Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Results and Discussion FY 2006
FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006 March 16, 2011
Results and Discussion
- Regulatory Monitoring
- Geographic Coverage
- Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison
- Pesticide Coverage
- Animal Feeds
- Focused Sampling
- Total Diet Study
- Regulatory Monitoring
- Total Diet Study
- Analysis of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group in FY 2006
- Analysis of Import Samples by Commodity Group in FY 2006
- - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
- - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Import Samples by Commodity
- - Summary of FY 2006 Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples
- - Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in FY 2006
- - Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in FY 2006 (Table 2A shows countries with Fewer Than Ten Samples)
- - Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in FY 2006 Regulatory Monitoring
- - Summary of FY 2006 Domestic and Import Feed Samples
- - Residues Found in Domestic and Import Feeds in FY 2006
- - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Foods Other than Infant and Toddler in FY 2006
- - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 2006
Important Note for the Narrative Report and Data Files for FDA’s Pesticide Monitoring Program for FY 2006
This report and accompanying data files were originally published on FDA’s website in the summer of 2008. Several sections of the narrative report and all downloadable summary and analytical files for 2006 have been revised in February 2011. These changes were necessary due primary to corrections in FDA’s determination of pesticide residue coverage, and to a limited extent, a re-statement of samples analyzed for this year. The sections in the 2006 narrative report that have been revised have been bracketed in asterisks (*).
Files originally reported as “PROD2006” and CHEM2006” were separated into “PRODDOM2006”, PRODIMP2006”, CHEMDOM2006”, and CHEMIMP2006” files, reporting FDA samples of U.S. and foreign origin. In the “PRODIMP2006” and CHEMIMP2006” files, samples appearing as country “U.S.” reflect primarily entries of “U.S. Goods Returned” that were sampled in import status.
Results and Discussion - FY 2006
Under regulatory monitoring, 5,711 samples were analyzed. Of these, 1,394 were of domestic foods and 4,317 were imported foods.
Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 1,394 domestic samples by commodity group with “No Residues Found,” “Residues Found; NoViolation,” and ”Violative” (a violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds an EPA tolerance or formal FDA Action Level, or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)
Figure 1 - Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group for FY 2006
Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products, 226; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 21; Fish/Shellfish,35; Fruit,372; Vegetables,711; Other Foods, 29.
As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the domestic commodities analyzed in FY 2006; these two commodity groups comprised 77.7 % of the total number of domestic samples. In FY 2006, 98.4 % of all domestic foods analyzed by FDA were in compliance with EPA’s established residue tolerances and FDA formal action levels. The compliance rate for domestic foods for FYs 1996 to 2005 was between 97.6% and 99.3%.
Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues detected, and the percent violative samples including the nature of the violation (over-tolerance vs. no tolerance). Of the 1,394 domestic samples, 69.9 % had no detectable residues and 1.6 % had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 43.8 % and 74.4 % of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected; 1.3 % of the fruit samples and 2.5 % of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group 88.9 % of the samples had no residues detected, and there were no samples with violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 94.3 % had no detectable residues, and there were no samples with violative residues. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, all 21 samples analyzed had no detectable residues. In the “Other” foods group that covers nuts, seeds, honey, spices, and animal feeds among other foods, 93.1 % of the samples had no detectable residues and there were no samples with violative residues.
Findings by commodity group for the 4,317 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 84.2 % of import samples. Overall for all imported foods, 94.6 % of the samples analyzed in FY 2005 were in compliance with EPA tolerances and FDA formal action levels. This compares with a compliance rate for imported foods for FYs 1996 to 2005 of 93.8 % to 98.4 %.
