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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1999

Table of Contents

 

  • FDA Monitoring Program

     

  • Results and Discussion

     

  • Summary

     

  • References
  • Appendix A. Analysis of Domestic Samples by Commodity Group in 1999
  • Appendix B. Analysis of Import Samples by Commodity Group in 1999

     

     

    Figures

     

    1. Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
    2. Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity
    3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples

     

     

    Tables

     

    1. Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in 1999
    2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 1999
    3. Pesticides Detectable and Found by Methods Used in 1999 Regulatory Monitoring
    4. Summary of 1999 Domestic Feed Samples
    5. Residues Found in Feeds in 1999
    6. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1999
    7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1999

     

    This is the thirteenth annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. Eight of the twelve previous reports were published in theJournal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International; these presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994. Results from FY 1995 through FY 1998 were published on FDA's World Wide Web site. This current report includes findings obtained during FY 1999 (October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 1999 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

    FDA Monitoring Program

    Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e.,approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amounts of residues that are permitted in or on a food) if use of a particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (1). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestic foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. Since 1991, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed at raw agricultural products and various processed foods. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

    Regulatory Monitoring

    Under this approach to pesticide residue monitoring, FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed as the unwashed, whole (unpeeled), raw commodity. Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for that particular food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination" (previously called automatic detention) may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

    Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

    Analytical Methods

    To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (2).

    Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods (2). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. This type of methods is usually more resource-intensive per residue. Therefore, SRMs are much less cost effective than MRMs.

    The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace" is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LOQ).

    FDA/State Cooperation

    FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e., imported vs.domestic products).

    Animal Feeds

    In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g., laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), CVM's monitoring focuses on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become, or produce, foods for human consumption.

    International Activities

    FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act.

    Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the U.S., Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The NAFTA Pesticide TWG now serves as the focal point for all pesticide issues that arise among the three NAFTA countries. The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee.

    One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects has been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this process is difficult, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries. FDA's activities on the TWG complement its ongoing trilateral cooperation with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada.

    Beyond the North American agreements, FDA continues to collaborate with New Zealand to implement a "residue compliance assurance program." New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing a plan whereby their government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the U.S. would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

    Incidence/Level Monitoring 

    FDA's pesticide program includes incidence/level monitoring to complement regulatory monitoring. This approach increases FDA's knowledge about particular pesticide/commodity combinations. This information is acquired by analyses of randomly selected samples to determine the presence and levels of selected pesticides. In 1999, FDA issued two special assignments, to determine incidences and levels of certain pesticides in wheat entering the U.S. from Canada, and to determine incidences and levels of forchlorfenuron, a growth regulator, on grapes entering the U.S. from Mexico.

    Total Diet Study

    The Total Diet Study is the other major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (3). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-1998 (4a, 4b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (5) and July 1986-April 1991 (6), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990 (7). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (8, 9).

    In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 261 foods that comprise each of the 4 market baskets represent over 3,500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each market basket is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

     

    Results and Discussion

    Regulatory Monitoring

    Under regulatory monitoring, 9,438 samples were analyzed. Of these 3,426 were domestic and 6,012 were imports.

    Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 3,426 domestic samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

    As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 1999; those two commodity groups comprised 72.3% of the total number of domestic samples. In 1999, no violative residues were found in 99.2% of all domestic samples (99.1% in 1996, 98.8% in 1997, 99.2 % in 1998.).

    Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 3,426 domestic samples, 60.2% had no detectable residues and 0.8% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 38.8% and 69.7% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected. 0.6% of the fruit samples and 1.2% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the grains and grain products group, 61.3% of the samples had no residues detected, and 0.2% had violative residues. In the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group, 71.1% had no detectable residues, and no violative residues were found. In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 97.4% of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. 38 samples of baby foods or formula were analyzed (see category Other). This total included 20 vegetable, 4 cereal, and 14 fruit juice samples. None of the samples had violative residues.

    Findings by commodity group for the 6,012 import samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 84.1% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 96.9% of the import samples (97.4% in 1996, 98.4% in 1997, 97.0% in 1998).

