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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Results and Discussion FY 2005

FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006    March 16, 2011

Important Note for the Narrative Report and Data Files for FDA’s Pesticide Monitoring Program for FY 2005

This report and accompanying data files were originally published on FDA’s website in the summer of 2008. Sections of the narrative report dealing with pesticide residue coverage, including Table 3 and several downloadable data files, have been revised in February 2011 due primarily to corrections in FDA’s determination of pesticide residue coverage. The sections in the 2005 narrative report that have been revised have been bracketed in asterisks (*).

(*)
The downloadable data files that have been revised include “US2005“, “IMFR2005”, “IMVE2005”, and “IMOT2005”. The “CHEM2005” file has been divided into “CHEMDOM2005” and “CHEMIMP2005”, reflecting separate files for foods of U.S. and foreign origin. In the “CHEMIMP2005” file, entries from country “U.S” primarily reflect “U.S. Goods Returned” that were sampled in import status.
(*)

 

 Results and Discussion - FY 2005

Regulatory Monitoring

Under regulatory monitoring, 7,924 samples were analyzed. Of these, 2,638 were of domestic foods and 5,286 were imported foods.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 2,638 domestic samples by commodity group with "No Residues Found," "Residues Found; NoViolation," and "Violative" (a violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds an EPA tolerance or formal FDA Action Level, or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

Figure 1 - Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group for FY 2005

Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products, 301; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 49; Fish/Shellfish, 95; Fruit, 822; Vegetables, 1316; Other Foods, 55.

 

pie charts illustrating percentages described in text. See Appendix A.

As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the domestic commodities analyzed in 2005; these two commodity groups comprised 81.0 % of the total number of domestic samples. In FY 2005, 98.6% of all domestic foods analyzed by FDA were in compliance with EPA's established residue tolerances and FDA formal action levels. The compliance rate for domestic foods for fiscal years 1996 to 2004 was between 97.6% to 99.3%.

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues detected, and the percent violative samples including the nature of the violation (over-tolerance vs. no tolerance). Of the 2,638 domestic samples, 61.5 % had no detectable residues and 1.4 % had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 45.1 % and 64.4 % of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected; 1.6% of the fruit samples and 1.4 % of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group, 76.4 % of the samples had no residues detected, and 1.0 % had violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 83.2 % had no detectable residues, and no violative residues were found. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 91.8 % of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. In the "Other" foods group that covers nuts, seeds, honey, spices, and animal feeds among other foods, 90.0 % of the samples had no detectable residues and 3.6% had violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 5,286 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 87.8 % of import samples. Overall for all imported foods, 93.8 % of the samples analyzed in FY 2005 were in compliance with EPA tolerances and FDA formal action levels. This compares with a compliance rate for imported foods for FYs 1996 to 2004 of 94.0 % to 98.4 %.

Appendix B contains detailed data on import samples. Of the 5,286 import samples analyzed, 60.8 % had no residues detected, while 6.2 % had violative residues. Imported fruits had 64.6 % of samples with no residues detected and 4.5 % samples with violative residues. Imported vegetables had 54.5% of samples with no residues detected and 6.9 % samples with violative residues. No residues were found in 93.3 % of the imported milk/dairy products/eggs group and no violative residues were reported. No residues were found in 88.3 % of the imported fish/shellfish group and 1 violation (0.5 %) was found in this food group. In the imported grains and grain products group, 87.5 % had no detectable residues, and 2.3 % of the samples had violative residues. In the "Other" foods group, 80.6 % of the samples analyzed had no residues detected, while 11.9 % of the samples contained violative residues.

Figure 2 - Results of Import Samples by Commodity Group for FY 2005

Group Sample Totals: Grains & Grain Products, 176; Milk/Dairy/Eggs, 15; Fish/Shellfish, 188; Fruit, 1256; Vegetables, 3331; Other Foods, 320.

pie charts illustrating percentages described in text. See Appendix A.

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 2005 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 2005 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-2004 is provided in the "Acknowledgements" section of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic. A total of 2,638 domestic samples were collected in FY 2005 from 44 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.  The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic samples from each location, in descending order.

Note – for Table 1, domestic samples with no state recorded in the "Sample 2005" file were attributed through other documentation.

Table 1. Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State
Origin, in FY 2005
California446Kansas68Montana29Maine9
Florida211Virginia65Wyoming25Alaska8
Louisiana205Indiana64Texas24Kentucky7
Washington190Arizona57Pennsylvania20South Carolina7
New York148Ohio46New Mexico18South Dakota6
Minnesota146Utah42Maryland17Vermont6
Oregon121North Carolina38New Jersey17New Hampshire5
Illinois104Colorado36Delaware15Rhode Island5
Idaho98Michigan36Georgia15Arkansas3
Missouri97Nebraska35Massachusetts11Oklahoma2
Wisconsin76Iowa34North Dakota10Tennessee2

Puerto Rico - 12 samples; District of Columbia – 2 samples.  States of Alabama, Connecticut, Hawaii, Mississippi, Nevada, and West Virginia – no samples collected.

