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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 2000

Table of Contents

This document is the fourteenth annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. Eight of the thirteen previous reports were published in the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International; these presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994. Results from FY 1995 through FY 1999 were published on FDA's World Wide Web site. This report, also published on FDA's website, includes findings obtained during FY 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 2000 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

FDA Monitoring Program

Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e.,approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amounts of residues that are permitted in or on a food) if use of a particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (1). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestic foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. Since 1991, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed at raw agricultural products and various processed foods. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

Regulatory Monitoring

FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed unwashed and whole (unpeeled). Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for a given food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination" (previously called "automatic detention") may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

Analytical Methods

To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (2).

Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods  (2). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. This type of methods is usually more resource-intensive per residue. Therefore, SRMs are much less cost effective than MRMs.

The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace" is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LOQ).

FDA/State Cooperation

FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e.,importedvs.domestic products).

Animal Feeds

In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g.,laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), CVM's monitoring focuses on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become, or produce, foods for human consumption.

International Activities

FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act.

Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the U.S., Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The NAFTA Pesticide TWG now serves as the focal point for all pesticide issues that arise among the three NAFTA countries. The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee.

One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects has been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this process is difficult, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries. FDA's activities on the TWG complement its ongoing trilateral cooperation with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada.

Beyond the North American agreements, FDA continues to collaborate with New Zealand to implement a "residue compliance assurance program." New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing a plan whereby its government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the U.S. would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

Incidence/Level Monitoring

FDA's pesticide program includes incidence/level monitoring to complement regulatory monitoring. Incidence/level monitoring increases FDA's knowledge about particular pesticide/commodity combinations. Information is acquired by analyses of randomly selected samples to determine the presence and levels of selected pesticides. In 2000, FDA issued one special assignment, to determine incidences and levels of certain pesticides in canola entering the U.S. from Canada.

Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study is the other major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (3). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-1999 (4a, 4b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (5) and July 1986-April 1991 (6), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990  (7). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (8, 9).

In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 261 foods that comprise each of the 4 market baskets represent over 3,500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each market basket is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

Results and Discussion

Regulatory Monitoring

Under regulatory monitoring, 6,523 samples were analyzed. Of these 2,525 were domestic and 3,998 were imports.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 2,525 domestic samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 2000; those two commodity groups comprised 77.8% of the total number of domestic samples. In 2000, no violative residues were found in 99.3% of all domestic samples (99.1% in 1996, 98.8% in 1997, 99.2% in 1998, 99.2% in 1999).

Figure 1. Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity

Pie charts of domestic sample results, link to description

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 2,525 domestic samples, 59.6% had no detectable residues and 0.7% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 41.7% and 73.5% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected; 0.5% of the fruit samples and 1.1% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group, 56.7% of the samples had no residues detected, and none had violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 75.4% had no detectable residues, and no violative residues were found. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 92.3% of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. A total of 26 samples of baby foods or formula was analyzed (see category Other). This total included 4 fruit (no vegetable), 2 cereal, and 8 fruit juice samples. None of the samples had violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 3,998 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 86.5% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 96.2% of the import samples (97.4% in 1996, 98.4% in 1997, 97.0% in 1998, 96.9% in 1999).

Figure 2. Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity

Pie charts of domestic sampaPie charts of import sample results, link to descriptionle results, link to description

Appendix B contains detailed data on the import samples. Of the 3,998 samples analyzed, 57.5% had no residues detected, and 3.8% had violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 45.9% and 59.2%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had 2.1% and 6.1%, respectively, with violative residues. No residues were found in 85.7% of the milk/dairy products/eggs group and in 88.0% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups. In the grains and grain products group, 79.2% had no detectable residues, and 2.0% had violative residues.

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring in 2000 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 2000 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes the monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-1999 is provided at the end of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic.A total of 2,525 domestic samples was collected in 2000 from 43 states and Puerto Rico. (No samples were collected from Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Nevada, Oklahoma, Vermont, and West Virginia.) The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic samples from each location, in order of descending numbers of samples.