    Appendix B contains detailed data on the import samples. Of the 6,012 samples analyzed, 65.0% had no residues detected, and 3.1% had violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 57.5% and 64.8%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had 1.8% and 3.9%, respectively, with violative residues. No residues were found in 95.5% of the milk/dairy products/eggs group and in 95.0% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups. In the grains and grain products group, 75.4% had no detectable residues, and 0.7% had violative residues.

    Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1999 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 1999 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes the monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992-1998 is provided at the end of this report.

    Geographic Coverage

    Domestic. 3,426 domestic samples were collected in 1999 from 47 states (no samples were collected from Rhode Island, New Hampshire, or Oklahoma) and from Puerto Rico. The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic samples from each location, in order of descending numbers of samples.

    Import. 6,012 samples representing food shipments from 92 countries were collected. (The origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 2 lists numbers of samples collected from each country. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

    Domestic/Import Violation Rate Comparison

    In 1999, 3,426 domestic and 6,012 import samples were collected and analyzed. Pesticide residues were detected in 39.8% of the domestic samples and in 35.0% of the import samples. Only 0.8% of the domestic samples and only 3.1% of the import samples were violative. Among grains and grain products, the violation rate was 0.2% domestic vs. 0.7% import. No violations were found in the milk/dairy products/eggs group or the fish/shellfish/other aquatic products group among either domestic or import samples. Of domestic fruits, 0.6% were violative; of import fruits, the violation rate was 1.8%. Of vegetables, 1.2% of domestic samples and 3.9% of import samples were violative. In the category "Other" the rates for domestic and import samples were, respectively, 1.4% and 10.6%. Except for this last category, the overall rate of violations is approximately one domestic violation for three import violations. Of the violative samples, eight of the domestic ones and 19 of the import ones contained pesticide residues at levels which exceeded the tolerance for the given chemical in the given commodity. The remainder of the violative samples contained pesticide residues which were not registered in the U.S. for use in the commodities in which they were found; 18 domestic samples and 169 import samples fell in this category.

    Pesticide Coverage

    Table 3 lists the 366 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used; each of the 90 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk.

    FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the U.S. The list of pesticides detectable for 1999 (Table 3) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research.

    Animal Feeds

    In 1999, 463 domestic and 61 import feed samples were collected and analyzed for residues. Of the 463 domestic samples, 274 (59.2%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 7 (1.5%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance (Table 4). Of the 61 import samples, 33 (54.1%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, and 10 (16.4%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance.

    The following 5 residues in domestic samples were considered to have exceeded regulatory guidance because there is no tolerance or action level established for the pesticide-commodity combination: 0.028 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl on a sample of hominy (feed) from Texas (collected by the Dallas district); 0.047 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl on a soybean meal sample from Iowa (collected by the Kansas City district); 0.422 ppm of chlorpyrifos-methyl on a chopped corn sample from Colorado (collected by the Denver district); 0.036 ppm of captafol on a barley sample from Maryland (collected by the Philadelphia district); 0.039 ppm vinclozolin on a canola meal sample from South Dakota (collected by the Minneapolis district).

    Two domestic samples had residues that exceeded an EPA tolerance or a FDA requested maximum level. A sample of soybean meal from Kansas and collected by the Kansas City district contained 0.254 ppm of diazinon. This residue exceeded the 0.1 ppm tolerance for diazinon on soybeans in 40 CFR 180.153. The Dallas district collected a sample of bite size dry dog food that contained 125 ppm of ethoxyquin. In 1997, the FDA requested that the maximum level of ethoxyquin in complete dog foods be voluntarily lowered from 150 ppm to 75 ppm.

    Ten import samples from Canada (9 canola fines, 1 canola meal) contained 18 pesticide residues that exceeded regulatory guidance. These 10 samples were collected by the Seattle district and contained residues of chlorpyrifos (n=10; range of 0.020-0.090 ppm), malathion (n=7; range of 0.016-1.45 ppm), and vinclozolin (n=1; 0.024 ppm). No tolerance has been established for chlorpyrifos, malathion, or vinclozolin on canola by the EPA.

    In the 189 domestic samples of feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 307 residues (233 quantifiable and 74 trace). Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were the most frequently found and accounted for 76.5% of all residues detected (Table 5).