Note - for Table 1, 80 domestic samples with no state recorded in "Sample 2005" file were attributed through other data as: Oregon 25; Idaho 11; Kansas 8; California 7; Pennsylvania 7; Missouri 5; Arkansas 3; Maryland 3; Tennesse 2; and Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin one each.

Imports: A total of 5,286 samples representing food shipments from 90 countries (excluding U.S. goods sampled in import status) were collected in FY 2005. Table 2 lists the number of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as in the past, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months. Table 2A lists the countries of origin that had ten or fewer samples collected in FY 2005.

 

Table 2 -  Foreign Countries and Number of Samples
Collected and Analyzed in FY 2005; Countries with Ten or
More Samples
Mexico2645Korea, Republic of (South)31
Canada431Italy30
China, Peoples Republic of428Vietnam30
Chile167Lebanon29
Dominican Republic133South Africa29
Guatemala120Brazil27
Netherlands105Greece24
Ecuador86Jamaica24
India74Colombia23
Peru72Iran17
Costa Rica57New Zealand17
Turkey57Yugoslavia17
Thailand51Honduras16
Belgium44Pakistan15
Poland42Phillipines14
Argentina37Australia12
Spain36El Salvador11
Taiwan, Rep of35Haiti11
Egypt33Bulgaria10
Israel32Russia10
France31(Countries w <10) 124
  United States 149
1 Note: Import samples recorded as U.S. country of origin consisted primarily of U.S. Goods Returned (U.S. products exported and subsequently returned).  An additional 9 import samples reported as U.S. country of origin in the "Sample 2005" file, were attributed through other data to individual countries (Mexico 5 and Canada 4) and are reflected in the tables here.  In previous annual residue reports, these samples were recorded as "Unspecified" (i.e., country of origin field in the file was blank).

Table 2A – Foreign Countries with Fewer Than 10 Samples Collected
and
Analyzed  in FY 2005:
  • Austria
  • Bangladesh
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia-Hercegovin
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cyprus
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guyana
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Ivory Coast
  • Japan
  • Jordan
  • Kampuchea
  • Kenya
  • Lithuania
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Moldova
  • Morocco
  • Nicaragua
  • Norway
  • Panama
  • Portugal
  • Reunion
  • Romania
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sri Lanka
  • Switzerland
  • Syrian Arab Republic
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Venezuela

Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison for FY 2005

In FY 2005, 2,638 domestic and 5,286 import samples were collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 38.5 % of the domestic samples and in 39.2 % of the import samples. The violation rate was 1.4 % for domestic samples and 6.2 % for import samples. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was 1.0 % for domestic samples and 2.3 % for imports. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group for either domestic or import samples. No violations were found for the domestic fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, and 0.5 % violations were found for the import samples of this group. Of domestic fruit samples, 1.6% contained violative residues while 4.5 % of imports did. For vegetables, 1.4% of domestic samples and 6.9 % of import samples contained violative residues. In the category "Other" (mostly nuts, edible seeds, honey, spices, and dietary supplements), the violation rates for domestic and import samples were 1.4 % and 11.9 %, respectively. Ginseng and spices accounted for most of the samples with violative residues for the import "Other" foods group.

Of the domestic violative samples, five of the 37 violations (13.5 %) were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance or FDA formal action level. The balance, 32 or 86.5%, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance. Of the import samples with violative residues, 17 of 330 violations (5.2%), were for residues found to be over an established EPA tolerance of FDA formal action level. The balance of import violations, 313 or 94.8%, were for residues found in foods with no established EPA tolerance.

Pesticide Coverage

(*)
Table 3 lists the 455 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used in FY 2005; each of the 164 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk (*).  Residues not previously looked for, nor detected, are noted by a "+".

Table 3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in FY 2005 Regulatory Monitoringa,b,c