Table 1. Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by Statea, in 2000
Washington463 North Dakota26
California418 Pennsylvania24
Louisiana166 Tennessee24
New York127 Indiana20
Wisconsin124 Utah20
Idaho102 Kansas19
Missouri97 Kentucky18
Oregon90 Nebraska17
Illinois75 New Mexico17
Minnesota74 Massachusetts16
Florida69 Wyoming16
Texas52 Alaska13
Arizona50 South Carolina12
Georgia47 New Jersey8
Michigan45 South Dakota8
Virginia43 Mississippi7
Iowa41 New Hampshire5
Ohio36 Rhode Island5
North Carolina32 Alabama3
Montana31 Delaware2
Maryland29 Hawaii1
Colorado26   
a Other domestic samples: Puerto Rico, 7 samples

Import. A total of 3,998 samples representing food shipments from 82 countries was collected. (The origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 2 lists numbers of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

Table 2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 2000
Mexico1,719 Honduras42
Chile483 South Africa36
Ecuador206 Poland35
Netherlands115 Taiwan, Republic of31
China (Mainland)103 Brazil27
Guatemala99 Israel27
India92 Italy26
Spain89 Belgium25
Canada69 Greece21
Costa Rica69 Jamaica21
Dominican Republic68 Korea, Republic of (South)20
Colombia53 Pakistan17
New Zealand51 Egypt16
Vietnam51 Unspecified15
Turkey46 France12
Peru45 Philippines12
Thailand45 Australia11
Argentina42 Trinidad & Tobago11
Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:
AustriaHaitiPanama
BelizeHong KongPapua New Guinea
BoliviaHungaryRussia
Bosnia-HercegovinaIndonesiaSaudi Arabia
BulgariaIranSweden
CroatiaIrelandSyrian Arab Republic
CyprusJapanTanzania, United Rep.
Czech RepublicLebanonTokelau Islands
DenmarkMacedoniaUkraine
El SalvadorMalaysiaUnited Arab Emirates
EstoniaMauritiusUnited Kingdom
FijiMoroccoUruguay
FinlandMozambiqueVenezuela
Germany, Federal Rep.NicaraguaWestern Samoa
GhanaNigeriaZimbabwe
GrenadaNorway 

Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison

In 2000, a total of 2,525 domestic and 3,998 import samples was collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 40.4% of the domestic samples and in 42.5% of the import samples. Only 0.7% of the domestic samples and only 3.8% of the import samples were violative. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was 0.0% domesticvs.2.0% import. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group or the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group among either domestic or import samples. Of domestic fruits, 0.5% were violative; of import fruits, the violation rate was 2.1%. Of vegetables, 1.1% of domestic samples and 6.1% of import samples were violative. In the category "Other" the rates for domestic and import samples were, respectively, 1.1% and 2.3%. Of the violative samples, two of the domestic ones and seven of the import ones contained pesticide residues at levels which exceeded the tolerance for the given chemical in the given commodity. The remainder of the violative samples contained pesticide residues which were not registered in the U.S. for use in the commodities in which they were found; 15 domestic samples and 146 import samples fell into this category.

Pesticide Coverage

Table 3 lists the396 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used; each of the 117 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk.

FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the U.S. The list of pesticides detectable for 2000 (Table 3) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research.

