• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Results and Discussion FY 2006

FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006   March 16, 2011

Results and Discussion

Appendices

  1. Analysis of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group in FY 2006
  2. Analysis of Import Samples by Commodity Group in FY 2006

Figures

  1. - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
  2. - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Import Samples by Commodity
  3. - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

Tables

  1. - Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in FY 2006
  2. - Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in FY 2006 (Table 2A shows countries with Fewer Than Ten Samples)
  3. - Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in FY 2006 Regulatory Monitoring
  4. - Summary of FY 2006 Domestic and Import Feed Samples
  5. - Residues Found in Domestic and Import Feeds in FY 2006
  6. - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Foods Other than Infant and Toddler in FY 2006
  7. - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 2006

Important Note for the Narrative Report and Data Files for FDA’s Pesticide Monitoring Program for FY 2006

This report and accompanying data files were originally published on FDA’s website in the summer of 2008. Several sections of the narrative report and all downloadable summary and analytical files for 2006 have been revised in February 2011. These changes were necessary due primary to corrections in FDA’s determination of pesticide residue coverage, and to a limited extent, a re-statement of samples analyzed for this year. The sections in the 2006 narrative report that have been revised have been bracketed in asterisks (*).

(*)
Files originally reported as “PROD2006” and CHEM2006” were separated into “PRODDOM2006”, PRODIMP2006”, CHEMDOM2006”, and CHEMIMP2006” files, reporting FDA samples of U.S. and foreign origin. In the “PRODIMP2006” and CHEMIMP2006” files, samples appearing as country “U.S.” reflect primarily entries of “U.S. Goods Returned” that were sampled in import status.


Results and Discussion - FY 2006

Regulatory Monitoring

Under regulatory monitoring, 5,711 samples were analyzed. Of these, 1,394 were of domestic foods and 4,317 were imported foods.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 1,394 domestic samples by commodity group with “No Residues Found,” “Residues Found; NoViolation,” and ”Violative” (a violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds an EPA tolerance or formal FDA Action Level, or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

Figure 1 - Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group for FY 2006

Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products, 226; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 21; Fish/Shellfish,35; Fruit,372; Vegetables,711; Other Foods, 29.

Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products, 226; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 21; Fish/Shellfish,35; Fruit,372; Vegetables,711; Other Foods, 29.

As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the domestic commodities analyzed in FY 2006; these two commodity groups comprised 77.7 % of the total number of domestic samples. In FY 2006, 98.4 % of all domestic foods analyzed by FDA were in compliance with EPA’s established residue tolerances and FDA formal action levels. The compliance rate for domestic foods for FYs 1996 to 2005 was between 97.6% and 99.3%.

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues detected, and the percent violative samples including the nature of the violation (over-tolerance vs. no tolerance). Of the 1,394 domestic samples, 69.9 % had no detectable residues and 1.6 % had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 43.8 % and 74.4 % of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected; 1.3 % of the fruit samples and 2.5 % of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group 88.9 % of the samples had no residues detected, and there were no samples with violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 94.3 % had no detectable residues, and there were no samples with violative residues. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, all 21 samples analyzed had no detectable residues. In the “Other” foods group that covers nuts, seeds, honey, spices, and animal feeds among other foods, 93.1 % of the samples had no detectable residues and there were no samples with violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 4,317 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 84.2 % of import samples. Overall for all imported foods, 94.6 % of the samples analyzed in FY 2005 were in compliance with EPA tolerances and FDA formal action levels. This compares with a compliance rate for imported foods for FYs 1996 to 2005 of 93.8 % to 98.4 %.

Appendix B contains detailed data on import samples. Of the 4,317 import samples analyzed, 66.5 % had no residues detected, while 5.4 % had violative residues. Imported fruits had 70.3 % of samples with no residues detected and 3.7 % samples with violative residues. Imported vegetables had 60.4 % of samples with no residues detected and 5.7 % samples with violative residues. No residues were found in 75.0 % of the imported milk/dairy products/eggs group and no violative residues were reported. No residues were found in 82.5 % of the imported fish/shellfish group and 3 violations (2.2 %) were found in this food group. In the imported grains and grain products group, 85.6 % had no detectable residues, and 2.2 % of the samples had violative residues. In the “Other” foods group consisting largely of nuts, oils, spices, and dietary supplements, 81.8 % of the samples analyzed had no residues detected, while 10.7 % of the samples contained violative residues.

Figure 2 - Results of Import Samples by Commodity Group FY 2006

Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products,139; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 20; Fish/Shellfish,137; Fruit,1,151; Vegetables,2,486; Other Foods,384.

igure 2 Result of Import Domestic FY 2006

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in FY 2006 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 2006 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-2005 is provided in the “Acknowledgements” section of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic:A total of 1,394 domestic samples were collected in FY 2006 from 41 states and Puerto Rico. The largest numbers of samples are usually collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables, although California, often the state with the greatest number of samples, dropped to ninth in FY 2006. This was believed to be due to the re-direction of local FDA resources to respond to the outbreaks that occurred that year. Table 1 lists the numbers of domestic samples from each state, in descending order.