(E)-AZOXYSTROBIN *

(Z)-AZOXYSTROBIN *

1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HEPTACHLORODIBENZO
FURAN

1-NAPHTHOL *

2,3,5,6-TETRACHLOROANILINE *

2,4-D *

2,4-DICHLORO-6-NITROBENZENEAMINE

2,6-DICHLOROBENZAMIDE *

2,6-DIPN * +

3-METHYL-4-NITROPHENOL

4-(DICHLOROACETYL)-1-OXA-4-AZAPIRO 4.5 D

4-CYCLOHEXENE-1,2-DICARBOXIMIDE, CIS- *

5-CHLORO-3-METHYL-4-NITRO-1H-PYRAZOLE

ACEPHATE *

ACETAMIPRID * +

ACETOCHLOR

ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL

ACRINATHRIN

ALACHLOR

ALDICARB (TOTAL) *

ALDRIN

ALLETHRIN

ALPHA CYPERMETHRIN

AMETRYN *

AMINOCARB *

ANILAZINE

ARAMITE

ATRAZINE *

AZINPHOS-ETHYL

AZINPHOS-METHYL (TOTAL) *

AZOXYSTROBIN *

BENALAXYL *

BENDIOCARB

BENFLURALIN (BENEFIN) *

BENODANIL

BENOXACOR

BENSULIDE

BENZOYLPROP ETHYL

BF 490-1 *

BF 490-2

BF 490-9

BHC (TOTAL) *

BIFENAZATE * +

BIFENOX

BIFENTHRIN *

BINAPACRYL

BIPHENYL *

BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE +

BITERTANOL *

BOSCALID *

BROMACIL

BROMOPHOS

BROMOPHOS-ETHYL

BROMOPROPYLATE *

BROMUCONAZOLE

BUFENCARB

BULAN

BUPIRIMATE

BUPROFEZIN *

BUTACHLOR

BUTRALIN

BUTYLATE

CADUSAFOS

CAPTAFOL

CAPTAN *

CARBARYL *

CARBOFURAN (TOTAL) *

CARBOPHENOTHION (TOTAL)

CARBOPHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG SULFONE

CARBOPHENOTHION SULFOXIDE

CARBOSULFAN

CARBOTHENOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG

CARBOXIN

CARFENTRAZONE ETHYL ESTER

CGA 14128

CGA-232449

CHLORBENSIDE

CHLORBROMURON

CHLORBUFAM

CHLORDANE (TOTAL) *

CHLORDECONE

CHLORDIMEFORM *

CHLORETHOXYFOS

CHLORFENAPYR

CHLORFENVINPHOS (TOTAL)

CHLORFLURECOL METHYL ESTER

CHLORMEPHOS

CHLORNITROFEN

CHLOROBENZILATE

CHLORONEB

CHLOROPROPYLATE

CHLOROTHALONIL *

CHLOROXURON

CHLORPROPHAM *

CHLORPYRIFOS *

CHLORPYRIFOS METHYL *

CHLORPYRIFOS OXYGEN ANALOG

CHLORPYRIFOS-D10 (DEUTERATED) *

CHLORTHIOPHOS

CHLORTHIOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG

CHLORTHIOPHOS SULFONE

CHLORTHIOPHOS SULFOXIDE

CLODINAFOP-PROPARGYL

CLOMAZONE

CLOQUINTOCET-MEXYL

COUMAPHOS

COUMAPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG

CROTOXYPHOS

CRUFOMATE

CYANAZINE

CYANOFENPHOS

CYANOPHOS

CYCLOATE *

CYCLURON

CYFLUTHRIN *

CYHALOFOP BUTYL ESTER

CYMOXANIL

CYPERMETHRIN *

CYPRAZINE

CYPROCONAZOLE

CYPRODINIL *

DCPA *

DDT (TOTAL) *

DEF

DELTAMETHRIN *

DELTAMETHRIN, TRANS-

DEMETON-O (TOTAL)

DEMETON-S

DEMETON-S SULFONE

DEMETON-S SULFOXIDE

DES N-ISOPROPYL ISOFENPHOS

DESDIETHYL SIMAZINE

DESETHYLTERBUTHYLAZINE

DES-ISOPROPYL IPRODIONE

DESMETRYN

DIALIFOR

DIALLATE

DIAZINON *

DIAZINON OXYGEN ANALOG

DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE * +

DICHLOBENIL *

DICHLOFENTHION

DICHLOFLUANID

DICHLONE

DICHLORVOS *

DICLOBUTRAZOL

DICLOFOP-METHYL

DICLORAN *

DICOFOL (TOTAL) *

DICROTOPHOS

DIELDRIN (TOTAL) *

DIETHATYL-ETHYL

DIETHOFENCARB *

DIFENOCONAZOLE *

DILAN

DIMETHACHLOR

DIMETHAMETRYN

DIMETHIPIN

DIMETHOATE *

DIMETHOMORPH * +

DINITRAMINE

DINOBUTON

DINOCAP

DIOXACARB *

DIOXATHION

DIPHENAMID

DIPHENYLAMINE *

DISULFOTON

DISULFOTON SULFONE

DISULFOTON SULFOXIDE

DPX-MP062

EDIFENPHOS

ENDOSULFAN (TOTAL) *

ENDRIN (TOTAL) *

EPN

EPOXICONAZOLE

EPTC

ESFENVALERATE *

ETACONAZOLE

ETHALFLURALIN *

ETHEPHON

ETHIOFENCARB

ETHIOLATE *

ETHION *

ETHION OXYGEN ANALOG *

ETHOFUMESATE

ETHOPROP *

ETHOXYQUIN *

ETHYLENE GLYCOL

ETOFENPROX *

ETOXAZOLE

ETRIDIAZOLE *

ETRIMFOS

ETRIMFOS OXYGEN ANALOG

FAMPHUR (TOTAL)

FENAMIDONE

FENAMIPHOS (TOTAL)

FENARIMOL *

FENBUCONAZOLE *

FENBUCONAZOLE METABOLITES (TOTAL) +

FENFURAM

FENHEXAMID *

FENITROTHION *

FENITROTHION OXYGEN ANALOG

FENOXAPROP-ETHYL

FENOXYCARB

FENPROPATHRIN *

FENPROPIMORPH

FENSULFOTHION (TOTAL)