Appendix B contains detailed data on import samples. Of the 4,317 import samples analyzed, 66.5 % had no residues detected, while 5.4 % had violative residues. Imported fruits had 70.3 % of samples with no residues detected and 3.7 % samples with violative residues. Imported vegetables had 60.4 % of samples with no residues detected and 5.7 % samples with violative residues. No residues were found in 75.0 % of the imported milk/dairy products/eggs group and no violative residues were reported. No residues were found in 82.5 % of the imported fish/shellfish group and 3 violations (2.2 %) were found in this food group. In the imported grains and grain products group, 85.6 % had no detectable residues, and 2.2 % of the samples had violative residues. In the “Other” foods group consisting largely of nuts, oils, spices, and dietary supplements, 81.8 % of the samples analyzed had no residues detected, while 10.7 % of the samples contained violative residues.
Figure 2 - Results of Import Samples by Commodity Group FY 2006
Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products,139; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 20; Fish/Shellfish,137; Fruit,1,151; Vegetables,2,486; Other Foods,384.
Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in FY 2006 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 2006 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-2005 is provided in the “Acknowledgements” section of this report.
Domestic:A total of 1,394 domestic samples were collected in FY 2006 from 41 states and Puerto Rico. The largest numbers of samples are usually collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables, although California, often the state with the greatest number of samples, dropped to ninth in FY 2006. This was believed to be due to the re-direction of local FDA resources to respond to the outbreaks that occurred that year. Table 1 lists the numbers of domestic samples from each state, in descending order.
Note - for Table 1, domestic samples with no state recorded in the “Sample 2006” file were attributed through other documentation.
|State||Samples Collected||State||Samples Collected||State||Samples Collected||State||Samples Collected|
|Oregon||120||North Carolina||37||Puerto Rico||12||Nebraska||4|
|New York||112||Arizona||34||Delaware||11||New Hampshire||4|
|Michigan||88||New Jersey||30||North Dakota||8||Vermont||2|
|Missouri||58||Montana||16||South Dakota||5||New Mexico||1|
Puerto Rico - 12 samples. States of Alabama, Hawaii, Mississippi, Nevada, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming, and the District of Columbia - no samples collected.
Note - for Table 1, 70 domestic samples with no state recorded in “Sample 2006” file were attributed through other data as: OR 30; IL 8; MO 8; VA 8; KS 5; PA 5; KY 3; and CA, CO, IN 1 each.
Imports: A total of 4,317 samples representing food shipments from 87countries (excluding U.S. goods sampled in import status) were collected in FY 2006. Table 2 lists the number of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as in the past, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months. Table 2A lists the countries of origin that had ten or fewer samples collected in FY 2006.
|State||Samples Collected||State||Samples Collected|
|China, Peoples Rep.||397||Vietnam||26|
|Guatemala||74||Korea, Republic of (South)||17|
|New Zealand||36||South Africa||14|
|Lebanon||31||Germany, Fed Rep||12|
|Syrian Arab Republic||30||Pakistan||12|
|Iran||27||Countries (49) w 10|
|Taiwan, Republic of||27||Unspecified *||61|
|Table 2A - Ten or Fewer Samples Collected and Analyzed in FY|
2006 From the Following Countries:
Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison for FY 2006
In FY 2006, 1,394 domestic and 4,317 import samples were collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 30.1 % of the domestic samples and in 33.5 % of the import samples. Just 1.6 % of the domestic samples and 5.4 % of the import samples were found to contain violative residues. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was zero for domestic samples and 2.2 % for imports. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group for either domestic or import samples. No violations were found for the domestic fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, and only 2.2 % for the import samples of this group. Of domestic fruit samples, 1.3 % contained violative residues while 3.7 % of imports did. For vegetables, 2.5 % of domestic samples and 5.7 % of import samples contained violative residues. In the category "Other” (mostly nuts, edible seeds, honey, spices, and dietary supplements), the violation rates for domestic and import samples were zero and.10.7 %, respectively. As in FY 2005, ginseng and spices accounted for most of the samples with violative residues for the import “Other” foods group.
Of the domestic violative samples, four of the 23 violations (17.4 %) were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance or FDA formal action level. The balance, 19 or 82.6%, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance. Of the import samples with violative residues, 12 of 231 violations (5.2 %), were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance of FDA formal action level. The balance of import violations, 219 or 94.8 %, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance.