Note - for Table 1, domestic samples with no state recorded in the “Sample 2006” file were attributed through other documentation.

Table 1 - Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed by State Origin in FY 2006
StateSamples CollectedStateSamples CollectedStateSamples CollectedStateSamples Collected
Minnesota185Ohio43Massachusetts13Connecticut4
Oregon120North Carolina37Puerto Rico12Nebraska4
New York 112Arizona34Delaware11New Hampshire4
Louisiana111Indiana30Kentucky 8South Carolina4
Michigan88New Jersey30North Dakota 8Vermont2
Illinois74Washington30Georgia 7West Virginia2
Florida69Iowa27Maine 6Colorado1
Virginia66Pennsylvania16Alaska 5Arkansas1
California59Kansas18Rhode Island 5Maryland1
Missouri58Montana16South Dakota 5New Mexico1
Wisconsin49Idaho15    

Puerto Rico - 12 samples. States of Alabama, Hawaii, Mississippi, Nevada, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming, and the District of Columbia - no samples collected.

Note - for Table 1, 70 domestic samples with no state recorded in “Sample 2006” file were attributed through other data as: OR 30; IL 8; MO 8; VA 8; KS 5; PA 5; KY 3; and CA, CO, IN 1 each.


Imports: A total of 4,317 samples representing food shipments from 87countries (excluding U.S. goods sampled in import status) were collected in FY 2006. Table 2 lists the number of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as in the past, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months. Table 2A lists the countries of origin that had ten or fewer samples collected in FY 2006.

Table 2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in FY 2006
StateSamples CollectedStateSamples Collected
Mexico1951Belgium26
China, Peoples Rep.397Vietnam26
Canada349France22
Dominican Republic214Poland22
Chile129Greece20
Peru92Australia19
India81Italy19
Netherlands79Greece18
Guatemala74Korea, Republic of (South)17
Ecuador72Egypt16
Turkey50Israel16
Costa Rica43Jordan16
Spain37Denmark15
New Zealand36South Africa14
Thailand34Brazil12
Argentina33Colombia12
Lebanon31Germany, Fed Rep12
Syrian Arab Republic30Pakistan12
Iran27Countries (49) w 10
Or fewer
156
Taiwan, Republic of27Unspecified *61
*Note: Unspecified samples consisted primarily of U.S. Goods Returned (U.S. products originally exported and subsequently returned).

Table 2A - Ten or Fewer Samples Collected and Analyzed in FY
2006 From the Following Countries:
  • Algeria
  • Austria
  • Bangladesh
  • Belarus
  • Belize
  • Bermuda
  • Bolivia
  • Bulgaria
  • Cameroon
  • Czech Republic
  • El Salvador
  • Ethiopia
  • Fiji
  • French Polynesia
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Madagascar
  • Malaysia
  • Morocco
  • Nicaragua
  • Nigeria
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Panama
  • Philippines
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Singapore
  • Somalia
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • Yugoslavia

Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison for FY 2006

In FY 2006, 1,394 domestic and 4,317 import samples were collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 30.1 % of the domestic samples and in 33.5 % of the import samples. Just 1.6 % of the domestic samples and 5.4 % of the import samples were found to contain violative residues. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was zero for domestic samples and 2.2 % for imports. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group for either domestic or import samples. No violations were found for the domestic fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, and only 2.2 % for the import samples of this group. Of domestic fruit samples, 1.3 % contained violative residues while 3.7 % of imports did. For vegetables, 2.5 % of domestic samples and 5.7 % of import samples contained violative residues. In the category "Other” (mostly nuts, edible seeds, honey, spices, and dietary supplements), the violation rates for domestic and import samples were zero and.10.7 %, respectively. As in FY 2005, ginseng and spices accounted for most of the samples with violative residues for the import “Other” foods group.

Of the domestic violative samples, four of the 23 violations (17.4 %) were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance or FDA formal action level. The balance, 19 or 82.6%, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance. Of the import samples with violative residues, 12 of 231 violations (5.2 %), were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance of FDA formal action level. The balance of import violations, 219 or 94.8 %, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance.

 

Pesticide Coverage

Table 3 lists the 451 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used in FY 2006; each of the 133 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk (*). Residues not previously looked for, or detected, are noted by a “+”.

