Canary Islands)

123

  Germany, Federal Rep.

22

Dominican Republic

107

  United Kingdom

21

Ecuador

91

  Lebanon

20

Peru

79

  South Africa

20

Israel

70

  Poland

18

Colombia

67

  Venezuela

18

Panama

67

  Morocco

17

Turkey

59

  El Salvador

15

Indonesia

51

  Pakistan

15

Greece

49

  Nicaragua

13

Korea, Rep. Of (South Korea)

49

  Denmark

12

Honduras

47

  Trinidad & Tobago

11

Belgium

44

  Viet-Nam, Rep. Of

11

New Zealand

44

     

Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:


Afghanistan
Algeria
Austria
Bahamas
Belize
Bermuda
Bolivia
Br. Virgin Is.
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Egypt
Fiji
Finland
Ghana
Grenada
Guyana
Haiti
Hungary
Ireland
Ivory Coast
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Peoples
   
Malagasy Rep.
Malawi
Malaysia
Moldova
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Papua New Guinea
Portugal (inc. Azores)
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovenia
Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
St. Lucia
Surinam
Sweden
Switzerland
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Yugoslavia
Zambia
 
 
 a Surveillance plus compliance samples.

 

 Table 2.
Compliance Samples by Commodity Group in 1996

 

 
Commodity Group
Total No.
of Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violative, %
 

Domestic

     
   Grains and Grain Products

6

50.0

0.0

   Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs

6

100.0

0.0

   Fish/Shellfish

8

62.5

0.0

   Fruits

33

30.3

12.1

   Vegetables

41

43.9

9.8

   Other

8

100.0

0.0

   Total

102

49.0

7.8

       

Import

     
   Grains and Grain Products

74

59.5

0.0

   Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs

4

75.0

0.0

   Fish/Shellfish

9

88.9

0.0

   Fruits

118

57.6

22.0

   Vegetables

128

57.8

14.1

   Other

58

87.9

1.7

   Total

391

63.4

11.5

 

 Table 3.
Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 1996 Regulatory Monitoringa,b

 