Table 3 lists the 451 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used in FY 2006; each of the 133 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk (*). Residues not previously looked for, or detected, are noted by a “+”.
|Table 3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 2006 Regulatory Monitoringa,b,c|
|(E)-AZOXYSTROBIN *||(Z)-AZOXYSTROBIN *||1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HEPTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN +|
|1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN *||1,2,4-TRIAZOLE||2,3,5,6-TETRACHLOROANILINE *|
|3-METHYL-4-NITROPHENOL||4-(DICHLOROACETYL)-1-OXA-4-AZAPIRO 4.5 D||4-(PHENYLAMINO)PHENOL *|
|ACRINATHRIN||ALACHLOR||ALDICARB (TOTAL) *|
|ARAMITE||AROCLOR 5460||ATRAZINE *|
|AZINPHOS-ETHYL||AZINPHOS-METHYL (TOTAL) *||AZOXYSTROBIN *|
|BENALAXYL *||BENDIOCARB||BENFLURALIN (BENEFIN)|
|BENSULIDE||BENZOYLPROP ETHYL||BF 490-1|
|BF 490-2||BF 490-9||BHC (TOTAL) *|
|BIPHENYL *||BITERTANOL *||BOSCALID *|
|BROMOPROPYLATE *||BROMUCONAZOLE||BTS 27919|
|CAPTAN *||CARBARYL *||CARBETAMIDE|
|CARBOFURAN (TOTAL) *||CARBOPHENOTHION (TOTAL*)||CARBOPHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG SULFONE|
|CARBOPHENOTHION SULFOXIDE||CARBOSULFAN||CARBOTHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG|
|CARBOXIN||CARFENTRAZONE ETHYL ESTER||CGA 14128|
|CGA 150829||CGA 171683||CGA-232449|
|CHLORDANE (TOTAL) *||CHLORDIMEFORM||CHLORETHOXYFOS|
|CHLORFENAPYR||CHLORFENVINPHOS (TOTAL)||CHLORFLURECOL METHYL ESTER|
|CHLOROTHALONIL *||CHLOROXURON||CHLORPROPHAM *|
|CHLORPYRIFOS *||CHLORPYRIFOS METHYL *||CHLORPYRIFOS OXYGEN ANALOG|
|CHLORPYRIFOS-D10 (DEUTERATED)||CHLORTHIOPHOS *||CHLORTHIOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG|
|CHLORTHIOPHOS SULFONE||CHLORTHIOPHOS SULFOXIDE||CLODINAFOP-PROPARGYL|
|COUMAPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG||CP 51214||CROTOXYPHOS|
|CYFLUTHRIN||CYHALOFOP BUTYL ESTER||CYMOXANIL|
|CYPRODINIL *||DCPA *||DDT (TOTAL) *|
|DEMETON-O (TOTAL)||DEMETON-S||DEMETON-S SULFONE|
|DEMETON-S SULFOXIDE||DES N-ISOPROPYL ISOFENPHOS||DESDIETHYL SIMAZINE|
|DESETHYLTERBUTHYLAZINE||DES-ISOPROPYL IPRODIONE||DESMETHYL DIPHENAMID|
|DIAZINON *||DIAZINON OXYGEN ANALOG||DICHLOBENIL *|
|DICLORAN *||DICOFOL (TOTAL) *||DICROTOPHOS|
|DIELDRIN (TOTAL) *||DIETHATYL-ETHYL||DIETHOFENCARB *|
|DISULFOTON SULFONE||DISULFOTON SULFOXIDE||DPX-MP062|
|EDIFENPHOS||ENDOSULFAN (TOTAL) *||ENDRIN (TOTAL) *|
|ETHION *||ETHION OXYGEN ANALOG||ETHOFUMESATE|
|ETHOPROP *||ETHOXYQUIN *||ETOFENPROX *|
|ETRIMFOS OXYGEN ANALOG||FAMOXADONE * +||FAMPHUR (TOTAL)|
|FENAMIDONE||FENAMIPHOS (TOTAL)||FENARIMOL *|
|FENBUCONAZOLE *||FENFURAM||FENHEXAMID *|
|FENITROTHION *||FENITROTHION OXYGEN ANALOG||FENOXAPROP-ETHYL|
|FENSON||FENSULFOTHION (TOTAL)||FENTHION (TOTAL) *|