Table 3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 2006 Regulatory Monitoringa,b,c
(E)-AZOXYSTROBIN *(Z)-AZOXYSTROBIN *1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HEPTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN +
1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN *1,2,4-TRIAZOLE2,3,5,6-TETRACHLOROANILINE *
2,4-DICHLORO-6-NITROBENZENEAMINE2,6-DICHLOROBENZAMIDE2,6-DIPN *
3-METHYL-4-NITROPHENOL4-(DICHLOROACETYL)-1-OXA-4-AZAPIRO 4.5 D4-(PHENYLAMINO)PHENOL *
4-CYCLOHEXENE-1,2-DICARBOXIMIDE, CIS-5-CHLORO-3-METHYL-4-NITRO-1H-PYRAZOLE6-BENZYLADENINE
ACEPHATE *ACETOCHLORACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL
ACRINATHRINALACHLORALDICARB (TOTAL) *
ALDRINALLETHRINALPHA CYPERMETHRIN
AMETRYNAMINOCARBANILAZINE
ARAMITEAROCLOR 5460ATRAZINE *
AZINPHOS-ETHYLAZINPHOS-METHYL (TOTAL) *AZOXYSTROBIN *
BENALAXYL *BENDIOCARBBENFLURALIN (BENEFIN)
BENODANILBENOMYLBENOXACOR
BENSULIDEBENZOYLPROP ETHYLBF 490-1
BF 490-2BF 490-9BHC (TOTAL) *
BIFENOXBIFENTHRIN *BINAPACRYL
BIPHENYL *BITERTANOL *BOSCALID *
BROMACILBROMOPHOSBROMOPHOS-ETHYL
BROMOPROPYLATE *BROMUCONAZOLEBTS 27919
BUFENCARBBULANBUPIRIMATE
BUPROFEZIN *BUTACHLORBUTRALIN
BUTYLATECADUSAFOSCAPTAFOL
CAPTAN *CARBARYL *CARBETAMIDE
CARBOFURAN (TOTAL) *CARBOPHENOTHION (TOTAL*)CARBOPHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG SULFONE
CARBOPHENOTHION SULFOXIDECARBOSULFANCARBOTHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG
CARBOXINCARFENTRAZONE ETHYL ESTERCGA 14128
CGA 150829CGA 171683CGA-232449
CHLORBENSIDECHLORBROMURONCHLORBUFAM
CHLORDANE (TOTAL) *CHLORDIMEFORMCHLORETHOXYFOS
CHLORFENAPYRCHLORFENVINPHOS (TOTAL)CHLORFLURECOL METHYL ESTER
CHLORIMURON-ETHYLCHLORMEPHOSCHLORNITROFEN
CHLOROBENZILATECHLORONEBCHLOROPROPYLATE
CHLOROTHALONIL *CHLOROXURONCHLORPROPHAM *
CHLORPYRIFOS *CHLORPYRIFOS METHYL *CHLORPYRIFOS OXYGEN ANALOG
CHLORPYRIFOS-D10 (DEUTERATED)CHLORTHIOPHOS *CHLORTHIOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG
CHLORTHIOPHOS SULFONECHLORTHIOPHOS SULFOXIDECLODINAFOP-PROPARGYL
CLOMAZONECLOQUINTOCET-MEXYLCOUMAPHOS
COUMAPHOS OXYGEN ANALOGCP 51214CROTOXYPHOS
CRUFOMATECYANAZINECYANOFENPHOS
CYANOPHOSCYCLOATE *CYCLURON
CYFLUTHRINCYHALOFOP BUTYL ESTERCYMOXANIL
CYPERMETHRIN *CYPRAZINECYPROCONAZOLE
CYPRODINIL *DCPA *DDT (TOTAL) *
DEFDELTAMETHRINDELTAMETHRIN, TRANS-
DEMETON-O (TOTAL)DEMETON-SDEMETON-S SULFONE
DEMETON-S SULFOXIDEDES N-ISOPROPYL ISOFENPHOSDESDIETHYL SIMAZINE
DESETHYLTERBUTHYLAZINEDES-ISOPROPYL IPRODIONEDESMETHYL DIPHENAMID
DESMETRYNDIALIFORDIALLATE
DIAZINON *DIAZINON OXYGEN ANALOGDICHLOBENIL *
DICHLOFENTHIONDICHLOFLUANIDDICHLONE
DICHLORVOS *DICLOBUTRAZOLDICLOFOP-METHYL
DICLORAN *DICOFOL (TOTAL) *DICROTOPHOS
DIELDRIN (TOTAL) *DIETHATYL-ETHYLDIETHOFENCARB *
DIFENOCONAZOLE *DILANDIMETHACHLOR
DIMETHAMETRYNDIMETHIPINDIMETHOATE *
DIMETHOMORPH *DINITRAMINEDINOBUTON
DINOCAPDIOXACARBDIOXATHION
DIPHENAMIDDIPHENYLAMINE *DISULFOTON
DISULFOTON SULFONEDISULFOTON SULFOXIDEDPX-MP062
EDIFENPHOSENDOSULFAN (TOTAL) *ENDRIN (TOTAL) *
EPNEPOXICONAZOLEEPTC
ESFENVALERATEETACONAZOLEETHALFLURALIN
ETHEPHONETHIOFENCARBETHIOLATE *
ETHION *ETHION OXYGEN ANALOGETHOFUMESATE
ETHOPROP *ETHOXYQUIN *ETOFENPROX *
ETOXAZOLEETRIDIAZOLE *ETRIMFOS
ETRIMFOS OXYGEN ANALOGFAMOXADONE * +FAMPHUR (TOTAL)
FENAMIDONEFENAMIPHOS (TOTAL)FENARIMOL *
FENBUCONAZOLE *FENFURAMFENHEXAMID *
FENITROTHION *FENITROTHION OXYGEN ANALOGFENOXAPROP-ETHYL
FENOXYCARBFENPROPATHRINFENPROPIMORPH
FENSONFENSULFOTHION (TOTAL)FENTHION (TOTAL) *
FENVALERATE *FIPRONIL *FLAMPROP-METHYL