Table 3. Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods Used in 2000 Regulatory Monitoringa,b
acephate*DDT*hexachlorobenzene*piperonyl butoxide*
acetochlorDEFhexaconazole*piperophos
acibenzolar-S-methyldeltamethrinhexazinonepirimicarb*
acrinathrindeltamethrin, trans-hexythiazoxpirimiphos-ethyl
alachlordemeton*imazalil*pirimiphos-methyl*
aldicarb*desmetrynimazamethabenz methyl esterpretilachlor
aldrindialiforiprobenfosprimisulfuron-methyl
allethrindi-allateiprodione*probenazole
allidochlorN,N-diallyl-dichloroacetamideiprodione metabolite isomer*prochloraz*
alpha-cypermethrin*diazinon*isazofosprocyazine
ametryndibutyl phthalateisocarbamidprocymidone*
aminocarbdichlobenil*isofenphosprodiamine
amitraz*dichlofenthionisoprocarbprofenofos*
anilazinedichlofluanid*isopropalinprofluralin
AramitedichloneisoprothiolaneProlan
atrazine*4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decaneisoxabenpromecarb
azinphos-ethyl2,6-dichlorobenzamide*isoxaflutoleprometryn
azinphos-methyl*2,4-dichloro-6-nitrobenzenaminekresoxim-methylpronamide*
benalaxyl*dichlorvoslactofenpropachlor
bendiocarbdiclobutrazollambda-cyhalothrinpropanil
benfluralindiclofop-methyllenacilpropargite*
benodanildicloran*leptophospropazine
benomyl/carbendazimcdicofol*lindane*propetamphos
benoxacordicrotophos*linuron*propham
bensulidedieldrin*malathion*propiconazole*
benzoylprop-ethyldiethatyl-ethylmecarbampropoxur
6-benzyladenineDilanmephosfolanprothiofos
BHC*dimethachlormerphosprothoate
bifenoxdimethametrynmetalaxyl*pyracarbolid
bifenthrin*dimethipinmetaldehyde*pyrazon
binapacryldimethoate*metasystox thiolpyrazophos
biphenyl*dinitraminemetazachlorpyrethrins
bitertanoldinobutonmethabenzthiazuronpyridaphenthion
bromacildinocapmethaldehydepyrimethanil
bromophosdioxabenzofosmethamidophos*pyriproxyfen
bromophos-ethyldioxacarbmethidathion*quinalphos*
bromopropylate*dioxathionmethiocarb*quintozene*
bromoxynildiphenamidmethomyl*quizalofop ethyl ester
bromuconazolediphenylamine*methoprotryneresmethrin*
bufencarbdipropetrynmethoxychlor*ronnel
Bulandisulfoton2-methoxy-5,6-trichloropyridineS-bioallethrin
bupirimate*diuronmethyl chloridesalithion
buprofezinDPX-MP0623-methyl-4-nitrophenolschradan
butachloredifenphosmetobromuronsecbumeton
butralinendosulfan*metolachlorsimazine
butyl benzyl phthalateendrin*metolcarbsimetryn
butylateEPN*metribuzinStrobane
cadusafosepoxiconazolemevinphos*sulfallate
captafolEPTC*MGK 264*sulfotepp
captan*esfenvalerate*mirexSulphenone
carbaryl*etaconazolemolinatesulprofos
carbofuran*ethalfluralinmonocrotophos*TCMTB
carbophenothionethephonmonolinurontebuconazole*
carbosulfanethiofencarbmonurontebupirimfos
carboxinethiolatemyclobutanil*tecnazene*
carfentrazone ethyl esterethion*naledtefluthrin
chlorbensideethion oxygen analog*napropamideTEPP
chlorbromuronethofumesatenaptalam*terbacil
chlorbufamethopropneburonterbufos
chlordane*ethoxyquin*nitralinterbumeton
chlordeconeethylenebisdithiocarbamatesdnitrapyrinterbuthylazine
chlordimeform*ethylene glycol*nitrofenterbutryn
chlorethoxyfosetridiazolenitrofluorfentetradifon*
chlorfenapyretrimfosnitrothal-isopropyl2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline*
chlorfenvinphosfamphurnoreatetraiodoethylene
chlorflurecol methyl esterfenamiphosnorflurazon*tetrasul
chlorimuron ethyl esterfenarimol*nuarimolthiabendazole*
chlornitrofenfenbuconazole*octhilinonethiamethoxam
chlorobenzilatefenfuramofuracethiazopyr
3-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazolefenhexamid*omethoate*thiobencarb
5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazolefenitrothion*ovexthiodicarb
chloroneb*fenoxaprop ethyl esteroxadiazonthiometon
chloropicrinfenoxycarboxadixyl*thionazin
chloropropylatefenpropathrin*oxamyl*thiophanate-methyl
chlorothalonil*fenpropimorphoxydemeton-methyl*THPI
chloroxuronfensonoxyfluorfentolylfluanid*
chlorpropham*fensulfothionoxythioquinoxtoxaphene*
chlorpyrifos*fenthionpaclobutrazoltralomethrin
chlorpyrifos-methyl*fenvalerate*paraquattraloxydim
chlorthiophosfipronilparathion*triadimefon*
clodinafop-propargylflamprop-M-isopropylparathion-methyl*triadimenol*
clomazoneflamprop-methylpebulate*tri-allate
cloquintocet-mexylfluazifop butyl esterpenconazoletriazamate
coumaphosfluazinampendimethalin1,2,4-triazole
crotoxyphosfluchloralinpentachlorobenzene*triazophos
crufomateflucythrinatepentachlorobenzonitrile*tribufos
cyanazinefludioxinil*pentachlorophenyl methyl ethertrichlorfon
cyanofenphosflufenacetpermethrin*tricyclazole
cyanophosflusilazolePerthanetridiphane
cycloatefluvalinate*phenmedipham*trietazine
4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide, cis-*folpet*phenothrintriflumizole
cycluronfonofosphenthoatetrifluralin*
cyfluthrinformothion4-(phenylamino)phenol*triflusulfuron methyl ester
cymoxanilfosthiazatephenylphenol, ortho-*trimethacarb
cypermethrin*fuberidazolephorate*vamidothion sulfone
cyprazinefurilazolephosalone*vernolate
cyproconazoleGardonaphosmet*vinclozolin*
cyprodinil*heptachlor*phosphamidonXMC
DCPA*heptenophosphoxim oxygen analogzoxamide
 
a The list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
b Some of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
c The analytical methodology determines carbendazim, which may result from use of benomyl or carbendazim.
d Such as maneb.