|FENVALERATE *||FIPRONIL *||FLAMPROP-METHYL|
|FLAMPROP-M-ISOPROPYL||FLUAZIFOP BUTYL ESTER||FLUAZINAM|
|FLUCHLORALIN||FLUCYTHRINATE (PAYOFF)||FLUDIOXONIL *|
|FLUSILAZOLE *||FLUTOLANIL *||FLUVALINATE *|
|FOE 5043 (FLUFENACET)||FOLPET *||FONOFOS|
|FONOFOS OXYGEN ANALOG||FORMOTHION||FOSTHIAZATE (TOTAL)|
|HEPTACHLOR (TOTAL) *||HEPTENOPHOS||HEXACHLOROBENZENE *|
|IBP||IMAZALIL *||IMAZAMETHABENZ METHYL ESTER (AC 222,2|
|IN-B2838||IPRODIONE *||IPRODIONE METABOLITE ISOMER *|
|ISOFENPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG||ISOPROCARB *||ISOPROPALIN|
|LEPTOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG||LEPTOPHOS PHOTOPRODUCT||LINDANE *|
|LINURON *||MALATHION *||MALATHION OXYGEN ANALOG|
|METALAXYL (TOTAL) *||METALDEHYDE||METASYSTOX THIOL|
|METHIDATHION *||METHIOCARB *||METHOMYL *|
|METHOPROTRYNE||METHOXYCHLOR (TOTAL) *||METOBROMURON|
|METOLACHLOR||METOLCARB||METRIBUZIN (TOTAL) *|
|MEVINPHOS (TOTAL) *||MGK 264||MIREX (TOTAL)|
|MYCLOBUTANIL *||N, N-DIALLYL DICHLOROACETAMIDE||NALED|
|NITROTHAL-ISOPROPYL||NOREA||NORFLURAZON (TOTAL) *|
|OMETHOATE *||OVEX||OXADIAZON *|
|OXADIXYL *||OXAMYL *||OXAMYL OXIME METABOLITE|
|PACLOBUTRAZOL||PARATHION||PARATHION OXYGEN ANALOG|
|PARATHION-METHYL *||PARATHION-METHYL OXYGEN ANALOG||PEBULATE|
|PENCONAZOLE *||PENDIMETHALIN *||PENTACHLOROBENZENE *|
|PENTACHLOROBENZONITRILE *||PENTACHLOROPHENYL METHYL ETHER||PERMETHRIN (TOTAL) *|
|PHENTHOATE||PHENYLPHENOL, O- *||PHORATE|
|PHORATE METABOLITES (TOTAL)||PHOSALONE *||PHOSALONE OXYGEN ANALOG|
|PHOSMET *||PHOSMET OXYGEN ANALOG||PHOSPHAMIDON|
|PHOXIM OXYGEN ANALOG||PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE *||PIPEROPHOS|
|PIRIMICARB *||PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL||PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL OXYGEN ANALOG|
|PROCHLORAZ *||PROCYAZINE||PROCYMIDONE *|
|PRONAMIDE *||PROPACHLOR||PROPANIL *|
|PROPHAM||PROPICONAZOLE (TOTAL) *||PROPOXUR|
|PYRACLOSTROBIN *||PYRAZON||PYRAZOPHOS (AFUGAN)|
|PYRETHRINS *||PYRIDABEN *||PYRIDAPHENTHION|
|PYRIMETHANIL *||PYRIMIDINOL (DIAZINON HYDROLYSIS PRODUCT||PYRIPROXYFEN|
|QUINALPHOS *||QUINOXYFEN *||QUINTOZENE (TOTAL) *|
|RONNEL||RONNEL OXYGEN ANALOG||RPA 405862|
|RPA 408056||RPA 717879||SALITHION|
|SULPROFOS (TOTAL)||TCMTB||TEBUCONAZOLE *|
|TEBUPRIMIFOS||TEBUTHIURON||TECNAZENE (TOTAL) *|
|TRANID||TRIADIMEFON (TOTAL) *||TRIADIMENOL *|
|TRIFLURALIN *||TRIFLUSULFURON METHYL ESTER||TRIMETHACARB (LANDRIN)|
|TRIMETHACARB (TOTAL*)||TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE *||TRIS(2-BUTOXYETHYL) PHOSPHATE *|
|TRIS(BETA-CHLOROETHYL) PHOSPHATE *||VAMIDOTHION SULFONE||VERNOLATE|
|VINCLOZOLIN (TOTAL) *||VINCLOZOLIN METABOLITE E||XMC|
aThe list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
bSome of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