    Summary: Regulatory Monitoring 

    No residues were found in 60.2% of domestic and in 65.0% of import samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1999. Only 0.8% of domestic and 3.1% of import samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 1999 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (4a, 4b). Animal feed samples (463 domestic, 61 import) were analyzed. 59.2% of the domestic samples and 54.1% of the import samples contained no residues.

    Incidence/Level Monitoring 

     

    Special Surveys

    Wheat. In 1999, FDA issued a special assignment to determine incidences and levels of certain pesticides in wheat entering the U.S. from Canada. Specifically, a total of 30 samples of whole grain wheat entering the U.S. from Canada was analyzed for 17 pesticide chemicals, including seven chlorophenoxy acids, which are registered for use on wheat in the U.S. and/or in Canada.

    Samples of whole grain wheat were collected by the Minneapolis and Detroit Districts, since they were responsible for the ports where most of wheat from Canada enters the U. S. All 30 samples were sent to the Pacific Regional Laboratory Northwest for the determination of ten pesticides (10). Each sample composite was sent to the Kansas City District laboratory to determine the presence of the chlorophenoxy acids (11). Residues were found in only one wheat sample, 0.002 ppm of dicamba and 0.012 ppm of 2,4-D. These residue levels are well below the U.S. tolerances, which are 2.0 ppm and 0.5 ppm respectively.

    Grapes. In 1999, FDA issued a special assignment to determine incidences and levels of forchlorfenuron, a growth regulator, on grapes entering the U.S. from Mexico. FDA had received information that grapes from Mexico might have been treated with forchlorfenuron to improve the growth of berries. Forchlorfenuron is not registered for use in the U.S. Specifically, a total of 52 samples of grapes entering the U.S. from Mexico was analyzed for forchlorfenuron (12)

    Samples of fresh table grapes (29 Superior, 18 Flame, 1 Ruby, 1 Red Globe, 3 Thompson) were collected and analyzed for forchlorfenuron by the Los Angeles District, since it was responsible for the ports where nearly all grapes from Mexico enter the U.S. No forchlorfenuron was detected in these samples. The limit of quantitation is 0.003 ppm.

    Summary: Incidence/Level Monitoring 

    Results of the survey of wheat and grapes show that, as in FDA's regulatory monitoring, the levels of most pesticide residues found in these two commodities are generally well below U.S. tolerances, and no violative residues were found.

    Total Diet Study

    The Total Diet Study (TDS) is distinct from regulatory monitoring in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (3). To measure the low levels of residues found in the TDS foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured. Of the nearly 200 chemicals that can be determined for the analytical methods used, 104 individual residues were found in the foods analyzed in the four market baskets reported here (Market Baskets 98-3, 98-4, 99-1, and 99-2). Among these were 55 pesticides, including 11 which represent more than one related compound counted as a "total", 18 volatile organic compounds for which 70 TDS foods per basket are now being examined, and 10 other organic compounds.

    Table 6 lists the 20 most frequently found residues (those found in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in 1999 (1040 food items). The five most frequently observed chemicals, DDT, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, endosulfan, and dieldrin, are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these residues, as well as the others listed in Table 6, are well below regulatory limits.

    Information obtained through the TDS is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides; these intakes are then compared with established standards. Dietary intakes based on TDS samples collected through mid-1991 have been published previously. (5, 6) Dietary intake estimates based on samples collected since mid-1991 are expected to be published separately in the coming year; a notice will be posted on the TDS website when the paper is scheduled for publication.

    For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under TDS. This adjunct to the TDS included 20 different food items in the four baskets represented here (7 fruit juices, 5 fruits, 4 fruit desserts, and 4 grain products). Table 7 lists the15 pesticide residues found in four collections of these foods (78 samples total) in 1999, the percentage occurrence, and ranges of levels found.

    Summary: Total Diet Study

    In 1999, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports (4a, 4b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1999 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

     

    Summary

    A total of 9,438 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 92 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 1999. FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (463 domestic, 61 import) for pesticides. 59.2% of the domestic samples and 54.1% of the import samples contained no residues. Total Diet Study findings for 1999 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately.