Animal Feeds

In 2000, a total of 455 domestic and 58 import feed samples was collected and analyzed for residues. Of the 455 domestic samples, 260 (56.1%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 9 (2.0%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance (Table 4). Of the 58 import samples, 35 (60.3%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 5 (8.6%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance.

Table 4. Summary of 2000 Domestic Feed Samples
Type of FeedTotal
# Samples
Without ResiduesExceeding Guidance
#%#%
 
Whole/Ground Grains21713964.141.8
Plant By-products1056360.054.8
Mixed Feed Rations943335.100.0
Animal by-products312064.500.0
Supplements6466.7000
Hay & Hay Products2150.000.0
      
Total45526056.192.0

The following 6 residues in domestic samples were considered to have exceeded regulatory guidance because there is no tolerance or action level established for the pesticide-commodity combination: 0.039 ppm of vinclozolin on a sample of canola meal from Canada (collected in South Dakota by the Minneapolis district); 0.085 ppm of methamidophos on a citrus pulp sample from Georgia (collected by the Atlanta district); 0.169 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl on a corn sample from Missouri (collected by the Kansas City district); 0.030 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl on a corn sample from North Dakota (collected by the Minneapolis district); 0.052 ppm chlorpyrifos-methyl on a corn sample from North Carolina (collected by the Atlanta district); 0.092 ppm of pirimiphos-methyl on a cottonseed meal sample from Texas (collected by the Dallas district); 0.050 ppm of chlorpyrifos on one sample of grass seed screenings and 0.171 ppm of chlorothalonil on another sample of grass seed screenings, both from Oregon (collected by the Seattle district).

Two domestic samples had residues that exceeded an EPA tolerance or a FDA requested maximum level. One of the samples of grass seed screenings from Oregon and collected by the Seattle district also contained 1.282 ppm of DDT + DDE. A sample of soybeans from Oregon and collected by the Seattle district contained 1.700 ppm of DDT + DDE. These residues exceeded the 0.5 ppm action level for DDT + DDE in processed animal feed and most grains in the Federal Register; April 17, 1990; pages 14359-63.

The following 4 residues in 5 import samples were found to have exceeded regulatory guidance because there is no tolerance or action level established for the pesticide-commodity combination: 3.770 ppm of Gardona on a cane molasses sample from Mexico (collected by the Los Angeles district); 0.070 ppm and 0.030 ppm of chlorpyrifos on two samples of canola seed fines from Canada (collected by the Seattle district); 0.192 ppm of biphenyl on a sample of dried marigold pellets from Thailand (collected by the Dallas district); and 0.040 ppm of methamidophos on a Sudan grass hay sample from Mexico (collected by the Los Angeles district).

In the 195 domestic samples of feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 317 residues (216 quantifiable and 101 trace). Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, methoxychlor, and pirimiphos-methyl were the most frequently found and accounted for 75.4% of all residues detected (Table 5).

Table 5. Residues Found in Domestic Feeds in 2000
 # of Samples with  
PesticideTrace
Amounta
Quantifiable
Levels
Rangeb
(ppm)
Medianb
(ppm)
 
malathion29910.006 - 5.2300.090
chlorpyrifos-methyl22450.016 - 1.6800.122
pirimiphos-methyl12140.024 - 6.4100.512
chlorpyrifos690.005 - 0.6000.050
diazinon1100.010 - 0.1580.031
methoxychlor (p,p' + o,p')16100.032 - 0.9900.173
ethion120.043 - 0.070N/A
iprodione + metabolite030.120 - 2.6000.190
DDT + DDE + TDE (p,p' + o,p')370.024 - 1.7000.069
tribufos (DEF)030.042 - 0.0950.057
dicofol050.190 - 1.0000.360
benomyl30N/AN/A
permethrin030.070 - 0.4000.150
all othersc8140.039 - 1.9500.177
 
a Residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.
b In samples containing quantifiable levels.
c n=2 for carbaryl, endosulfan (I + II + sulfate), Gardona, methamidophos, parathion or its methyl homolog, and vinclozolin; n=1 for Aroclor 1254, chlorothalonil, chlorpropham, dieldrin, ethoxyquin, imazalil, phosmet, o-phenylphenol, propiconazole, and tebuconazole.