cChemicals indicated by a (+) were not looked for by methods used in previous years.
In FY 2006, 335 feed samples (264 domestic surveillance and 71 import) were analyzed for pesticides by the FDA (Table 4). Of the 264 domestic surveillance samples, 196 (74.2 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 66 (25.0 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 2 (0.8%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance. Of the 71 import samples, 68 (95.8 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 3 (4.2 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 0 (0.0 %) contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance.
During FY 2006, 2 domestic surveillance samples of animal feed contained 2 residues that likely exceeded regulatory guidance. A vitamin premix sample collected by the New England District Office and manufactured in Canada contained 82,070 ppm of ethoxyquin. If this domestic import sample were added at ≥ 3.66 pounds per ton of a complete ration, then the complete ration would be expected to contain > 150 ppm of ethoxyquin (82,070 ppm x 3.66/2000 = 150.2 ppm). Levels above 150 ppm would exceed the feed additive tolerance for ethoxyquin in animal feed that was established by the FDA in 21 CFR 573.380.
In addition, a sample of tallow collected by the Chicago District Office contained 0.069 ppm of o-phenylphenol. Although the EPA has established tolerances ranging from 5 to 125 ppm on 22 different commodities for this fungicide in 40 CFR 180.129, no tolerances have been established for o-phenylphenol in animal fat.
In the 68 domestic surveillance and 3 import samples of animal feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 99 residues (82 quantifiable and 17 trace). Malathion and ethoxyquin were the most frequently found and accounted for 60.6% of all residues detected (Table 5).
|Type of Feed||Number of|
|Samples with No|
|Mixed Feed Rations||66||41||62.1||0||0.0|
|Hay & Hay Products||11||10||90.9||0||0.0|
|Pesticide||Number of Samples with|
|Malathion||2||41||0.012 - 2.29||0.073|
|Ethoxyquin3||1||16||0.015 - 82,070||0.099|
|Chlorpyrifos-methyl||2||4||0.016 - 1.16||0.111|
|Diazinon||0||5||0.013 - 0.064||0.020|
|DEF||0||3||0.069 - 2.33||1.50|
|Chlorpyrifos||1||2||0.028 - 6.00|
|DDE+TDE+DDT||1||2||0.052 - 0.43|
|Permethrin (cis+trans)||1||2||0.019 - 0.98|
|All others4||6||6||0.028 - 0.39||0.070|
1 The residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.
2 In samples containing quantifiable levels.
3 Ethoxyquin is approved as a pesticide (plant regulator) at levels up to 3 ppm in 40 CFR 180.178. Ethoxyquin is also a feed additive (anti-oxidant) that is approved at levels up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380).