FENTHION (TOTAL) *

FENVALERATE *

FIPRONIL *

FLAMPROP-METHYL

FLAMPROP-M-ISOPROPYL

FLUAZIFOP BUTYL ESTER

FLUAZINAM

FLUCHLORALIN

FLUCYTHRINATE (PAYOFF)

FLUDIOXONIL*

FLUSILAZOLE

FLUTOLANIL *

FLUVALINATE *

FOE 5043 (FLUFENACET)

FOLPET *

FONOFOS

FONOFOS OXYGEN ANALOG

FORMOTHION

FOSTHIAZATE (TOTAL)

FUBERIDAZOLE

FURILAZOLE

GARDONA (TETRACHLORVINPHOS)

HEPTACHLOR (TOTAL) *

HEPTENOPHOS

HEXACHLOROBENZENE *

HEXACONAZOLE *

HEXAZINONE

HEXYTHIAZOX

IBP

IMAZALIL *

IMAZAMETHABENZ METHYL ESTER (AC 222,2

IPRODIONE *

IPRODIONE METABOLITE ISOMER *

ISAZOFOS

ISOCARBAMID

ISOFENPHOS

ISOFENPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG

ISOPROCARB

ISOPROPALIN

ISOPROTHIOLANE *

ISOXAFLUTOLE

KRESOXIM-METHYL

LACTOFEN (TOTAL)

LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN *

LENACIL

LEPTOPHOS

LEPTOPHOS OXYGEN ANALOG

LEPTOPHOS PHOTOPRODUCT

LINDANE *

LINURON *

MALATHION *

MALATHION OXYGEN ANALOG

MB 46513

MB45950

MB46136

MECARBAM

MEPHOSFOLAN

MERPHOS

METAFLUMIZONE

METALAXYL (TOTAL) *

METALDEHYDE *

METASYSTOX THIOL

METAZACHLOR

METHABENZTHIAZURON

METHAMIDOPHOS *

METHIDATHION *

METHIOCARB *

METHOMYL *

METHOPROTRYNE

METHOXYCHLOR (TOTAL) *

METOBROMURON

METOLACHLOR *

METOLCARB

METRIBUZIN (TOTAL) *

MEVINPHOS (TOTAL) *

MGK 264

MIREX (TOTAL) *

MOLINATE

MONOCROTOPHOS *

MONOLINURON *

MYCLOBUTANIL *

N, N-DIALLYL DICHLOROACETAMIDE

NALED

NAPROPAMIDE

N-DESMETHYL FLUCARBAZONE

NICOTINE

NITRALIN

NITRAPYRIN

NITROFEN

NITROFLUORFEN

NITROTHAL-ISOPROPYL

NOREA

NORFLURAZON (TOTAL) *

NUARIMOL

OCTHILINONE

OFURACE

OMETHOATE *

OVEX

OXADIAZON *

OXADIXYL *

OXAMYL *

OXAMYL OXIME METABOLITE

OXYDEMETON-METHYL (TOTAL)

OXYFLUORFEN

OXYTHIOQUINOX

PACLOBUTRAZOL

PARATHION *

PARATHION OXYGEN ANALOG

PARATHION-METHYL *

PARATHION-METHYL OXYGEN ANALOG

PB-9 +

PEBULATE

PENCONAZOLE *

PENDIMETHALIN *

PENTACHLOROBENZENE *

PENTACHLOROBENZONITRILE *

PENTACHLOROPHENYL METHYL ETHER

PERMETHRIN (TOTAL) *

PERTHANE

PHENOTHRIN

PHENTHOATE

PHENYLPHENOL, O- *

PHORATE

PHORATE METABOLITES (TOTAL) *

PHOSALONE *

PHOSALONE OXYGEN ANALOG

PHOSMET *

PHOSMET OXYGEN ANALOG

PHOSPHAMIDON

PHOSPHINE

PHOXIM OXYGEN ANALOG

PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE *

PIPEROPHOS

PIRIMICARB *

PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL

PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL OXYGEN ANALOG

PIRIMIPHOS-METHYL *

PRETILACHLOR

PROCHLORAZ *

PROCYAZINE *

PROCYMIDONE *

PROFENOFOS *

PROFLURALIN

PROLAN

PROMECARB

PROMETON

PROMETRYN *

PRONAMIDE *

PROPACHLOR

PROPANIL *

PROPARGITE *

PROPAZINE

PROPETAMPHOS

PROPHAM

PROPICONAZOLE (TOTAL) *

PROPOXUR *

PROTHIOFOS

PROTHOATE

PYRACARBOLID

PYRACLOSTROBIN *

PYRAZON

PYRAZOPHOS (AFUGAN)