Summary: Regulatory Monitoring

No residues were found in 59.6% of domestic and in 57.5% of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring in 2000. Only 0.7% of domestic and 3.8% of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 2000 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (4a, 4b). Animal feed samples (455 domestic, 58 import) were analyzed. No residues were found in 56.1% of the domestic samples and in 60.3% of the import samples.

 

Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

Pie chart comparison of domestic and import data, link to description

Incidence/Level Monitoring

Special Surveys

Canola. In 2000, FDA issued a special assignment to determine incidences and levels of certain pesticides in domestic and Canadian canola. Specifically, a total of 25 samples of canola entering the U.S. from Canada (6 seed, 5 oil, and 14 meal) and 12 domestic canola samples (3 seed, 1 oil, and 8 meal) was analyzed. The seed and oil samples were analyzed for 21 pesticide chemicals; the meal samples were analyzed for 22 pesticide chemicals.

Canadian samples were collected from several consignee locations that represented as many different Provinces as possible. All samples collected from the various FDA districts were sent to the FDA's Southeast Regional Laboratory for the analysis for the 21 pesticides; all canola meal samples were additionally analyzed for the pesticide benomyl.

No pesticide residues were detected in any of the domestic samples. Trace amounts of the residues of vinclozolin, endosulfan and/or malathion were found in four Canadian samples of canola seed. U.S. tolerances for endosulfan and vinclozolin on canola seed are 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively; there is no U.S. tolerance for malathion on canola. Residues of chlorpyrifos were found in two samples of canola meal; the levels detected were 0.029 ppm and 0.061 ppm. The former sample also contained a trace amount of lindane. A third sample contained a trace amount of lindane only. No U.S. tolerances have been established for chlorpyrifos and lindane in canola. No residues were detected in Canadian samples of canola oil.

Summary: Incidence/Level Monitoring

Results of the survey of canola show that, as in FDA's regulatory monitoring, the levels of most pesticide residues found in this commodity are generally well below U.S. tolerances, and only three violative residues were found.

Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study (TDS) is distinct from regulatory monitoring in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (3). To measure the low levels of residues found in the TDS foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured. Of the almost 400 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, 107 individual residues were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here (Market Baskets 99-3, 00-1, 00-2, and 00-3). Among these were 55 pesticides, including 14 which represent more than one related compound counted as a "total", 22 volatile organic compounds for which 70 TDS foods per basket are now being examined, and 9 other organic compounds.

Table 6 lists the 16 most frequently found residues (those found in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in 2000 (1035 food items). The five most frequently observed chemicals, DDT, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, endosulfan, and dieldrin, are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these residues, as well as the others listed in Table 6, are well below regulatory limits.

Information obtained through the TDS is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides; these intakes are then compared with established standards. Dietary intakes based on TDS samples collected through mid-1991 have been published previously. (5, 6)

Table 6. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 2000a
PesticidebTotal No. of FindingsOccurrence, %Range, ppm
 
DDT220210.0001-0.062
malathion188180.0003-0.078
chlorpyrifos-methyl184180.0002-0.086
endosulfan154150.0001-0.060
dieldrin118110.0001-0.014
chlorpyrifos6660.0003-0.106
permethrin5650.0008-2.450
chlorpropham5550.0009-1.393
iprodione5450.0008-5.103
carbarylc4340.001-1.190
lindane3030.0001-0.003
thiabendazoled2930.018-0.525
dicloran2730.0003-0.657
heptachlor2320.0001-0.001
dicofol2220.001-0.312
methoxychlor2120.0003-0.031
 
a Based on 4 market baskets analyzed in 2000 consisting of 1035 items total.
b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 95-96 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 383 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 67 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 268 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides thiabendazole and benomyl.

For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under TDS. This adjunct to the TDS included 20 different food items in three baskets (00-1, 00-2, and 00-3; 99-3 included 19 food items) represented here (7 fruit juices, 5 fruits, 4 fruit desserts, and 4 grain products). Table 7 lists the18 pesticide residues found in four collections of these foods (78 samples total) in 2000, the percentage occurrence, and ranges of levels found.