Acephate*
Acetochlor
Acrinathrin
Alachlor
Aldicarb*
Aldrin
Allethrin
Allidochlor
Alpha-cypermethrin
Ametryn
Aminocarb
Amitraz
Anilazine
Aramite
Atrazine
Azinphos-ethyl
Azinphos-methyl*
Bendiocarb
Benfluralin
Benodanil
Benomyl/carbendazimc
Benoxacor
Bensulide
Benzoylprop-ethyl
6-Benzyladenine
BHC*
Bifenox
Bifenthrin*
Binapacryl
S-Bioallethrin
Biphenyl*
Bitertanol*
Bromacil
Bromophos
Bromophos-ethyl
Bromopropylate
Bromoxynil
Bufencarb
Bulan
Bupirimate
Butachlor
Butralin
Butylate
Cadusafos
Captafol*
Captan*
Carbaryl*
Carbofuran*
Carbophenothion
Carbosulfan
Carboxin
Chlorbenside
Chlorbromuron
Chlorbufam
Chlordane*
Chlordecone
Chlordimeform*
Chlorethoxyfos
Chlorfenapyr
Chlorfenvinphos
Chlorflurecol methyl ester
Chlorimuron ethyl ester
Chlornitrofen
Chlorobenzilate
3-Chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole
Chloroneb
Chloropicrin*
Chloropropylate
Chlorothalonil*
Chloroxuron
Chlorpropham*
Chlorpyrifos*
Chlorpyrifos-methyl*
Chlorthiophos
Clomazone
Coumaphos
Crotoxyphos
Crufomate
Cyanazine
Cyanofenphos
Cyanophos
Cycloate
Cycluron
Cyfluthrin
Cymoxanil
Cypermethrin*
Cyprazine
Cyproconazole
DCPA*
DDT*
Deltamethrin
Deltamethrin, trans
Demeton*
Desmetryn
Dialifor
Di-allate
N,N-Diallyl-dichloroacetamide
Diazinon*
Dichlobenil
Dichlofenthion
Dichlofluanid
Dichlone
4-(Dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azapiro[4.5]decane
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide
Dichlorvos*
Diclobutrazol
Diclofop-methyl
Dicloran*
Dicofol*
Dicrotophos
Dieldrin*
Diethatyl-ethyl
Dilan
Dimethachlor
Dimethametryn
Dimethipin
Dimethoate*
Dinitramine
Dinobuton
Dinocap
Dioxabenzofos
Dioxacarb
Dioxathion
Diphenamid
Diphenylamine*
Dipropetryn
Disulfoton
Diuron
Edifenphos
Endosulfan*
Endrin*
EPN*
Esfenvalerate*
Etaconazole
Ethalfluralin
Ethephon
Ethiofencarb
Ethion*
Ethofumesate
Ethoprop
Ethoxyquin*
Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates*d
Etridiazole
Etrimfos
Famphur
Fenamiphos
Fenarimol
Fenbuconazole
Fenfuram
Fenitrothion*
Fenoxaprop ethyl ester
Fenoxycarb
Fenpropathrin*
Fenpropimorph
Fenson
Fensulfothion
Fenthion
Fenvalerate*
Fipronil
Flamprop-M-isopropyl
Flamprop-methyl
Fluazifop butyl ester
Fluchloralin
Flucythrinate
Flusilazole
Fluvalinate
Folpet*
Fonofos*
Formothion
Fosthiazate
Fuberidazole
Furilazole
Gardona
Heptachlor*
Heptenophos
Hexachlorobenzene*
Hexaconazole*
Hexazinone
Hexythiazox
Imazalil*
Imazamethabenz methyl ester
Iprobenfos
Iprodione*
Iprodione metabolite isomer*
Isazofos
Isocarbamid
Isofenphos
Isoprocarb
Isopropalin
Isoprothiolane
Isoxaben
Isoxaflutole
Lactofen
Lambda-cyhalothrin
Lenacil
Leptophos
Lindane*
Linuron*
Malathion*
Mecarbam*
Mephosfolan
Merphos
Metalaxyl*
Metaldehyde*
Metasystox thiol
Metazachlor
Methabenzthiazuron
Methamidophos*
Methidathion*
Methiocarb*
Methomyl*
Methoprotryne
Methoxychlor*
2-Methoxy-5,6-trichloropyridine
Metobromuron
Metolachlor
Metolcarb
Metribuzin
Mevinphos*
Mirex
Monocrotophos*
Monolinuron
Monuron
Myclobutanil*
Naled*
Napropamide
Neburon
Nitralin
Nitrapyrin
Nitrofen
Nitrofluorfen
Nitrothal-isopropyl
Norea
Norflurazon
Nuarimol
Octhilinone
Ofurace
Omethoate*
Ovex
Oxadiazon
Oxadixyl
Oxamyl*
Oxydemeton-methyl
Oxyfluorfen
Oxythioquinox
Paclobutrazol
Paraquat*
Parathion*
Parathion-methyl*
Pebulate
Penconazole
Pendimethalin
Pentachlorobenzene*
Pentachlorobenzonitrile
Pentachlorophenyl methyl ether*
Permethrin*
Perthane
Phenothrin
Phenthoate*
Phenylphenol, ortho-*
Phorate*
Phosalone*
Phosmet*
Phosphamidon*
Phoxim oxygen analog
Piperonyl butoxide*
Piperophos
Pirimicarb
Pirimiphos-ethyl
Pirimiphos-methyl*
Pretilachlor
Probenazole
Prochloraz
Procyazine
Procymidone*
Prodiamine
Profenofos*
Profluralin
Prolan
Promecarb
Prometryn
Pronamide
Propachlor
Propanil
Propargite*
Propazine
Propetamphos
Propham
Propiconazole
Propoxur
Prothiofos
Prothoate
Pyracarbolid
Pyrazon
Pyrazophos*
Pyrethrins
Pyridaphenthion
Pyrimethanil
Quinalphos*
Quintozene*
Quizalofop ethyl ester
Ronnel
Schradan
Secbumeton
Simazine*
Simetryn
Strobane
Sulfallate
Sulfotep
Sulphenone
Sulprofos
TCMTB
Tebuconazole
Tebupirimfos
Tecnazene
TEPP
Terbacil
Terbufos
Terbumeton
Terbuthylazine
Terbutryn
Tetradifon
Tetraiodoethylene
Tetrasul
Thiabendazole*
Thiazopyr
Thiodicarb
Thiometon
Thionazin
Thiophanate-methyl
THPI*
Tolylfluanid
Toxaphene
Tralomethrin
Traloxydim
Triadimefon*
Triadimenol*
Tri-allate
Triazamate
Triazophos
Tribufos*
Trichlorfon
Tricyclazole
Tridiphane
Trietazine
Triflumizole
Trifluralin*
Triflusulfuron methyl ester
Trimethacarb
Vamidothion sulfone
Vernolate
Vinclozolin*
XMC
 