4 N=1 for 2,6 DIPN (trace), azoxystrobin (trace), bitertanol (trace), cyprodinil (.063), diniconazole (trace), endosulfan I (.028 ppm), fenpropathrin (.39), o-phenylphenol (.069 ppm), piperonyl butoxide (.086 ppm), tetraconazole (trace), trifluralin (.071 ppm) and vinclozolin (trace).
As previously described, FDA conducts "focused sampling" by means of short-term, regulatory based, field assignments. In FY 2006, there was one pesticide-related field assignment issued and it was "Sample Collection and Analysis of Imported Dietary Supplement and Botanical Products for Pesticides and Toxic Elements." Samples of imported dietary supplement products, including Ginkgo, Garcinia cambogia, Angelica, Kava kava, and St John's wort were to be collected. Sampling districts were also asked to continue collection of Citrus aurantium, Milk thistle, Echinacea, and Saw palmetto from a FY 2004 assignment to obtain additional samples of these products. The supplement products to be collected were to be in bulk dried, powdered, or ground forms, or bulk finished dosage form supplements such as capsules and tablets.
Results: Eighty-seven samples were collected and analyzed and consisted of Angelica (19 samples), Milk thistle (18), St. John's wort (13, Ginkgo (13), Kava kava (10), Echinacea (7), Garcinia cambogia (4), Citrus aurantium (2), and Saw palmetto (1). Two samples were found to contain violative pesticide residues - a sample of St. John's wort extract from Canada for permethrin and a sample of Echinacea tablets from Australia for dieldrin and p,p' DDT. Detailed results for these samples can be found in the Access database tables provided on FDA's internet website (see "Acknowledgments" section). The tables accompany this FY 2006 narrative report on the web.
FDA Total Diet Study
Of the over 300 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, residues of 112 individual compounds were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here for FY 2006 (Market Baskets 05-4, 06-1, 06-2, and 06-3). The 112 individual compounds detected consisted of 84 parent pesticides of which 32 had one or more related compounds (e.g., isomers, metabolites) detected as well.
Table 6 lists the 25 most frequently found residues in the TDS foods other than baby foods (those found in 2% or more of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in FY 2006 (916 total samples). The five most frequently observed chemicals were: DDT, malathion, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and dieldrin, and are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these and other residues listed in Table 6 were typically below regulatory limits.
|Pesticideb||Total No. of Findings||Occurrence, %||Range, ppm|
|DDT||232||25||0.0001 - 0.109|
|Endosulfan||147||16||0.0001 - 0.0756|
|Malathion||147||16||0.0002 - 0.069|
|Chlorpyrifos methyl||136||15||0.0001 - 0.028|
|Dieldrin||122||13||0.0001 - 0.022|
|Chlorpyrifos||68||7||0.0001 - 0.044|
|Permethrin||62||7||0.0003 - 1.796|
|Chlorpropham||54||6||0.0005 - 1.513|
|Thiabendazole3||46||5||0.001 - 0.508|
|Carbaryl4||45||5||0.001 - 0.217|
|Quintozene||25||3||0.0001 - 0.0149|
|Cypermethrin||23||3||0.001 - 0.169|
|Lindane||21||2||0.0001 - 0.0007|
|Dicamba5||21||2||0.0003 - 0.011|
|Phenylphenol, o-||20||2||0.005 - 0.754|
|Methamidophos||20||2||0.0009 - 0.092|
|Captan||19||2||0.0003 - 1.818|
|Acephate||19||2||0.001 - 0.436|
|Heptachlor||19||2||0.0001 - 0.002|
|Hexachlorobenzene||18||2||0.0001 - 0.0006|
|Dicofol||17||2||0.0001 - 0.006|
|Pirimiphos methyl||17||2||0.0009 - 0.525|
|Clopyralid5||16||2||0.0004 - 0.012|
|DCPA||16||2||0.0002 - 0.007|
|Toxaphene||15||2||0.0007 - 0.059|
1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 916 total items.
2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide
3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 67 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 268 total items) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.
4Reflects overall incidence; however, only 82 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 328 total items) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
5Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 64 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.