FLAMPROP-M-ISOPROPYLFLUAZIFOP BUTYL ESTERFLUAZINAM
FLUCHLORALINFLUCYTHRINATE (PAYOFF)FLUDIOXONIL *
FLUSILAZOLE *FLUTOLANIL *FLUVALINATE *
FOE 5043 (FLUFENACET)FOLPET *FONOFOS
FONOFOS OXYGEN ANALOGFORMOTHIONFOSTHIAZATE (TOTAL)
FUBERIDAZOLEFURILAZOLEGARDONA (TETRACHLORVINPHOS)
HEPTACHLOR (TOTAL) *HEPTENOPHOSHEXACHLOROBENZENE *
HEXACONAZOLE *HEXAZINONEHEXYTHIAZOX
IBPIMAZALIL *IMAZAMETHABENZ METHYL ESTER (AC 222,2
IN-B2838IPRODIONE *IPRODIONE METABOLITE ISOMER *
ISAZOFOSISOCARBAMIDISOFENPHOS
ISOFENPHOS OXYGEN ANALOGISOPROCARB *ISOPROPALIN
ISOPROTHIOLANEISOXABENKRESOXIM-METHYL
LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN *LENACILLEPTOPHOS
LEPTOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOGLEPTOPHOS PHOTOPRODUCTLINDANE *
LINURON *MALATHION *MALATHION OXYGEN ANALOG
MB 46513MB45950MECARBAM
MEPHOSFOLANMERPHOSMETAFLUMIZONE
METALAXYL (TOTAL) *METALDEHYDEMETASYSTOX THIOL
METAZACHLORMETHABENZTHIAZURONMETHAMIDOPHOS *
METHIDATHION *METHIOCARB *METHOMYL *
METHOPROTRYNEMETHOXYCHLOR (TOTAL) *METOBROMURON
METOLACHLORMETOLCARBMETRIBUZIN (TOTAL) *
MEVINPHOS (TOTAL) *MGK 264MIREX (TOTAL)
MOLINATEMONOCROTOPHOS *MONOLINURON
MYCLOBUTANIL *N, N-DIALLYL DICHLOROACETAMIDENALED
NAPROPAMIDEN-DESMETHYL FLUCARBAZONENITRALIN
NITRAPYRINNITROFENNITROFLUORFEN
NITROTHAL-ISOPROPYLNOREANORFLURAZON (TOTAL) *
NUARIMOLOCTHILINONEOFURACE
OMETHOATE *OVEXOXADIAZON *
OXADIXYL *OXAMYL *OXAMYL OXIME METABOLITE
OXYDEMETON-METHYL (TOTAL)OXYFLUORFENOXYTHIOQUINOX
PACLOBUTRAZOLPARATHIONPARATHION OXYGEN ANALOG
PARATHION-METHYL *PARATHION-METHYL OXYGEN ANALOGPEBULATE
PENCONAZOLE *PENDIMETHALIN *PENTACHLOROBENZENE *
PENTACHLOROBENZONITRILE *PENTACHLOROPHENYL METHYL ETHERPERMETHRIN (TOTAL) *
PERTHANEPHENMEDIPHAMPHENOTHRIN
PHENTHOATEPHENYLPHENOL, O- *PHORATE
PHORATE METABOLITES (TOTAL)PHOSALONE *PHOSALONE OXYGEN ANALOG
PHOSMET *PHOSMET OXYGEN ANALOGPHOSPHAMIDON
PHOXIM OXYGEN ANALOGPIPERONYL BUTOXIDE *PIPEROPHOS
PIRIMICARB *PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYLPIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL OXYGEN ANALOG
PIRIMIPHOS-METHYL *PRETILACHLORPROBENAZOLE
PROCHLORAZ *PROCYAZINEPROCYMIDONE *
PROFENOFOS *PROFLURALINPROLAN
PROMECARBPROMETONPROMETRYN *
PRONAMIDE *PROPACHLORPROPANIL *
PROPARGITE *PROPAZINEPROPETAMPHOS
PROPHAMPROPICONAZOLE (TOTAL) *PROPOXUR
PROTHIOFOSPROTHOATEPYRACARBOLID
PYRACLOSTROBIN *PYRAZONPYRAZOPHOS (AFUGAN)
PYRETHRINS *PYRIDABEN *PYRIDAPHENTHION
PYRIMETHANIL *PYRIMIDINOL (DIAZINON HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTPYRIPROXYFEN
QUINALPHOS *QUINOXYFEN *QUINTOZENE (TOTAL) *
RONNELRONNEL OXYGEN ANALOGRPA 405862
RPA 408056RPA 717879SALITHION
SCHRADANSIMAZINESIMETRYNE
SODIUM CHLORIDESPIRODICLOFENSTROBANE
SULFALLATESULFOTEPPSULPHENONE
SULPROFOS (TOTAL)TCMTBTEBUCONAZOLE *
TEBUPRIMIFOSTEBUTHIURONTECNAZENE (TOTAL) *
TEFLUTHRINTEPPTERBACIL
TERBUFOS (TOTAL)TERBUMETONTERBUTHYLAZINE
TERBUTRYNTETRACONAZOLETETRADIFON *
TETRAIODOETHYLENETETRASULTHIABENDAZOLE *
THIAMETHOXAMTHIAZOPYRTHIOBENCARB
THIOMETONTHIONAZINTOLYLFLUANID *
TOXAPHENETRALKOXYDIMTRALOMETHRIN
TRANIDTRIADIMEFON (TOTAL) *TRIADIMENOL *
TRI-ALLATETRIAZAMATETRIAZOPHOS *
TRICHLORFONTRICYCLAZOLETRIDIPHANE
TRIETAZINETRIFLOXYSTROBIN *TRIFLUMIZOLE
TRIFLURALIN *TRIFLUSULFURON METHYL ESTERTRIMETHACARB (LANDRIN)
TRIMETHACARB (TOTAL*)TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE *TRIS(2-BUTOXYETHYL) PHOSPHATE *
TRIS(BETA-CHLOROETHYL) PHOSPHATE *VAMIDOTHION SULFONEVERNOLATE
VINCLOZOLIN (TOTAL) *VINCLOZOLIN METABOLITE EXMC
ZOXAMIDE  