Table 7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 2000a
PesticidebTotal No. of FindingsOccurrence, % Range, ppm
 
carbarylc1418 0.002-0.015
endosulfan13170.0002-0.0025
iprodione9120.0007-0.096
malathion9120.0008-0.024
chlorpyrifos-methyl8100.001-0.007
ethylenethiouread790.004-0.011
chlorpyrifos680.0006-0.002
thiabendazolee680.018-0.94
permethrin560.0012-0.025
benomyle450.041-0.065
dimethoate230.001-0.008
hexachlorobenzene230.0002-0.0002
propiconazole230.005-0.007
parathion-methyl110.003
dicloran110.008
omethoate110.004
fenvalerate110.003
phosmet110.015
 
a Based on 4 collections consisting of 78 total items.
b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13-14 selected foods per collection (i.e., 54 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 11-12 selected foods per collection (i.e., 46 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.
e Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13-14 selected foods per collection (i.e., 54 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides (thiabendazole and benomyl).

Summary: Total Diet Study

In 2000, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports(4a, 4b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

Summary

A total of 6,523 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 82 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 2000. FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (455 domestic, 58 import) for pesticides. No residues were found in 56.1% of the domestic samples and in 60.3% of the import samples. Total Diet Study findings for 2000 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately.

This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD: Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages: Carolyn M. Makovi, Mark S. Wirtz, and Marion Clower, Jr., Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals; Young H. Lee, Division of Programs and Enforcement Policy; S. Kathleen Egan, Division of Risk Assessment; Office of Management Systems: Sharon A. Macuci, Division of Information Resources Management; Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD: Randall Lovell; Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS: Sheila K. Egan and Chris A. Sack.

The database containing the data from which this report was derived is also available from FDA's World Wide Web site, at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov. The 1996 through 1999 reports and databases are available at the same site. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 1-800-553-6847); or from NTIS's website at http://www.ntis.gov. Order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

References

(1)Code of Federal Regulations (1999) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, 186.

(2)Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions), available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov, and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC.

(3)Pennington, J. A. T., Capar, S. G., Parfitt, C. H., & Edwards, C. W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993.J. AOAC Int.79, 163-170.

(4a)Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994.
J. AOAC Int.78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

(4b)Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995, 1998 (and earlier reports in the series). Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.

(5)Gunderson, E. L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986.J. AOAC Int.78, 910-921.

(6)Gunderson, E. L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals.J. AOAC Int.78, 1353- 1363.

(7)Pennington, J. A. T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply.Food Addit. Contam.9, 253-264.

(8)Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study.J. Nutr. Educ.24, 173-178.

(9)Pennington, J. A. T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.


Appendix A. Analysis of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group in 2000

Commodity GroupTotal
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativea, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
 
A. Grains and
Grain Products
 
Barley & barley products988.90.0  
Corn & corn products3879.00.0  
Oats & oat products1040.00.0  
Rice & rice products2387.00.0  
Soybeans & soybean products1080.00.0  
Wheat & wheat products14040.00.0  
Other grains & grain products20.00.0  
Breakfast cereals2588.00.0  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.1136.40.0  
 
Total
26856.70.00
0
 
B. Milk/Dairy
Products/Eggs
 
Cheese & cheese products785.70.0  
Eggs1687.50.0  
Milk/cream & milk products4295.20.0  
 
Total
6592.30.00
0
 
C. Fish/Shellfish/
Other Aquatic Products
 
Fish and Fish Products11373.50.0  
Shellfish & Crustaceans2382.60.0  
Other Aquatic Animals & Products2100.00.0  
 
Total
13875.40.00
0
 
D. Fruits 
Blackberries1127.30.0  
Blueberries3158.10.0  
Cranberries1369.20.0  
Grapes, raisins2962.10.0  
Raspberries1833.35.6 1
Strawberries4746.80.0  
 
Grapefruit1625.00.0  
Lemons267.70.0  
Limes2100.00.0  
Oranges9043.30.0  
 
Apples21445.30.5 1
Pears7236.10.0  
Other pome fruit911.10.0  
 
Apricots1010.00.0  
Avocados4100.00.0  
Cherries5827.63.5 2
Dates2100.00.0  
Nectarines2227.30.0  
Peaches11630.20.91 
Plums1861.10.0  
Other pit fruit3100.00.0  
 