 a The list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
 b Some of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
 c The analytical methodology determines carbendazim, which may result from use of benomyl or carbendazim.
 d Such as maneb.

 Table 4.
Summary of Foodcontam Findings for 1996

 
State
Total
# Samples
 
# Positive
 
% Positive
 
# Significant
 
% Significant
 
Arkansas

277

10

3.6

0

0.0

California

3210

1008

31.4

39

1.2

Florida

634

223

35.2

67

10.6

Georgia

534

111

20.8

6

1.1

Indiana

142

112

78.9

0

0.0

North Carolina

321

106

33.0

5

1.6

New York

416

6

1.4

2

0.5

Oregon

178

6

3.4

1

0.6

Pennsylvania

534

97

18.2

4

0.7

Virginia

274

23

8.4

2

0.7

Total

6520

1702

26.1

126

1.9

 

 Table 5.
Summary of 1996 Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples

 
Type of Feed
Total
# Samples
 
Without residues
 
Violative Samples

#

%

#

%

 
Whole/ground grains

207

133

64.3

2

1.0

Animal by-products

94

63

67.0

0

0.0

Plant by-products

89

54

60.7

3

3.4

Mixed feed rations

77

23

29.9

0

0.0

Hay & hay products

39

35

89.7

0

0.0

Total

506

308

60.9

5

1.0

 

 Table 6.
Residues Most Frequently Found in Feeds

 
 
Pesticide
No. of Samples
with Quantifiable
Residues
Residue Found, ppm
 
Range
 
Median
 
malathion

115

0.010-5.22

0.100

chlorpyrifos-methyl

38

0.010-0.909

0.044

diazinon

19

0.010-0.447

0.033

chlorpyrifos

17

0.010-3.40

0.059

pirimiphos-methyl

9

0.014-2.16

0.070

all others

23

0.007-2.50

0.043

 

 Table 7.
Commodity Targeted Monitoring of Domestic and Imported Foods for Triazine Herbicides Conducted in 1996

 
Commodity
Number of Samples Analyzed
Domestic Import
 
Apples

17

3

Bananas

2

18

Grapes

6

14

Oranges

18

2

Pears

10

10

Plums

3

-

Total

56

47

 

 Table 8.
Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1996a

 
Pesticideb
Total No. of
Findings
 
Occurrence, %
 
DDT

140

18

Malathion

136

17

Chlorpyrifos-methyl

122

16

Endosulfan

87

11

Dieldrin

76

10

Chlorpyrifos

72

9

Chlorpropham

45

6

Iprodione

36

5

Carbarylc

33

4

Methamidophos

32

4

Dicloran

27

3

Thiabendazoled

27

3

Permethrin

23

3.0

Dimethoate

22

2.8

Acephate

21

2.7

Dicofol

21

2.7

Lindane

21

2.7

Diazinon

19

2.4

BHC

18

2.3

Toxaphene

18

2.3

 

 a Based on 3 market baskets analyzed in 1996 consisting of 778 items. Only those found in >2% of the samples are shown.

 

 b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.

 

 c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 93-95 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 283 items total) were analyzed for N- methylcarbamates.

 

 d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 65-67 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 199 items total) were analyzed for thiabendazole and benomyl.