PYRETHRINS

PYRETHROIDS, SYNTHETIC * +

PYRIDABEN *

PYRIDAPHENTHION

PYRIMETHANIL *

PYRIPROXYFEN *

QUINALPHOS

QUINOXYFEN *

QUINTOZENE (TOTAL) *

QUIZALOFOP ETHYL ESTER

RONNEL

RONNEL OXYGEN ANALOG

ROTENONE +

RPA 405862

RPA 408056

RPA 717879

SALITHION

S-BIOALLETHRIN

SCHRADAN

SIMAZINE *

SIMETRYNE

SODIUM ARSENATE *

SODIUM BENZOATE *

SPIRODICLOFEN

STROBANE

SULFALLATE

SULFOTEPP *

SULFUR DIOXIDE

SULPHENONE

SULPROFOS (TOTAL)

TCMTB

TEBUCONAZOLE *

TEBUPRIMIFOS

TEBUTHIURON

TECNAZENE (TOTAL) *

TEFLUTHRIN

TEPP

TERBACIL

TERBUFOS (TOTAL)

TERBUMETON *

TERBUTHYLAZINE *

TERBUTRYN

TETRACONAZOLE

TETRADIFON *

TETRAIODOETHYLENE

TETRAMETHRIN *

TETRASUL

THIABENDAZOLE *

THIACLOPRID +

THIAMETHOXAM

THIAZOPYR

THIOBENCARB

THIOMETON

THIONAZIN

TOLYLFLUANID *

TOTAL CHLORFENVINPHOS *

TOXAPHENE *

TRALKOXYDIM

TRALOMETHRIN

TRANID

TRIADIMEFON (TOTAL) *

TRIADIMENOL *

TRI-ALLATE

TRIAZAMATE

TRIAZOPHOS *

TRICHLORFON

TRICYCLAZOLE

TRIDIPHANE

TRIETAZINE

TRIFLOXYSTROBIN *

TRIFLUMIZOLE

TRIFLURALIN *

TRIFLUSULFURON METHYL ESTER

TRIMETHACARB (LANDRIN)

TRIMETHACARB (TOTAL)

TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE *

TRIS(1,3-DICHLORO-2-PROPYL)PHOSPHATE * +

TRIS(BETA-CHLOROETHYL) PHOSPHATE *

VAMIDOTHION SULFONE

VERNOLATE

VINCLOZOLIN (TOTAL ) *

VINCLOZOLIN METABOLITE E

XMC

ZOXAMIDE

 

aThe list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide.  However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.

bSome of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.

cChemicals indicated by a (+) were not looked for by methods used in previous years.
(*)

Animal Feeds

In FY 2005, 331 feed samples (250 domestic surveillance and 81 import) were analyzed for pesticides by the FDA (Table 4).  Of the 250 domestic surveillance samples, 182 (72.8 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 66 (26.4 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 2 (0.8 %) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance.  Of the 81 import samples, 62 (76.5 %) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 16 (19.8 %) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and 3 (3.7 %) contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance. 

Two domestic surveillance samples of animal feed contained 2 residues that exceeded regulatory guidance during FY 2005.  One was a corn sample from Missouri that contained 0.189 ppm of methoxychlor.  All the tolerances for methoxychlor in 40 CFR 180.120 have been revoked by the EPA.  The other was a sample of timothy grass hay from Ohio that contained 1.03 ppm of o-phenylphenol.  There are no tolerances established by the EPA for o-phenylphenol on any grasses in 40 CFR 180.129. 

Three import samples of animal feed contained 3 residues that exceeded regulatory guidance during FY 2005. One was a color additive derived from marigolds and imported from Mexico that contained 3.5 % (35,000 ppm) ethoxyquin. This level exceeded the 0.3 % maximum ethoxyquin level established by the FDA in Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract in 21 CFR 73.295(a). The second was a sample of grain screening pellets imported from Canada that contained 0.119 ppm of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate. This compound is a fire retardant and there are no established tolerances, action levels, or guidance levels for it in animal feed. The third was a sample of psyllium husk powder imported from India that contained 0.016 ppm of isoproturon. Although isoproturon is a phenylurea herbicide that is approved for use in other countries, the EPA has not established any tolerances for this compound in the U.S.

In the 68 domestic surveillance and 19 import samples of animal feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 116 residues (83 quantifiable and 33 trace).  Malathion and ethoxyquin were the most frequently found and accounted for 58.6 % of all residues detected (Table 5).