    This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC: Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages: Bernadette M. McMahon (retired), Mark S. Wirtz, Carolyn M. Makovi, and Marion Clower, Jr., Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals; Young H. Lee, Division of Programs and Enforcement Policy; S. Kathleen Egan, Division of Risk Assessment; Office of Management Systems: Sharon A. Macuci, Division of Information Resources Management; Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD: Randall Lovell; Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS: Sheila K. Egan, David F. Graham, and Mark E. Parmon.

    The database containing the data from which this report was derived is also available from FDA's World Wide Web site, at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov. The 1996 through 1998 reports and databases are available at the same site. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 1-800-553-6847); or from NTIS's website at http://www.ntis.gov. Order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

     

    References

    (1)  Code of Federal Regulations (1999) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

    (2)  Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions), available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov, and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC.

    (3)  Pennington, J.A.T., Capar, S.G., Parfitt, C.H., & Edwards, C.W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993. J. AOAC Int. 79, 163-170.

    (4a)  Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994. J. AOAC Int. 78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

    (4b)  Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995, 1998 (and earlier reports in the series). Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.

    (5)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986. J. AOAC Int. 78, 910-921.

    (6)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J. AOAC Int. 78, 1353- 1363.

    (7)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply. Food Addit. Contam. 9, 253-264.

    (8)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study. J. Nutr. Educ. 24, 173-178.

    (9)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

    (10)  Mercer, G.E., and Cummings, L.A. (1999) "Determination of 17 Pesticides of Interest in Wheat Using Mass Spectrometry Selected Ion Monitoring," Laboratory Information Bulletin 4168, FDA, Rockville, MD.

    (11)  U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1993) Standard Operating Procedure KCP5 for the Total Diet Study: Determination of Chlorophenoxy Acids and Pentachlorophenol Residues. Revised March 24, 1995. FDA/Center For Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC.

    (12)  Chiu, K.S., Langham, W.S., Lee, W.H., and Luke, M.A., (1999) "Extraction of Forchlorfenuron (CPPU) from Grapes with LC-UV and LC/ESI/MS Determination," Laboratory Information Bulletin 4169, FDA, Rockville, MD.

     

     

     Figure 1. Summary of Results of Domestic Samples by Commodity
     

    Figure 1: domestic samples


     Figure 2. Summary of Results of Import Samples by Commodity
    Figure 2: imports samples

     Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Samples
    Figure 3: total domestic vs. import samples

     

     Table 1.

    Domestic Samples Collected and Analyzed, by Statea, in 1999

     

    Washington

    747

     Alabama

    25

    California

    403

     North Dakota

    24

    Florida

    338

     South Carolina

    24

    Louisiana

    162

     Iowa

    21

    Minnesota

    145

     Kansas

    19

    Illinois

    138

     Nebraska

    17

    New York

    118

     Wyoming

    15

    Montana

    118

     Georgia

    14

    Wisconsin

    113

     North Carolina

    12

    Oregon

    112

     Colorado

    11

    Idaho

    101

     Massachusetts

    11

    Virginia

    73

     Alaska

    10

    Michigan

    68

     Delaware

    9

    Missouri

    68

     New Mexico

    9

    Ohio

    60

     West Virginia

    9

    Texas

    60

     Hawaii

    8

    Arizona

    54

     Utah

    8

    Indiana

    53

     Arkansas

    3

    New Jersey

    46

     Nevada

    3

    Maryland

    34

     Vermont

    2

    Kentucky

    33

     Connecticut

    1

    South Dakota

    33

     Maine

    1

    Pennsylvania

    30

     Mississippi

    1

    Tennessee

    29

      

     


    Other domestic samples: Puerto Rico, 33 samples.

     


     

     Table 2.
    Foreign Countries and Number of Samples
    Collected and Analyzed in 1999

    Mexico

    2463

     Pakistan

    46

    Chile

    540

     Korea, Rep. of (South)

    45

    China, People Rep.

    248

     Philippines

    44

    Canada

    220

     US misc. Pacific Is.

    43

    Netherlands (Holland)

    191

     Brazil

    41

    Thailand

    169

     Lebanon

    39

    Guatemala

    155

     South Africa

    33

    Ecuador

    139

     Egypt

    31

    India

    129

     Greece

    31

    Costa Rica

    113

     Poland

    27

    Spain (inc. Canary Is.)