The TDS program also collects and analyzes infant and toddler foods. Table 7 provides the frequency of occurrence of the 25 pesticide residues found in 2% or more of these samples in the four collections of these foods (215 samples total) in FY 2006 and the ranges of levels found.
|Pesticide2||Total No. of Findings||Occurence, %||Range, ppm|
|Thiabendazole3||48||22||0.001 - 0.343|
|Endosulfan||36||17||0.0001 - 0.0068|
|Carbaryl4||31||14||0.001 - 0.034|
|Phenylphenol, o-||23||11||0.001 - 0.075|
|Chlorpropham||22||10||0.0008 - 0.028|
|DDT||21||10||0.0001 - 0.003|
|Chlorpyrifos||21||10||0.0001 - 0.002|
|Permethrin||20||9||0.0003 - 0.035|
|Dieldrin||15||7||0.0001 - 0.0007|
|Chlorpyrifos methyl||13||6||0.0002 - 0.022|
|Malathion||13||6||0.001 - 0.058|
|Diphenylamine||12||6||0.002 - 0.023|
|Benomyl3||12||6||0.010 - 0.042|
|Captan||11||5||0.024 - 0.119|
|Dichloran||7||3||0.0002 - 0.014|
|Quinclorac5||7||3||0.0005 - 0.001|
|Ethylenethiourea6||6||3||0.001 - 0.013|
|Lambda-cyhalothrin||6||3||0.001 - 0.003|
|Cyprodinil||6||3||0.001 - 0.127|
|Fenpropathrin||5||2||0.005 - 0.020|
|Quintozene||4||2||0.0001 - 0.002|
|Phosmet||4||2||0.004 - 0.012|
|Piperonyl butoxide||4||2||0.002 - 0.011|
|Methamidophos||4||2||0.004 - 0.017|
|Fenvalerate||4||2||0.003 - 0.013|
1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 215 total items.
2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide
3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 35-36 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 142 total items) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.
4 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 35-36 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 142 total items) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamate pesticides.
5 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 6-7 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 27 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.
6 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 29-30 selected foods per market basket (i.e. 119 total items) were analyzed for Ethylenethiourea.
Regulatory Monitoring - FY 2006
A total of 5,711 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 87 countries were analyzed for pesticide residues in FY 2006. No residues were found in 69.9 % of domestic and in 66.5 % of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in FY 2006. Only 1.6 % of domestic and 5.4 % of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for FY 2006 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (6).
FDA also collected and analyzed 264 domestic and 71 import animal feed samples for pesticides. No residues were found in 74.2 % of the domestic feed samples and in 95.8% of the import feed samples.
Figure 3 - Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples for FY 2006
Total Diet Study
In FY 2006, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports. The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. Results of baby foods tested in FY 2006 (and earlier years) also provide evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in these foods.
|Samples With No|
|Violations No |
|A. Grains and|
|Barley & barley products||1||100||0||0||0|
|Corn & corn products||72||94.4||0||0||0|
|Oats & oat products||5||100||0||0||0|
|Rice & rice products||14||64.3||0||0||0|
|Soybeans & soybean products||44||100||0||0||0|
|Wheat & wheat products||76||81.3||0||0||0|
|Other grains & grain products||4||100||0||0||0|
|Bakery products, crackers, etc.||6||83.3||0||0||0|
|Cheese & cheese products||13||100||0||0||0|
|Milk/cream & milk products||4||100||0||0||0|
|Fish and Fish Products||13||100||0||0||0|
|Shellfish & Crustaceans||17||94.1||0||0||0|
|Other citrus fruit||4||25.0||0||0||0|
|Other core fruit||0||0||0||0||0|
|Other fruit juices||3||100||0||0||0|
|String beans (green/snap/pole/long)||34||73.5||0||0||0|
|Bean & Pea Sprouts||3||100.0||0||0||0|
|Other beans & peas & products||93||93.5||1.1||0||1|
|Other fruiting vegetables||7||57.1||42.9||0||3|
|Bok choy & Chinese cabbage||2||0.0||50.0||0||1|
|Other leaf & stem vegetables||18||66.7||5.6||0||1|
|Mushrooms and Truffles||13||84.6||0||0||0|
|Other root & tuber vegetables||30||70.0||0||0||0|
|Other vegetables/vegetable products||12||83.3||0||0||0|
|Beverages & water||1||100||0||0||0|
|Ginseng (including teas)||0||0||0||0||0|
|BeetPowder (food color)||1||100||0||0||0|
|Spices, condiments, & flavors||0||0||0||0||0|
|Other nuts, edible seeds||2||100||0||0||0|
|Multiple foods (dinners, soup)||0||0||0||0||0|
|Nonfood items (animal feed)||3||33.3||0||0||0|
a Sample contained both a residue over an established tolerance or action level and a residue that has no established tolerance for the commodity.