Table 4 - Summary of the 250 Domestic Surveillance and 81 Import Samples of  Animal Feed that were Collected and Analyzed for Pesticides by the FDA in FY 2005.
Type of Feed# of SamplesSamples with No
Pesticide Residues
Samples Exceeding
Regulatory Guidance
#%#%
Whole/Ground Grains13410578.4  1  0.7
Plant By-products1047673.121.9
Mixed Feed Rations432762.800.0
Hay & Hay Products201575.015.0
Supplements/Misc.191368.415.3
Animal By-products11872.700.0
TOTALS331244(73.7)5(1.5)

Table 5 - Summary of the Pesticides Detected in the 68 Domestic Surveillance and 19 Import Samples of Animal Field Collected and Analyzed by FDA in FY 2005 that Contained One or More Detectable Residues.
PesticideNumber of Samples with
Trace1
Amounts
Quantifiable
Levels
Range2
(ppm)
Median2
(ppm)
Malathion11420.022 - 5.360.093
Ethoxyquin31140.031 - 35,0000.419
Methoxychlor (p,p’+o,p’)610.189 
Chlorpyrifos-methyl230.029 - 0.4750.107
DEF320.036 - 0.085 
Diazinon040.022 - 0.0370.031
DDE+TDE+DDT30  
Cyfluthrin020.086 - 0.390 
Pirimiphos-methyl020.052 - 0.073 
Tetraconazole020.032 - 0.045 
Permethrin (cis+trans)110.152 
Chlorpyrifos20  
All others44100.008 - 1.350.052

1 the residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.

2 in samples containing quantifiable levels.

3 ethoxyquin is approved as a pesticide (plant regulator) at levels up to 3 ppm in 40 CFR 180.178.  Ethoxyquin is also a feed additive (anti-oxidant) that is approved at levels up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380).

4n=1 for acephate (.030 ppm), biphenyl (trace), cypermethrin (trace), endosulfan sulfate (.008 ppm), fenvalerate (trace), isoproturon (.016 ppm), lindane (trace), methamidophos (.022 ppm), parathion-methyl (.016 ppm), piperonyl butoxide (.074 ppm), o-phenylphenol (1.03 ppm), propiconazole (1.35 ppm), tetrachlorvinphos (.333 ppm) and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (.119 ppm).


Focused Sampling

As previously described, FDA conducts "focused sampling" by means of short-term, regulatory based, field assignments.  In FY 2005, there were no multi-district pesticide related field assignments.

 FDA Total Diet Study

Of the over 300 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, residues of 94 individual compounds were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here for FY 2005 (Market Baskets 04-4, 05-1, 05-2, and 05-3). The 94 individual compounds detected consisted of 73 parent pesticides of which 31 had one or more related compounds (e.g., isomers, metabolites) detected as well.

Table 6 lists the 27 most frequently found residues in the TDS foods other than baby foods (those found in 2% or more of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in FY 2005 (916 total samples). The five most frequently observed chemicals were: DDT, malathion, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and dieldrin, and are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these and other residues listed in Table 6 were typically below regulatory limits.

The TDS program also collects and analyzes infant and toddler foods. Table 7 provides the frequency of occurrence in FY 2005 of the 25 pesticide residues (found in 2% or more of these samples in the four collections of these foods which totaled 228 samples), and the ranges of levels found.

Table 6 - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Foods Other than Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 20051
Pesticide2Total No. of FindingsOccurrence, %Range, ppm
DDT240260.0001 - 0.043
Malathion166180.0001 - 0.104
Endosulfan142160.0001 - 0.408
Chlorpyrifos methyl139150.0001 - 0.127
Dieldrin103110.0001 - 0.016
Chlorpyrifos6980.0001 - 0.098
Permethrin5760.0002 - 8.400
Chlorpropham5560.0003 - 2.216
Thiabendazole35460.001 - 0.957
Quintozene2830.0001 - 0.0066
Carbaryl42730.001 - 0.101
Dicamba52530.0001 - 0.016
Methamidophos2220.0004 - 0.209
Pirimiphos methyl2220.0006 - 0.537
Lindane2220.0001 - 0.0008
Clopyralid52120.0002 - 0.017
Acephate2120.002 - 0.320
Heptachlor1920.0001 - 0.002
Dichloran1920.0007 - 0.126
2,4-D51820.0001 - 0.002
Toxaphene1720.001 - 0.040
Cypermethrin1520.0005 - 0.345
Benomyl31420.010 - 0.805
Ethion1420.0003 - 0.027
Quinclorac51420.0003 - 0.005

1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 916 total items.

2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide.

3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 67 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 268 total items ) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.

4 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 82 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 328 total itemsl) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.

5 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 64 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.


Table 7 - Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Total Diet Study Infant and Toddler Foods in FY 20051
Pesticide2Total No. of FindingsOccurence, %Range, ppm
Thiabendazole346200.001 - 0.274
DDT36160.0001 - 0.003
Endosulfan26110.0001 - 0.0053
Carbaryl422100.0001 -0.099
Chlorpropham2090.0002 - 0.010
Chlorpyrifos1360.0002 - 0.016
Benomyl31360.010 - 0.037
Malathion1250.003 - 0.086
Chlorpyrifos methyl1040.002 - 0.058
Diphenylamine940.005 - 0.140
Quinclorac5940.0005 - 0.003
Dieldrin940.0001 - 0.001
Permethrin940.0005 - 0.004
Lambda-cyhalothrin840.0007 - 0.006
Fenpropathrin840.008 - 0.042
Phenylphenol, o-730.015 - 0.132
Phosmet630.002 - 0.021
Dichloran630.0001 - 0.012
Captan520.034 - 0.163
Cyprodinil520.004 - 0.007
Dicamba5420.0005 - 0.002
Iprodione420.002 - 0.040
Clopyralid5420.0002 - 0.001
Methamidophos420.003 - 0.028
Fenvalerate420.002 - 0.004

1 Based on 4 market baskets consisting of 228 total items.

2 Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the 'parent' pesticide.