    101

     Jamaica

    25

    Peru

    98

     Unspecified

    25

    Dominican Republic

    90

     Germany, Federal Rep.

    22

    Italy

    76

     Honduras

    22

    Viet-Nam, Rep. of

    66

     France

    21

    Taiwan, Republic of

    61

     Indonesia

    21

    Israel

    60

     Panama

    20

    Belgium

    59

     United Kingdom

    20

    New Zealand

    57

     Japan

    17

    Turkey

    57

     Denmark

    13

    Colombia

    55

     Morocco

    12

    Australia

    53

     Nicaragua

    12

    Argentina

    52

     Hong Kong

    11

     

    Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:


    Austria
    Bangladesh
    Belize
    Bhutan
    Bolivia
    Bulgaria
    Croatia
    Cyprus
    El Salvador
    Estonia
    Ethiopia
    Fiji
    Finland
    Ghana
    Grenada
    Haiti
    Hungary
    Ireland
    Ivory Coast
    Jordan
    Kenya
    Macedonia
    Malaysia
      
    Mauritius
    Moldova (Moldavia)
    Mozambique
    Nigeria
    Norway
    Papua New Guinea
    Portugal (inc. Azores)
    Russia
    Saudi Arabia
    Singapore
    Slovenia
    St. Lucia
    St. Pierre & Miquelo
    St. Vincent
    Sweden
    Switzerland
    Tonga
    Trinidad & Tobago
    United Arab Emirates
    Uruguay
    Venezuela
    Western Samoa
    Zambia

     


     

     Table 3.
    Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods
    Used in 1999 Regulatory Monitoringa,b