aThe list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.

bSome of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.

cChemicals indicated by a (+) were not looked for by methods used in previous years.
(*)


Animal Feeds

In FY 2006, 335 feed samples (264 domestic surveillance and 71 import) were analyzed for pesticides by the FDA (Table 4). Of the 264 domestic surveillance samples, 196 (74.2 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 66 (25.0 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 2 (0.8%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance. Of the 71 import samples, 68 (95.8 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 3 (4.2 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 0 (0.0 %) contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance.

During FY 2006, 2 domestic surveillance samples of animal feed contained 2 residues that likely exceeded regulatory guidance. A vitamin premix sample collected by the New England District Office and manufactured in Canada contained 82,070 ppm of ethoxyquin. If this domestic import sample were added at ≥ 3.66 pounds per ton of a complete ration, then the complete ration would be expected to contain > 150 ppm of ethoxyquin (82,070 ppm x 3.66/2000 = 150.2 ppm). Levels above 150 ppm would exceed the feed additive tolerance for ethoxyquin in animal feed that was established by the FDA in 21 CFR 573.380.

In addition, a sample of tallow collected by the Chicago District Office contained 0.069 ppm of o-phenylphenol. Although the EPA has established tolerances ranging from 5 to 125 ppm on 22 different commodities for this fungicide in 40 CFR 180.129, no tolerances have been established for o-phenylphenol in animal fat.

In the 68 domestic surveillance and 3 import samples of animal feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 99 residues (82 quantifiable and 17 trace). Malathion and ethoxyquin were the most frequently found and accounted for 60.6% of all residues detected (Table 5).

Table 4 - Summary of the 264 Domestic Surveillance and 71 Import Samples of Animal Feed Analyzed for Pesticides by FDA in FY 2006
Type of FeedNumber of
Samples
Samples with No
Pesticide Residues
Samples Exceeding
Regulatory Guidance
#%#%
Whole/Ground Grains13812288.400.0
Plant By-products927177.200.0
Mixed Feed Rations664162.100.0
Animal By-products14857.117.1
Supplements/Misc.141285.717.7
Hay & Hay Products111090.900.0
TOTALS335264(78.8)2(0.6)

Table 5 - Summary of the Pesticides in the 68 Domestic Surveillance and 3 Import Samples of Animal Feed Collected and Analyzed by FDA in FY 2006 That Contained One or More Detectable Residues
PesticideNumber of Samples with
Trace1
Amounts
Quantifiable
Levels
Range2
(ppm)
Median2
(ppm)
Malathion2410.012 - 2.290.073
Ethoxyquin31160.015 - 82,0700.099
Chlorpyrifos-methyl240.016 - 1.160.111
Diazinon050.013 - 0.0640.020
DEF030.069 - 2.331.50
Chlorpyrifos120.028 - 6.00 
DDE+TDE+DDT120.052 - 0.43 
Permethrin (cis+trans)120.019 - 0.98 
Pirimiphos-methyl110.008 
Methoxychlor (p,p′+o,p′)20  
All others4660.028 - 0.390.070

1 The residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.

2 In samples containing quantifiable levels.

3 Ethoxyquin is approved as a pesticide (plant regulator) at levels up to 3 ppm in 40 CFR 180.178. Ethoxyquin is also a feed additive (anti-oxidant) that is approved at levels up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380).