3 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 38 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 152 total items ) were analyzed for Benzimidazole fungicides.

4 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 38 selected foods per market basket (i.e.,152 total items) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.

5 Reflects overall incidence; however, only 7selected foods per market basket (i.e., 28 total items) were analyzed for Chlorophenoxy acids.

Summary

 Regulatory Monitoring - FY 2005

A total of 7,924 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 90 countries were analyzed for pesticide residues in FY 2005. No residues were found in 61.5 % of domestic and in 60.8 % of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in FY 2005. Only 1.4 % of domestic and 6.2 % of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for FY 2005 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (6).

FDA also collected and analyzed 250 domestic and 81 import animal feed samples for pesticides.  No residues were found in 72.8 % of the domestic feed samples and in 76.5  % of the import feed samples.

Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

pie charts illustrating comparison of 3638 Domestic and 5286 Import samples above.

Total Diet Study

In FY 2005, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in the TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports. The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. Results of baby foods tested in FY 2005 (and earlier years) also provide evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in these foods.

Appendix A - Results of FY 2005 Domestic Samples by Commodity Group
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples Analyzed
Samples With No
Residues %
Samples
Violative1 %
Violations Over
Tolerance #
Violations No
Tolerance #
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products40000
Corn & corn products4381.4000
Oats & oat products10100000
Rice & rice products2195.2000
Soybeans & soybean products3296.9000
Wheat & wheat products17165.51.803
Other grains & grain products785.7000
Breakfast cereals10100000
Bakery products, crackers, etc.366.7000
Total30176.41.003
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products2996.6000
Eggs6100000
Milk/cream & milk products1478.6000
Total4991.8000
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products5384.9000
Shellfish & Crustaceans2596000
Aquaculture Seafood1758.8000
Total9583.2000
D. FruitsBlackberries1127.3000
Blueberries3473.52.901
Boysenberries1100000
Cranberries10000
Grapes, raisins1872.2000
Raspberries1361.5000
Strawberries9134.14.404
Grapefruit1442.9000
Lemons1662.5000
Oranges10441.3000
Other citrus fruit1361.5000
Apples14237.3000
Pears3336.412.104
Other core fruit616.7000
Apricots2025.0000
Avocadoes4100000
Cherries2751.9000
Nectarines2227.34.501
Peaches8022.52.520
Plums2263.6000
Other pit fruit450.0000
Bananas, plantains785.7000
Cantaloupe4456.8000
Watermelon1883.3000
Other melons771.414.210
Other fruits944.4000
Apple juice2080.0000
Orange juice7100000
Other fruit juices1952.6000
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings1540.0000
Total82245.11.6310
E. VegetablesCorn8598.8000
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)1776.55.901
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)5858.61.701
Bean & Pea Sprouts580.0000
Other beans & peas & products12282.00.810
Cucumbers6777.6000
Eggplant1580.0000
Okra4100000
Peppers, hot666.716.701
Peppers, sweet4768.1000
Squash/pumpkins10758.9000
Tomatoes9670.01.001
Other fruiting vegetables1154.5000
Asparagus1283.3000
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage30.0000
Broccoli2356.5000
Cabbage6083.31.701
Cauliflower4100000
Celery812.512.510
Collards850.0000
Endive425.025.001
Kale366.7000
Lettuce, head2676.9000
Lettuce, leaf4438.62.301
Mustard greens450.0000
Spinach2119.04.801
Other leaf & stem vegetables6440.66.204
Mushrooms and Truffles1580.0000
Carrots4955.12.001
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots5275.01.901
Potatoes12442.7000
Radishes1250.08.301
Red beets757.1000
Sweet potatoes4562.2000
Turnips742.9000
Other root & tuber vegetables1931.610.502
Vegetables, dried or paste2100000
Vegetable oils1275.0000
Other vegetables/vegetable products4862.5000
Total131664.41.4217
F. OtherAlmonds1100000
Beverages & water1100000
Ginseng (including teas)10.010001
Honey & other sweeteners1894.4000
Pecans2100000
Spices, condiments, & flavors785.714.301
Other nuts, edible seeds3100000
Nonfood items (animal feed)1888.9000
Foods Not Elsewhere Classified4100000
Total5590.03.602
Total A-F 263861.51.4532
1 Includes samples with residues over an established tolerance or action level, and samples with residues that have no established tolerance for the commodity.