 

 Table 9.
Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1996a

Pesticideb

Total No. of Findings

Occurrence, %

Range, ppm

 
Dimethoate

22

32

0.0002-0.007

Iprodione

18

26

0.001-0.095

Carbarylc

15

22

0.002-0.024

Endosulfan

11

16

0.0014-0.020

Chlorpyrifos

10

14

0.0004-0.015

Omethoate

9

13

0.001-0.005

Permethrin

8

12

0.002-0.054

Malathion

6

9

0.001-0.010

Chlorpyrifos-methyl

5

7

0.004-0.010

Dicloran

5

7

0.0009-0.002

Parathion-methyl

5

7

0.0006-0.005

Ethylenethiouread

4

6

0.004-0.011

Thiabendazolee

4

6

0.046-0.076

Acephate

2

3

0.002 (both)

Benomyle

2

3

0.036-0.044

Dicofol

2

3

0.002 (both)

Esfenvalerate

2

3

0.004-0.021

Propargitef

2

3

0.013-0.088

 
 a Based on 3 collections consisting of 69 total items. Only those found in >2% of the samples are shown.
 b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
 c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 17 selected foods per collection (i.e., 51 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
 d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13 selected items (i.e., 39 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.
 e Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected items (i.e., 48 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides (thiabendazole and benomyl).
 f Reflects overall incidence; however, only 17 selected foods per collection (i.e., 51 items total) were analyzed for this sulfur-containing compound.

 

 Appendix A.
Analysis of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1996

 
Commodity Group
Total
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativea, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
 
A. Grains and Grain Products
         
Corn & corn products 29 51.7 3.5 1  
Oats & oat products

27

74.1

7.4

 

2

Rice & rice products

47

80.8

2.1

 

1

Soybeans & soybean products

27

77.8

0.0

   
Wheat & wheat products

185

40.0

0.0

   
Other grains & grain products

13

38.5

0.0

   
Breakfast cereals

29

65.5

0.0

   
Bakery products, crackers, etc.

6

33.3

0.0

   
Total

363

53.4

1.1

   
           
B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs          
Cheese & cheese products

53

86.8

0.0

   
Eggs

210

97.6

0.0

   
Milk/cream & milk products

518

98.5

0.0

   
Total

781

97.4

0.0

   
           
C. Fish/Shellfish          
Fish

377

53.6

0.5

 

2

Shellfish

141

83.7

0.0

   
Other

2

100.0

0.0

   
Total

520

61.9

0.4

   
           
D. Fruits          
Blackberries

7

42.9

0.0

   
Blueberries

39

76.9

5.1

1

1

Cranberries

13

30.8

0.0

   
Grapes, raisins

91

65.9

0.0

   
Raspberries

21

19.1

0.0

   
Strawberries

98

9.2

2.0

2

 
           
Grapefruit

16

50.0

0.0

   
Lemons

22

63.6

0.0

   
Oranges

79

32.9

0.0

   
Other citrus fruit

4

0.0

0.0

   
           
Apples

207

30.9

1.9

 

4

Pears

59

54.2

0.0

   
           
Apricots

9

33.3

0.0

   
Avocadoes

1

100.0

0.0

   
Cherries

22

27.3

0.0

   
Nectarines

31

16.1

0.0

   
Peaches

124

16.9

0.0

   
Plums

21

66.7

0.0

   
Bananas, plantains

7

100.0

0.0

   
Guavas

7

0.0

85.7

 

6

Kiwi fruit

11

100.0

0.0

   
Mangoes

2

100.0

0.0

   
           
Cantaloupe

74

55.4

2.7

 

2

Honeydew

18

50.0

0.0

   
Watermelon

89

88.8

0.0

   
           
Other fruits

1

100.0

0.0

   
           
Apple juice

56

91.1

0.0

   
Citrus juice

14

100.0

0.0

   
Other fruit juices

24

66.7

0.0

   
           
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings

27

59.3

0.0

   
Total

1194

46.1

1.3

   
           
E. Vegetables          
Corn

95

100.0

0.0

   
Mung beans and bean sprouts

7

85.7

0.0

   
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

78

83.3

0.0

   
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

117

65.0

0.0

   
Other beans & peas & products

28

85.7

3.6

 

1

           
Cucumbers

78

69.2

1.3

 

1

Eggplant

21

66.7

0.0

   
Okra

9

88.9

11.1

 