4 N=1 for 2,6 DIPN (trace), azoxystrobin (trace), bitertanol (trace), cyprodinil (.063), diniconazole (trace), endosulfan I (.028 ppm), fenpropathrin (.39), o-phenylphenol (.069 ppm), piperonyl butoxide (.086 ppm), tetraconazole (trace), trifluralin (.071 ppm) and vinclozolin (trace).


Focused Sampling

As previously described, FDA conducts "focused sampling" by means of short-term, regulatory based, field assignments. In FY 2006, there was one pesticide-related field assignment issued and it was "Sample Collection and Analysis of Imported Dietary Supplement and Botanical Products for Pesticides and Toxic Elements." Samples of imported dietary supplement products, including Ginkgo, Garcinia cambogia, Angelica, Kava kava, and St John's wort were to be collected. Sampling districts were also asked to continue collection of Citrus aurantium, Milk thistle, Echinacea, and Saw palmetto from a FY 2004 assignment to obtain additional samples of these products. The supplement products to be collected were to be in bulk dried, powdered, or ground forms, or bulk finished dosage form supplements such as capsules and tablets.

Results: Eighty-seven samples were collected and analyzed and consisted of Angelica (19 samples), Milk thistle (18), St. John's wort (13, Ginkgo (13), Kava kava (10), Echinacea (7), Garcinia cambogia (4), Citrus aurantium (2), and Saw palmetto (1). Two samples were found to contain violative pesticide residues - a sample of St. John's wort extract from Canada for permethrin and a sample of Echinacea tablets from Australia for dieldrin and p,p' DDT. Detailed results for these samples can be found in the Access database tables provided on FDA's internet website (see "Acknowledgments" section). The tables accompany this FY 2006 narrative report on the web.

FDA Total Diet Study

Of the over 300 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, residues of 112 individual compounds were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here for FY 2006 (Market Baskets 05-4, 06-1, 06-2, and 06-3). The 112 individual compounds detected consisted of 84 parent pesticides of which 32 had one or more related compounds (e.g., isomers, metabolites) detected as well.

Table 6 lists the 25 most frequently found residues in the TDS foods other than baby foods (those found in 2% or more of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in FY 2006 (916 total samples). The five most frequently observed chemicals were: DDT, malathion, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and dieldrin, and are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these and other residues listed in Table 6 were typically below regulatory limits.

Table 6 - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Foods Other than Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 2006 1
PesticidebTotal No. of FindingsOccurrence, %Range, ppm
DDT232250.0001 - 0.109
Endosulfan147160.0001 - 0.0756
Malathion147160.0002 - 0.069
Chlorpyrifos methyl136150.0001 - 0.028
Dieldrin122130.0001 - 0.022
Chlorpyrifos6870.0001 - 0.044
Permethrin6270.0003 - 1.796
Chlorpropham5460.0005 - 1.513
Thiabendazole34650.001 - 0.508
Carbaryl44550.001 - 0.217
Quintozene2530.0001 - 0.0149
Cypermethrin2330.001 - 0.169
Lindane2120.0001 - 0.0007
Dicamba52120.0003 - 0.011
Phenylphenol, o-2020.005 - 0.754
Methamidophos2020.0009 - 0.092
Captan1920.0003 - 1.818
Acephate1920.001 - 0.436
Heptachlor1920.0001 - 0.002
Hexachlorobenzene1820.0001 - 0.0006
Dicofol1720.0001 - 0.006
Pirimiphos methyl1720.0009 - 0.525
Clopyralid51620.0004 - 0.012
DCPA1620.0002 - 0.007
Toxaphene1520.0007 - 0.059

1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 916 total items.

2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide

3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 67 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 268 total items) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.

4Reflects overall incidence; however, only 82 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 328 total items) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.

5Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 64 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.


The TDS program also collects and analyzes infant and toddler foods. Table 7 provides the frequency of occurrence of the 25 pesticide residues found in 2% or more of these samples in the four collections of these foods (215 samples total) in FY 2006 and the ranges of levels found.