Tolerance Violations #
Tolerance Violations #
|A. Grains and|
|Barley & barley products||9||100||0||0||0|
|Corn & corn products||6||100||0||0||0|
|Oats & oat products||12||100||0||0||0|
|Rice & rice products||25||72.0||12.0||0||3|
|Wheat & wheat products||21||90.5||0||0||0|
|Other grains & grain products||21||76.2||0||0||0|
|Bakery products, crackers, etc.||24||83.3||0||0||0|
|Pasta and noodles||6||100||0||0||0|
|Cheese & cheese products||4||75.0||0||0||0|
|Eggs (includes duck & quail)||7||57.1||0||0||0|
|Milk/cream & milk products||9||88.9||0||0||0|
|Fish and Fish Products||107||86.9||2.8||0||3|
|Shellfish & Crustaceans||6||50.0||0||0||0|
|Other Aquatic Animals & Products||1||0.0||0||0||0|
|Other citrus fruit||2||50.0||0||0||0|
|Other pome fruit||1||100||0||0||0|
|Other pit fruit||2||100||0||0||0|
|Ackees, lychees, longans||1||100||0||0||0|
|Other sub-tropical fruit||10||80.0||10.0||0||1|
|Other fruit juices||73||91.8||0||0||0|
|Other fruits and fruit products||20||50.0||15.0||0||3|
|Bean sprouts and seeds||3||66.7||33.3||0||1|
|String beans (green/snap/pole/long)||89||57.3||6.7||0||6|
|Other beans & peas & products incl dried/paste||175||81.7||3.4||1||6|
|Other fruiting vegetables||54||72.2||11.1||0||6|
|Bok choy & Chinese cabbage||12||8.3||8.3||1||0|
|Other leaf & stem vegetables||147||73.5||6.8||0||10|
|Mushrooms and Truffles||18||94.4||0||0||0|
|Other root & tuber vegetables||11||45.5||9.1||0||2|
|Vegetables with sauce||9||88.9||11.1||0||1|
|Other vegetables, dried or paste||136||58.8||15.4||2a||19|
|Other vegetables/vegetable products||15||80.0||13.3||0||2|
|Coconut & coconut products||1||100||0||0||0|
|Peanuts & peanut products||5||100||0||0||0|
|Other nuts & nut products||28||92.9||0||0||0|
|Edible seeds & seed products||30||83.3||6.7||0||2|
|Vegetable oil, crude||3||100||0||0||0|
|Vegetable oil, refined||18||94.4||0||0||0|
|Oil Seed Stock||4||100||0||0||0|
|Spices & condiments & flavors||37||54.1||37.8||0||14b|
|Beverages & water||6||83.3||0||0||0|
|Candy, chocolate, cocoa products||20||100||0||0||0|
|Honey & other sweeteners||26||92.3||0||0||0|
|Other food products, incl. prepared foods||16||68.8||6.2||0||1|
a Sample contained both residues with no tolerance and residues over tolerance.
b Includes 12 paprika samples from a single country.
FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006 March 16, 2011