1

Peppers, hot

20

70.0

0.0

   
Peppers, sweet

77

42.9

0.0

   
Squash/pumpkins

85

56.5

3.5

1b

2

Tomatoes

225

58.2

0.4

 

1

Other fruiting vegetables

3

66.7

0.0

   
           
Artichokes

5

100.0

0.0

   
Asparagus

15

93.3

0.0

   
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage

28

82.1

3.6

 

1

Broccoli

26

92.3

0.0

   
Cabbage

72

87.5

0.0

   
Cauliflower

23

95.7

0.0

   
Celery

28

17.9

0.0

   
Collards

22

54.5

4.5

 

1

Endive

21

61.9

9.5

 

2

Lettuce, head

136

46.3

3.7

 

5

Lettuce, leaf

78

35.9

2.6

1

1

Spinach

46

45.6

0.0

   
Other leaf & stem vegetables

46

67.4

2.2

1b

 
           
Mushrooms

14

78.6

0.0

   
           
Carrots

115

60.0

0.0

   
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

44

90.9

0.0

   
Potatoes

226

50.4

0.0

   
Sweet potatoes

34

79.4

0.0

   
Other root & tuber vegetables

64

70.3

1.6

 

1

           
Vegetables with sauce

12

91.7

0.0

   
Vegetables, dried or paste

28

82.1

3.6

 

1

Other vegetables/vegetable products

32

71.9

0.0

   
Total

1958

64.2

1.1

   
           
F. Other          
Cashews

1

100.0

0.0

   
Peanuts & peanut products

38

68.4

0.0

   
Other nuts & nut products

4

100.0

0.0

   
           
Vegetable oil, crude

11

100.0

0.0

   
           
Spices & condiments & flavors

7

71.4

0.0

   
           
Beverages & water

3

100.0

0.0

   
Beverage bases

16

18.8

0.0

   
           
Honey & other sweeteners

17

100.0

0.0

   
           
Baby foods/formula

44

81.8

0.0

   
           
Other food products,
incl. prepared foods

3

66.7

0.0

   
Total

144

75.0

0.0

   
 

A-F Total

4960

64.4

0.9

   
 
  a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
  b Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

 

 Appendix B
Analysis of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1996

 
Commodity Group
Total
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativea, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
 
A. Grains and Grain Products
         
Corn & corn products

8

87.5

0.0

   
Oats & oat products

5

60.0

0.0

   
Rice & rice products

57

86.0

1.8

1b

 
Soybeans & soybean products

3

100.0

0.0

   
Wheat & wheat products

13

38.5

0.0

   
Other grains & grain products

16

87.5

6.2

1b

 
Breakfast cereals

15

100.0

0.0

   
Bakery products, crackers, etc.

36

83.3

0.0

   
Pasta and noodles

77

75.3

0.0

   
Total

230

80.0

0.9

   
           
B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs          
Butter

2

100.0

0.0

   
Cheese & cheese products

99

99.0

0.0

   
Eggs

27

77.8

0.0

   
Milk/cream & milk products

1

100.0

0.0

   
Total

129

94.6

0.0

   
           
C. Fish/Shellfish          
Fish

86

86.0

0.0

   
Shellfish

36

94.4

0.0

   
Other

2

50.0

0.0

   
Total

124

87.9

0.0

   
           
D. Fruits          
Blackberries

50

36.0

4.0

 

2

Blueberries

37

86.5

0.0

   
Grapes, raisins

169

35.5

1.2

 

2

Raspberries

71

23.9

2.8

 

2

Strawberries

46

10.9

6.5

 

3

Other berries

5

80.0

0.0

   
           
Grapefruit

4

25.0

0.0

   
Lemons

9

77.8

0.0

   
Limes

21

81.0

4.8

 

1

Oranges

28

85.7

0.0

   
Other citrus fruit

16

75.0

6.2

 

1

           
Apples

57

45.6

0.0

   
Pears

61

44.3

1.6

1

 
Other pome fruit

6

100.0

0.0

   
           
Apricots

9

66.7

0.0

   
Avocadoes

14

92.9

0.0

   
Cherries

21

66.7

0.0

   
Nectarines

13

38.5

0.0

   
Olives

66

97.0

0.0

   
Peaches

40

45.0

7.5

 