    2,4-dichloro-6-nitrobenzenamine
    2,4-dichlorobenzamide
    2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine
    3-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole
    4(phenylamino)phenol*
    4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azapiro[4.5]decane
    6-benzyladenine
    acephate*
    acetochlor
    acrinathrin
    alachlor
    aldicarb*
    aldrin
    allethrin
    allidochlor
    alpha-cypermethrin
    ametryn
    aminocarb
    amitraz
    anilazine
    Aramite
    atrazine*
    azinphos-ethyl
    azinphos-methyl*
    bendiocarb
    benfluralin
    benodanil
    benomyl/carbendazimc
    benoxacor
    bensulide
    benzoylprop-ethyl
    BHC*
    bifenox
    bifenthrin*
    binapacryl
    biphenyl*
    bitertanol
    bromacil
    bromophos
    bromophos-ethyl
    bromopropylate
    bromoxynil
    bromuconazole
    bufencarb
    Bulan
    bupirimate
    butachlor
    butralin
    butylate
    cadusafos
    captafol
    captan*
    carbaryl*
    carbofuran
    carbophenothion
    carbosulfan
    carboxin
    carfentrazone ethyl ester
    chlorbenside
    chlorbromuron
    chlorbufam
    chlordane*
    chlordecone
    chlordimeform*
    chlorethoxyfos
    chlorfenapyr
    chlorfenvinphos
    chlorflurecol methyl ester
    chlorimuron ethyl ester
    chlornitrofen
    chlorobenzilate
    chloroneb
    chloropicrin
    chloropropylate
    chlorothalonil*
    chloroxuron
    chlorpropham*
    chlorpyrifos*
    chlorpyrifos-methyl*
    chlorthiophos
    clomazone
    coumaphos
    crotoxyphos
    crufomate
    cyanazine
    cyanofenphos
    cyanophos
    cycloate
    cycluron
    cyfluthrin
    cymoxanil
    cypermethrin*
    cyprazine
    cyproconazole
    cyprodinil
    DCPA*
    DDT*
    deltamethrin
    deltamethrin, trans
    demeton*
    desmetryn
    di-allate
    dialifor
    diazinon*
    dichlobenil
    dichlofenthion
    dichlofluanid*
    dichlone
    dichlorvos*
    diclobutrazol
    diclofop-methyl
    dicloran*
    dicofol*
    dicrotophos
    dieldrin*
    diethatyl-ethyl
    Dilan
    dimethachlor
    dimethametryn
    dimethipin
    dimethoate*
    dinitramine
    dinobuton
    dinocap
    dioxabenzofos
    dioxacarb
    dioxathion
    diphenamid
    diphenylamine*
    dipropetryn
    disulfoton*
    diuron
    edifenphos
    endosulfan*
    endrin*
    EPN
    esfenvalerate*
    etaconazole
    ethalfluralin
    ethephon
    ethiofencarb
    ethion*
    ethofumesate
    ethoprop
    ethoxyquin*
    ethylenebisdithiocarbamates*d
    etridiazole
    etrimfos*
    famphur
    fenamiphos
    fenarimol
    fenbuconazole
    fenfuram
    fenitrothion
    fenobucarb
    fenoxaprop ethyl ester
    fenpropathrin*
    fenpropimorph
    fenson
    fensulfothion
    fenthion
    fenvalerate*
    fipronil
    flamprop-M-isopropyl
    flamprop-methyl
    fluazifop butyl ester
    fluchloralin
    flucythrinate
    fludioxinil
    flusilazole
    fluvalinate
    folpet*
    fonofos
    formothion
    fosthiazate
    fuberidazole
    furilazole
    Gardona
    heptachlor*
    heptenophos
    hexachlorobenzene*
    hexaconazole
    hexazinone
    hexythiazox
    imazalil*
    imazamethabenz methyl ester
    iprobenfos
    iprodione*
    iprodione metabolite isomer*
    isazofos
    isocarbamid
    isofenphos
    isoprocarb
    isopropalin
    isoprothiolane
    isoxaben
    isoxaflutole
    lactofen
    lambda-cyhalothrin
    lenacil
    leptophos
    lindane*
    linuron*
    malathion*
    mecarbam*
    mephosfolan
    merphos
    metalaxyl*
    metaldehyde*
    metasystox thiol
    metazachlor
    methabenzthiazuron
    methamidophos*
    methidathion*
    methiocarb*
    methomyl*
    methoprotryne
    methoxychlor*
    methyl chloride*
    metobromuron
    metolachlor
    metolcarb
    metribuzin
    mevinphos*
    MGK 264
    mirex
    molinate
    monocrotophos*
    monolinuron
    monuron
    myclobutanil*
    N,N-diallyl-dichloroacetamide
    naled*
    napropamide
    naptalam*
    neburon
    nitralin
    nitrapyrin
    nitrofen
    nitrofluorfen
    nitrothal-isopropyl
    norea
    norflurazon
    nuarimol
    octhilinone
    ofurace
    omethoate*
    ovex
    oxadiazon
    oxadixyl
    oxamyl*
    oxydemeton-methyl
    oxyfluorfen
    oxythioquinox
    paclobutrazol
    paraquat
    parathion*
    parathion-methyl*
    pebulate
    penconazole
    pendimethalin
    pentachlorobenzene*
    pentachlorobenzonitrile
    pentachlorophenyl methyl ether*
    permethrin*
    Perthane
    phenmedipham*
    phenothrin
    phenthoate
    phenylphenol, ortho-*
    phorate*
    phosalone*
    phosmet*
    phosphamidon*
    phoxim oxygen analog
    piperonyl butoxide
    piperophos
    pirimicarb
    pirimiphos-ethyl
    pirimiphos-methyl*
    pretilachlor
    probenazole
    prochloraz
    procyazine
    procymidone*
    prodiamine
    profenofos
    profluralin
    Prolan
    promecarb
    prometryn
    pronamide
    propachlor
    propanil
    propargite*
    propazine
    propetamphos
    propham
    propiconazole
    propoxur*
    prothiofos
    prothoate
    pyracarbolid
    pyrazon
    pyrazophos*
    pyrethrins
    pyridaphenthion
    pyrimethanil
    pyriproxyfen
    quinalphos*
    quintozene*
    quizalofop ethyl ester
    ronnel
    S-bioallethrin
    schradan
    secbumeton
    simazine*
    simetryn
    Strobane
    sulfallate
    sulfotep*
    Sulphenone
    sulprofos
    TCMTB
    tebuconazole
    tebupirimfos
    tecnazene
    tefluthrin
    TEPP
    terbacil
    terbufos
    terbumeton
    terbuthylazine
    terbutryn
    tetradifon
    tetraiodoethylene
    tetrasul
    thiabendazole*
    thiazopyr
    thiodicarb
    thiometon
    thionazin
    thiophanate-methyl
    THPI*
    tolylfluanid
    toxaphene
    tralomethrin
    traloxydim
    tri-allate
    triadimefon*
    triadimenol*
    triazamate
    triazophos
    tribufos*
    trichlorfon
    tricyclazole
    tridiphane
    trietazine
    triflumizole
    trifluralin*
    triflusulfuron methyl ester
    trimethacarb
    vamidothion sulfone
    vernolate
    vinclozolin*
    XMC