Appendix B - Results of FY 2005 Import Samples by Commodity Group
Commodity GroupTotal
Samples Analyzed
Samples Without
Residues %
Samples
Violative1 %
Violations Over
Tolerance #
Violations No
Tolerance #
A. Grains and
Grain Products
Barley & barley products988.9000
Corn & corn products988.9000
Oats & oat products6100000
Rice & rice products4783.06.403
Wheat & wheat products2878.6000
Other grains & grain products2491.7000
Breakfast cereals1090.0000
Bakery products, crackers, snack foods3494.12.901
Pasta and noodles988.9000
Total17687.52.304
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products3100000
Eggs4100000
Milk/cream & milk products887.5000
Total1593.3000
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other
Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products14789.80.701
Crustaceans/Shellfish (Wild)1070.0000
Aquaculture Fish/Shellfish2785.2000
Other Aquatic Animals & Products4100000
Total18888.30.501
D. FruitsBlackberries4847.914.607
Blueberries3476.5000
Cranberries10100000
Grapes, raisins4650.0000
Raspberries6266.11.601
Strawberries9334.45.405
Other berries1163.69.101
Clementines50.0000
Grapefruit1100000
Lemons560.0000
Limes785.7000
Oranges1764.7000
Other citrus fruit10.0000
Apples3218.86.202
Pears3473.52.901
Other pome fruit2580.012.003
Apricots366.7000
Avocadoes3994.9000
Cherries2751.03.701
Dates757.114.301
Nectarines40.0000
Olives2185.74.801
Peaches1668.8000
Plums/Prunes1154.5000
Other pit fruit475.0000
Ackees, lychees, longans887.512.501
Bananas, plantains2937.9000
Breadfruit11100000
Figs5100000
Guavas5100000
Kiwi fruit966.7000
Passion fruit2100000
Mangoes3183.9000
Papaya7939.25.104
Pineapple5749.110.506
Pepinos4351.19.304
Other sub-tropical fruit1376.923.103
Bitter melon955.622.202
Cantaloupe40.0000
Honeydew1040.0000
Watermelon2100000
Other melons633.316.701
Other fruits5100000
Apple juice33100000
Citrus juice26100000
Other fruit juices11383.25.306
Fruit: dried/jams/jellies/pastes/pulp/toppings17374.04.6 0 8
Total125664.64.5058
E. VegetablesCorn2391.3000
Mung beans580.0000
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)11851.716.9020
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)11434.215.8018
Other beans, corn, peas & their products (including dried/paste, w sauce)15879.71.921
Cucumbers9147.31.101
Eggplant2684.6000
Okra966.7000
Peppers, hot43343.69.54337
Peppers, sweet23545.13.016
Squash/pumpkins22249.52.305
Tomatoes16453.73.005
Tomatillo (husk tomato)6280.61.601
Other fruiting vegetables7277.85.6123
Artichokes1369.27.7140
Asparagus11094.5000
Bamboo shoots666.7000
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage5523.620.0011
Broccoli/Broccoli rabe6361.9000
Cabbage2673.1000
Cauliflower1788.2000
Celery3240.6000
Chicory leaf, Withloof366.733.301
Collards30000
Endive580.0000
Kale229.1000
Lettuce, head1030.040.004
Swiss Chard1216.7000
Lettuce, leaf2934.56.902
Mustard greens1323.1000
Radicchio4100000
Spinach5937.33.402
Brussel sprouts2755.6000
Other leaf & stem vegetables25256.314.73434
Mushrooms and Truffles4588.9000
Carrots5278.8000
Cassava5100000
Garlic1392.3000
Onions/shallots4285.7000
Leeks4654.4000
Scallions19841.41.002
Potatoes3644.42.801
Radishes6833.8000
Red beets2347.88.702
Sweet potatoes/yams1392.3000
Turnips757.114.301
Water chestnuts2360.934.808
Lotus root2433.354.2013
Taro/Dasheen3461.826.509
Other root & tuber vegetables5273.113.507
Vegetables with sauce12100000
Vegetables, dried or paste9849.018.41417
Other vegetables/vegetable products4372.111.605
Total333154.56.913216
F. OtherCashews110000
Pecans40000
Peanuts & peanut products100000
Soybeans887.512.501
Other nuts & nut products195.3000
Edible seeds & seed products2588.0000
Vegetable oils2080.0000
Paprika1225.075.0148
Condiments, flavors, and other spices4669.619.609
Beverages & water4100000
Beverage bases875.0000
Coffee/tea1994.75.301
Candy (w & wo choc)1586.7000
Honey45100000
Other sweeteners2100000
Baby/junior foods1668.812.502
Ginseng (herb/teas/dietary supplement)1816.766.7349
Other supplements/botanicals/teas2356.517.404
Prepared/multiple foods13100000
Animal feed2100000
Total32080.611.9434
Total A-F 528660.86.217313

1 Includes samples with residues over an established tolerance or action level, and samples with residues that have no established tolerance for the commodity.

2 Residue exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

3 Grouping includes 3 samples with residues over an established tolerance, and a fourth sample with both a residue over an established tolerance and a residue with no tolerance.

4 Includes samples with both residues over an established tolerance or action level and residues that have no established tolerance for the commodity.


FDA Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 2004-2006   March 16, 2011