3

Plums

30

33.3

0.0

   
Other pit fruit

2

100.0

0.0

   
           
Bananas, plantains

268

49.2

0.0

   
Guavas

3

100.0

0.0

   
Kiwi fruit

4

100.0

0.0

   
Mangoes

75

94.7

1.3

 

1

Papaya

75

78.7

9.3

 

7

Pineapple

83

85.5

2.4

2

 
Other sub-tropical fruit

44

90.9

6.8

 

3

           
Cantaloupe

94

20.2

5.3

 

5

Honeydew

59

8.5

0.0

   
Watermelon

39

66.7

0.0

   
Other melons

16

62.5

6.2

 

1

           
Other fruits

13

92.3

0.0

   
           
Apple juice

18

88.9

5.6

 

1

Citrus juice

8

87.5

0.0

   
Other fruit juices

53

92.5

0.0

   
           
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings

108

71.3

12.0

 

13

Total

1735

57.0

2.8

   
           
E. Vegetables          
Corn

36

100.0

0.0

   
Mung beans and bean sprouts

18

77.8

0.0

   
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

103

52.4

16.5

1

16

String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

58

31.0

5.2

 

3

Other beans & peas & products

47

76.6

2.1

 

1

           
Cucumbers

72

43.1

0.0

   
Eggplant

25

60.0

0.0

   
Okra

21

76.2

9.5

 

2

Peppers, hot

256

41.4

3.1

3

5

Peppers, sweet

256

63.3

0.8

1

1

Squash/pumpkins

130

37.7

0.8

 

1

Tomatoes

342

56.1

1.2

 

4

Other fruiting vegetables

34

73.5

2.9

 

1

           
Artichokes

32

90.6

6.2

 

2

Asparagus

105

82.9

1.9

1

1

Bamboo shoots

18

100.0

0.0

   
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage

22

45.5

13.6

 

3

Broccoli

35

60.0

0.0

   
Cabbage

17

58.8

0.0

   
Cauliflower

8

87.5

12.5

 

1

Celery

17

23.5

0.0

   
Collards

1

100.0

0.0

   
Endive

28

96.4

0.0

   
Lettuce, head

15

60.0

0.0

   
Lettuce, leaf

44

20.4

2.3

 

1

Radicchio

11

72.7

0.0

   
Spinach

27

29.6

0.0

   
Other leaf & stem vegetables

60

55.0

16.7

2

8

           
Mushrooms & mushroom products

77

93.5

0.0

   
           
Carrots

36

66.7

0.0

   
Cassava

21

100.0

0.0

   
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

39

79.5

5.1

 

2

Potatoes

76

93.4

0.0

   
Sweet potatoes

18

100.0

0.0

   
Water chestnuts

27

92.6

0.0

   
Other root & tuber vegetables

42

97.6

0.0

   
           
Vegetables with sauce

10

100.0

0.0

   
Vegetables, dried or paste

141

74.5

5.0

4b

3

Other vegetables/vegetable products

53

83.0

0.0

   
Total

2378

63.0

2.8

   
           
F. Other          
Cashews

32

68.8

3.1

 

1

Coconut & coconut products

8

100.0

0.0

   
Peanuts & peanut products

21

71.4

0.0

   
Other nuts & nut products

31

96.8

3.2

 

1

           
Edible seeds

28

92.9

3.6

1b

 
           
Vegetable oil, crude

4

100.0

0.0

   
Vegetable oil, refined

25

96.0

0.0

   
           
Spices & condiments & flavors

48

72.9

6.2

 

3

Beverages & water

17

94.1

0.0

   
Beverage bases

17

88.2

0.0

   
Coffee/tea/wine

11

90.9

0.0

   
Cocoa beans & chocolate products

13

92.3

0.0

   
Honey & other sweeteners

51

76.5

3.9

 

2

Baby foods/formula

2

100.0

0.0

   
Other food products,
incl. prepared foods

11

72.7

0.0

   
Nonfood items

6

50.0

33.3

 

2

Total

325

82.8

3.1

   
           

A-F Total

4921

64.4

2.6

   
 
 a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
 b Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.