Table 7 - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in the Total Diet Study for Foods Other than Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 2006 1
Pesticide2Total No. of FindingsOccurence, %Range, ppm
Thiabendazole348220.001 - 0.343
Endosulfan36170.0001 - 0.0068
Carbaryl431140.001 - 0.034
Phenylphenol, o-23110.001 - 0.075
Chlorpropham22100.0008 - 0.028
DDT21100.0001 - 0.003
Chlorpyrifos21100.0001 - 0.002
Permethrin2090.0003 - 0.035
Dieldrin1570.0001 - 0.0007
Chlorpyrifos methyl1360.0002 - 0.022
Malathion1360.001 - 0.058
Diphenylamine1260.002 - 0.023
Benomyl31260.010 - 0.042
Captan1150.024 - 0.119
Dichloran730.0002 - 0.014
Quinclorac5730.0005 - 0.001
Ethylenethiourea6630.001 - 0.013
Lambda-cyhalothrin630.001 - 0.003
Cyprodinil630.001 - 0.127
Fenpropathrin520.005 - 0.020
Quintozene420.0001 - 0.002
Phosmet420.004 - 0.012
Piperonyl butoxide420.002 - 0.011
Methamidophos420.004 - 0.017
Fenvalerate420.003 - 0.013

1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 215 total items.

2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide

3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 35-36 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 142 total items) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.

4 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 35-36 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 142 total items) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamate pesticides.

5 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 6-7 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 27 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.

6 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 29-30 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 119 total items) were analyzed for Ethylenethiourea.


Summary

Regulatory Monitoring - FY 2006

(*)
A total of 5,711 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 87 countries were analyzed for pesticide residues in FY 2006. No residues were found in 69.9 % of domestic and in 66.5 % of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in FY 2006. Only 1.6 % of domestic and 5.4 % of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for FY 2006 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (6).

FDA also collected and analyzed 264 domestic and 71 import animal feed samples for pesticides. No residues were found in 74.2 % of the domestic feed samples and in 95.8% of the import feed samples.

Figure 3 - Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples for FY 2006

Figure 3  Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples for FY 2006

Figure 3 color details 

 

(*)

Total Diet Study

In FY 2006, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports. The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. Results of baby foods tested in FY 2006 (and earlier years) also provide evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in these foods.

(*)

Appendix A - Results of FY 2006 Domestic Samples by Commodity Group
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples Analyzed
Samples With No
Residues %

Samples
Violativea %
Violations
Over
Tolerance #
Violations No
Tolerance #
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products1100000
Corn & corn products7294.4000
Oats & oat products5100000
Rice & rice products1464.3000
Soybeans & soybean products44100000
Wheat & wheat products7681.3000
Other grains & grain products4100000
Breakfast cereals2100000
Bakery products, crackers, etc.683.3000
Snack Foods2100000
Total22688.9000
       
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products13100000
Eggs4100000
Milk/cream & milk products4100000
Total21100000
       
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Product
Fish and Fish Products13100000
Shellfish & Crustaceans1794.1000
Aquaculture Seafood580.0000
Total3594.3000
       
D. FruitsBlackberries2100000
Blueberries1782.4000
Boysenberries00000
Cranberries1662.5000
Grapes, raisins1100000
Raspberries450.0000
Strawberries3844.7000
Grapefruit10.0000
lemons2100000
Oranges2142.9000
Other citrus fruit425.0000
Apples14036.40.701
Pears1741.2000
Other core fruit00000
Apricots10.010001
Avocadoes2100000
Cherries633.3000
Nectarines616.716.701
Peaches5219.21.910
Plums1100000
Olives1100000
Bananas, plantains5100000
Cantaloupe450.0000
Watermelon3100000
Other melons333.3000
Other fruits850.012.501
Apple juice13100000
Orange juice1100000
Other fruit juices3100000
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings00000
Total37243.81.314
       
E. VegetablesCorn56100000
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)1894.45.601
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)3473.5000
Bean & Pea Sprouts3100.0000
Other beans & peas & products9393.51.101
Cucumbers2580.0000
Eggplant977.811.101
Okra580.020.001
Peppers, hot00000
Peppers, sweet1573.3000
Squash/pumpkins6167.23.31a1
Tomatoes4580.0000
Other fruiting vegetables757.142.903
Asparagus6100000
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage20.050.001
Broccoli1283.38.310
Cabbage2479.2000
Cauliflower00000
Celery30000
Collards425.0000
Endive1100000
Kale450.025.01a0
Lettuce, head785.7000
Lettuce, leaf3844.72.601
Mustard greens333.3000
Spinach1233.3000
Other leaf & stem vegetables1866.75.601
Mushrooms and Truffles1384.6000
Carrots955.622.202
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots2090.0000
Potatoes8862.5000
Radishes50.020.001
Red beets1338.57.701
Sweet potatoes1687.5000
Turnips00.0000
Other root & tuber vegetables3070.0000
Other vegetables/vegetable products1283.3000
Total71174.42.5315
       
F. OtherAlmonds00000
Beverages & water1100000
Ginseng (including teas)00000
Beet Sugar6100000
BeetPowder (food color)1100000
Peanuts2100000
Pecans3100000
Spices, condiments, & flavors00000
Other nuts, edible seeds2100000
Baby/Infant Foods11100000
Multiple foods (dinners, soup)00000
Nonfood items (animal feed)333.3000
Total2993.10.000
       
Total A-F 139469.91.6419
       

 

a Sample contained both a residue over an established tolerance or action level and a residue that has no established tolerance for the commodity.