Bananas, plantains250.00.0  
Mangoes4100.00.0  
 
Cantaloupe1866.70.0  
Honeydew2100.00.0  
Watermelon977.80.0  
Other melons616.70.0  
 
Apple juice5352.80.0  
Citrus juice3100.00.0  
Other fruit juices1883.30.0  
 
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings5219.20.0  
 
Total
97841.70.51
4
 
E. Vegetables 
Corn5494.40.0  
 
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)3794.60.0  
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)11873.70.0  
Other beans & peas & products8689.51.2 1
 
Cucumbers4381.40.0  
Eggplant683.316.7 1
Okra2100.00.0  
Peppers, hot1573.30.0  
Peppers, sweet2263.60.0  
Squash/pumpkins4667.42.2 1
Tomatoes6573.86.2 4
 
Artichokes3100.00.0  
Asparagus2286.40.0  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage1100.00.0  
Broccoli1471.40.0  
Cabbage3296.90.0  
Cauliflower1883.30.0  
Celery1233.30.0  
Collards1181.80.0  
Kale250.00.0  
Lettuce, head2147.60.0  
Lettuce, leaf3441.20.0  
Mustard greens580.00.0  
Spinach2642.30.0  
Other leaf & stem vegetables1464.37.1 1
 
Mushrooms and Truffles3100.00.0  
 
Carrots9662.50.0  
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots2982.83.51 
Potatoes10259.82.0 2
Radishes2100.00.0  
Red beets4100.00.0  
Sweet potatoes1973.70.0  
Turnips2100.00.0  
Other root & tuber vegetables10.00.0  
 
Vegetables with sauce2100.00.0  
Vegetables, dried or paste1100.00.0  
Other vegetables/vegetable products1693.80.0  
 
Total
98673.51.11
10
 
F. Other 
Peanuts & peanut products1693.80.0  
Edible seeds425.025.0 1
 
Vegetable oil, crude3100.00.0  
Vegetable oil, refined1100.00.0  
 
Spices & condiments & flavors837.50.0  
 
Beverages & water3100.00.0  
Coffee/tea/wine250.00.0  
 
Honey & other sweeteners4100.00.0  
Baby foods/formula26100.00.0  
 
Total
9062.21.101
 
Total A-F
2,52559.60.72
15
 
a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
b Residue in one or more samples exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

Appendix B. Analysis of Import Samples by Commodity Group in 2000

Commodity GroupTotal
Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violativea, %
# over
tolerance
# no
tolerance
A. Grains and Grain Products 
Barley & barley products5100.00.0  
Corn & corn products580.020.0 1
Oats & oat products5100.00.0  
Rice & rice products2996.50.0  
Soybeans & soybean products3100.00.0  
Wheat & wheat products366.70.0  
Other grains & grain products887.50.0  
Breakfast cereals3100.00.0  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.1291.78.3 1
Pasta & noodles2842.90.0  
Total10179.22.00
2
B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs 
Cheese & cheese products875.00.0  
Eggs3100.00.0  
Milk/cream & milk products3100.00.0  
 
Total1485.70.00
0
 
C. Fish/Shellfish/Other Aquatic Products 
Fish & Fish Products18988.90.0  
Shellfish & Crustaceans1883.30.0  
Other Aquatic Animals & Products10.00.0  
 
Total20888.00.00
0
D. Fruits 
Blackberries5143.17.8 4
Blueberries2147.60.0  
Cranberries250.00.0  
Grapes, raisins20124.41.0 2
Raspberries4652.22.2 1
Strawberries9115.49.9 9
Other berries1338.57.7 1
 
Clementines147.10.0  
Grapefruit1100.00.0  
Lemons650.00.0  
Limes1681.20.0  
Oranges2770.43.7 1
Other citrus fruit333.30.0  
 
Apples5058.02.0 1
Pears6354.00.0  
Other pome fruit4100.00.0  
 
Apricots3100.00.0  
Avocados39100.00.0  
Cherries1650.00.0  
Dates2100.00.0  
Nectarines3611.10.0  
Olives10100.00.0  
Peaches4431.84.5 2
Plums4520.00.0  
 
Bananas, plantains31422.30.3 1
Guavas560.020.0 1
Kiwi fruit1275.00.0  
Mangoes5298.10.0  
Papaya5782.51.8 1
Pineapple4454.50.0  
Other sub-tropical fruit3577.111.4 4
 