    The list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide.
       However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites,
       impurities, and alteration products.
    Some of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in
       the United States.
    The analytical methodology determines carbendazim, which may result from
       use of benomyl or carbendazim.
    Such as maneb.

     


     

     Table 4.
    Summary of 1999 Domestic
    Feed Samples

     

     Total #Without residuesExceeding Guidance
    Type of FeedSamples

    #

    %

    #

    %

    Whole/Ground Grains

    173

    121

    69.9

    2

    1.2

    Plant By-products

    117

    66

    56.4

    4

    3.4

    Mixed Feed Rations

    99

    39

    39.4

    1

    1.0

    Animal By-products

    49

    32

    65.3

    0

    0.0

    Supplements

    13

    8

    61.5

    0

    0.0

    Hay & Hay Produsts

    12

    8

    66.7

    0

    0.0

     
    Total

    463

    274

    59.2

    7

    1.5

     


     

     Table 5.
    Residues Found in Domestic Feeds in 1999

     

    No. of Samples with        

     

     
    Pesticide

    Trace
    Amounta

    Quantifiable
    Levels

    Rangeb
    (ppm)

    Medianb
    (ppm)

    malathion

    21

    102

    0.005-6.830

    0.111

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    22

    43

    0.013-0.422

    0.081

    chlorpyrifos

    10

    15

    0.018-1.400

    0.070

    diazinon

    3

    19

    0.012-0.254

    0.041

    methoxychlor (p,p'+o,p')

    6

    6

    0.002-0.049

    0.028

    ethion

    2

    7

    0.011-0.511

    0.053

    iprodione + metabolite

    0

    6

    0.500-4.500

    0.900

    carbaryl

    3

    1

    2.500

    NA

    tribufos (DEF)

    1

    3

    0.038-0.095

    0.055

    imazalil

    0

    4

    0.150-0.900

    0.150

    lindane

    0

    4

    0.012-0.037

    0.020

    dieldrin

    1

    2

    0.024-0.030

    0.027

    ethoxyquinc

    0

    3

    3.500-432.0

    125.0

    permethrin

    0

    3

    0.043-0.900

    0.200

    all othersd

    5

    15

    0.034-7.500d

    0.120


     

    Residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence
       and identity are known.
    In samples containing quantifiable levels.
    Ethoxyquin is approved as a pesticide (plant regulator) at levels up to 3 ppm
       in 40 CFR 180.178. Ethoxyquin is also a feed additive (anti-oxidant) that is approved
       at a level up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380). The 432.0 ppm value
       was present in a fish meal sample.
    n=2 for azinphos-methyl, captan, parathion or its methyl homolog, phosmet, and
       piperonyl butoxide; n=1 for captafol, chlordane (cis + trans), DCPA, dimethoate,
       endosulfan (I + II), nonachlor (trans), pirimiphos-methyl, polychlorinated biphenyl,
       thiabendazole, and vinclozolin.

     


     

     Table 6.
    Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues
    Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1999a

    Pesticideb

    Total No. of Findings

    Occurrence, %

     

    DDT

    225

    22

     

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    188

    18

     

    malathion

    175

    17

     

    endosulfan

    151

    15

     

    dieldrin

    145

    14

     

    chlorpyrifos

    93

    9

     

    chlorpropham

    70

    7

     

    permethrin

    54

    5

     

    iprodione

    48

    5

     

    chlordane

    36

    3

     

    heptachlor

    36

    3

     

    lindane

    33

    3

     

    thiabendazolec

    33

    3

    BHC, alpha+beta+delta

    32

    3

     

    hexachlorobenzene

    32

    3

     

    carbaryld

    31

    3

     

    methamidophos

    29

    3

    methoxychlor

    29

    3

     

    dicloran

    28

    3

     

    dimethoate

    24

    2

     


    Based on 4 market baskets analyzed in 1999 consisting of 260 items each
        (1040 total). Only those found in >2% of the samples are shown.
    Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the
        "parent"pesticide from which they arise.
    Reflects overall incidence; however, only 67 selected foods per market basket
       (i.e.,268 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides
        thiabendazole and benomyl.
    Reflects overall incidence; however, only 96 selected foods per market basket
       (i.e.,384 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.