Appendix B - Results of FY 2006 Import Samples by Commodity Group
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples Analyzed
Samples Without
Residues %
Samples
Violativea %
Over
Tolerance Violations #
No
Tolerance Violations #
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products9100000
Corn & corn products6100000
Oats & oat products12100000
Rice & rice products2572.012.003
Wheat & wheat products2190.5000
Other grains & grain products2176.2000
Breakfast cereals875.0000
Bakery products, crackers, etc.2483.3000
Pasta and noodles6100000
Snack foods7100000
Total13985.62.203
       
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products475.0000
Eggs (includes duck & quail)757.1000
Milk/cream & milk products988.9000
Total2075.0000
       
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products10786.92.803
Shellfish & Crustaceans650.0000
Other Aquatic Animals & Products10.0000
Aquaculture Seafood2373.9000
Total13782.52.203
       
D. FruitsBlackberries5056.010.005
Blueberries3476.5000
Cranberries875.0000
Grapes, raisins2532.08.002
Raspberries4158.52.401
Strawberries10556.21.001
Other berries944.422.202
Clementines60.033.302
Grapefruit00.0000
Lemons10.0000
Limes666.7000
Oranges1136.4000
Other citrus fruit250.0000
Apples3122.6000
Pears2875.03.601
Other pome fruit1100000
Apricots812.5000
Avocadoes17100000
Cherries1850.011.102
Dates11100000
Nectarines40.0000
Olives1788.2000
Peaches2171.4000
Plums/Prunes1030.0000
Other pit fruit2100000
Ackees, lychees, longans1100000
Bananas, plantains2475.0000
Breadfruit, jackfruit9100000
Figs3100000
Guavas475.0000
Kiwi fruit683.3000
Mangoes2483.38.302
Papaya6944.911.617
Pineapple3345.53.001
Pepinos3756.810.804
Other sub-tropical fruit1080.010.001
Bitter melon2770.418.505
Cantaloupe425.0000
Honeydew540.0000
Watermelon580.0000
Other melons5100000
Apple juice53100000
Citrus juice38100000
Subtropical juice/milk/drink/nectar60100000
Other fruit juices7391.8000
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings17584.61.703
Other fruits and fruit products2050.015.003
Total115170.33.7142
       
E. VegetablesCorn1593.3000
Bean sprouts and seeds366.733.301
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)8662.812.8011
Kidney beans14100000
Mung beans5100000
Soybeans11100000
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)8957.36.706
Other beans & peas & products incl dried/paste17581.73.416
Cucumbers10944.03.704
Eggplant3190.3000
Okra6100000
Peppers, hot50845.37.1135
Peppers, sweet16145.35.008
Squash/pumpkins19248.41.603
Tomatoes/Tomatillos18961.42.605
Choyote2479.24.201
Other fruiting vegetables5472.211.106
Artichokes4100000
Asparagus3789.2000
Bamboo shoots4100000
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage128.38.310
Broccoli4379.1000
Cabbage1681.2000
Cauliflower1181.8000
Celery1457.1000
Collards10.01001a0
Endive785.7000
Kale40.0000
Lettuce, head2070.05.001
Lettuce, leaf742.9000
Mustard greens742.9000
Radicchio3100000
Spinach2568.04.001
Other leaf & stem vegetables14773.56.8010
Mushrooms and Truffles1894.4000
Carrots4278.62.401
Cassava10100000
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots12062.52.503
Potatoes2857.114.304
Radishes1435.7000
Red beets1435.721.403
Sweet potatoes875.025.011
Taro1883.3000
Turnips2100000
Water chestnuts7100000
Other root & tuber vegetables1145.59.102
Vegetables with sauce988.911.101
Other vegetables, dried or paste13658.815.42a19
Other vegetables/vegetable products1580.013.302
Total248660.45.77134
       
F. OtherCashews12100000
Coconut & coconut products1100000
Peanuts & peanut products5100000
Other nuts & nut products2892.9000
Edible seeds & seed products3083.36.702
Vegetable oil, crude3100000
Vegetable oil, refined1894.4000
Oil Seed Stock4100000
Spices & condiments & flavors3754.137.8014b
Beverages & water683.3000
Beverage bases977.8000
Coffee/tea/wine1794.1000
Candy, chocolate, cocoa products20100000
Honey & other sweeteners2692.3000
Baby foods/formula1100000
Dietary supplements14977.916.14a20
Other food products, incl. prepared foods1668.86.201
Nonfood items2100000
Total38481.810.7437
       
Totals A-F 431766.55.412219

a Sample contained both residues with no tolerance and residues over tolerance.

b Includes 12 paprika samples from a single country.
(*)


FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006   March 16, 2011