Bitter melon1833.35.6 1
Cantaloupe4436.40.0  
Honeydew2626.93.9 1
Watermelon2055.05.0 1
Other melons1258.30.0  
 
Other fruits580.00.0  
 
Apple juice2295.50.0  
Citrus juice6100.00.0  
Other fruit juices4783.02.1 1
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings8683.71.2 1
 
Total1,60945.92.10
33
 
E. Vegetables 
Corn14100.00.0  
 
Mung beans and bean sprouts8100.00.0  
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)4768.112.8 6
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)7042.914.3 10
Other beans & peas & products7668.49.2 7
 
Cucumbers8631.41.2 1
Eggplant2475.00.0  
Okra1872.211.1 2
Peppers, hot24825.49.3518
Peppers, sweet15147.03.3 5
Squash/pumpkins16246.35.6 9
Tomatoes16755.73.014
Other fruiting vegetables4273.80.0  
 
Artichokes887.50.0  
Asparagus6095.01.7 1
Bamboo shoots5100.00.0  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage1560.020.0 3
Broccoli3677.80.0  
Cabbage1963.221.1 4
Cauliflower1392.37.7 1
Celery1855.60.0  
Endive1478.60.0  
Kale1492.90.0  
Lettuce, head1643.80.0  
Lettuce, leaf1752.90.0  
Mustard greens5100.00.0  
Radicchio785.70.0  
Spinach3125.822.616
Other leaf & stem vegetables8365.19.6 8
 
Mushrooms and Truffles27100.00.0  
 
Carrots1384.67.7 1
Cassava10100.00.0  
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots9886.73.1 3
Potatoes1593.30.0  
Radishes2885.70.0  
Red beets837.525.0 2
Sweet potatoes1586.713.3 2
Turnips1100.00.0  
Water chestnuts1172.727.3 3
Other root & tuber vegetables2989.710.3 3
 
Vegetables with sauce3100.00.0  
Vegetables, dried or paste7177.58.4 4
Other vegetables/vegetable products4776.64.3 2
Total1,85059.26.17
105
 
F. Other 
Cashews5386.80.0  
Coconut & coconut products5100.00.0  
Peanuts & peanut products887.512.5 1
Other nuts & nut products2195.20.0  
 
Edible seeds1788.25.9 1
 
Vegetable oil, crude633.30.0  
Vegetable oil, refined8100.00.0  
 
Spices & condiments & flavors3369.73.0 1
 
Beverages & water7100.00.0  
Beverage bases9100.00.0  
Coffee/tea/wine9100.00.0  
 
Honey & other sweeteners20100.00.0  
Baby foods/formula3100.00.0  
 
Other food products, incl. prepared foods1275.00.0  
Nonfood items580.060.0 3
 
Total21686.62.80
6
 
Total A-F3,99857.53.67
146
 
a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
b Residue in one or more samples exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

Descriptions of Figures

Figure 1: Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity

Description: Pie charts for six commodity groups that depict the proportion of domestic samples with no detectable residues, with violative residues, or with non-violative residues. The following table gives the number of samples and percentages in each category for each commodity group.

Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
CommodityNumber of SamplesNo Residue FoundResidue Found Not ViolativeResidue Found Violative
Grains and Grain Products26856.7%43.3% 
Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs6592.3%7.7% 
Fish/shellfish
Other Aquatic Products
13875.4%24.6% 
Fruits97841.7%57.8%0.5%
Vegetables98673.5%25.4%1.1%
Other9062.2%36.7%1.1%

Figure 2: Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity

Description: Pie charts for six commodity groups that depict the proportion of import samples with no detectable residues, with violative residues, or with non-violative residues. The following table gives the number of samples and percentages in each category for each commodity group.

Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity
CommodityNumber of SamplesNo Residue FoundResidue Found Not ViolativeResidue Found Violative
Grains and Grain Products10179.2%18.8%2.0%
Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs1485.7%14.3% 
Fish/shellfish
Other Aquatic Products
20888.0%12.0% 
Fruits160952.0%45.9%2.1%
Vegetables185059.2%34.7%6.1%
Other21686.6%11.1%2.3%

Figure 3: Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

Description: Pie charts for domestic and import samples that depict the proportion of samples with no detectable residues, with violative residues, or with non-violative residues. The following table gives the number of samples and the percentages in each category.

Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples
 Number of SamplesNo Residue FoundResidue Found Not ViolativeResidue Found Violative
Domestic252559.6%39.7%0.7%
Import399857.5%38.7%3.8%