     


     

     Table 7.
    Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues
    Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1999a

    Pesticideb

    Total No. of Findings

    Occurrence, %

          Range, ppm

    endosulfan

    20

    26

    0.0001-0.0069

    iprodione

    16

    21

    0.0006-0.057

    chlorpyrifos

    11

    14

    0.0003-0.006

    carbarylc

    10

    13

    0.004-0.013

    permethrin

    10

    13

    0.0006-0.060

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    9

    12

    0.0008-0.018

    malathion

    9

    12

    0.002-0.01

    thiabendazoled

    9

    12

    0.018-0.324

    dimethoate

    5

    6

    0.0008-0.004

    ethylenethioureae

    3

    4

    0.004-0.008

    propiconazole

    2

    3

    0.023-0.035

    benomyld

    1

    1

    0.037

    esfenvalerate

    1

    1

    0.008

    fenarimol

    1

    1

    0.001

    fenvalerate

    1

    1

    0.005


    Based on 4 collections consisting of 78 items.
    Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are included with the
       "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
    Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13-14 selected foods per market basket
        (i.e.,54 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
    Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13-14 selected food per market basket
       (i.e.,54 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides
       (thiabendazole and benomyl).
    Reflects overall incidence; however, only 11-12 selected foods per market basket
       (i.e.,46 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.

     


     

     Appendix A.
    Analysis of Domestic Samples by
    Commodity Group in 1999

     

     

    Commodity Group

    Total
    Samples
    Samples
    without
    Residues, %

    Samples
    Violativea, %

    # over
    tolerance

    # no   
    tolerance
    A. Grains and Grain Products
    Corn & corn products

    41

    70.7

    2.4

     

    1

    Oats & oat products

    16

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Rice & rice products

    55

    69.1

    0.0

      
    Soybeans & soybean products

    33

    81.8

    0.0

      
    Wheat & wheat products

    234

    47.4

    0.0

      
    Other grains & grain products

    43

    62.8

    0.0

      
    Breakfast cereals

    33

    87.9

    0.0

      
    Bakery products, crackers, etc.

    7

    57.1

    0.0

      
    Pasta and noodles

    6

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Total

    468

    61.3

    0.2

      
     
    B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs
    Cheese & cheese products

    16

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Eggs

    25

    92.0

    0.0

      
    Milk/cream & milk products

    75

    98.7

    0.0

      
     
    Total

    116

    97.4

    0.0

      
     
    C. Fish/Shellfish
    Fish & Fish Products

    156

    63.5

    0.0

      
    Shellfish & Crustaceans

    61

    90.2

    0.0

      
    Other Aquatic Animals & Products

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Total

    218

    71.1

    0.0

      
     
    D. Fruits
    Blackberries

    4

    25.0

    75.0

    2b

    1

    Blueberries

    32

    59.4

    0.0

      
    Cranberries

    11

    54.5

    0.0

      
    Grapes, raisins

    24

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Raspberries

    27

    11.1

    3.7

     

    1

    Strawberries

    85

    22.4

    2.4

    2b

     
    Other berries

    6

    83.3

    0.0

      
     
    Grapefruit

    24

    16.7

    0.0

      
    Lemons

    9

    22.2

    0.0

      
    Limes

    1

    0.0

    0.0

      
    Oranges

    133

    33.8

    0.0

      
    Other citrus fruit

    8

    75.0

    0.0

      
     
    Apples

    194

    37.6

    0.5

      
    Pears

    28

    28.6

    0.0

      
     
    Apricots

    19

    5.3

    0.0

      
    Avocadoes

    2

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Cherries

    78

    15.4

    0.0

      
    Nectarines

    17

    11.8

    0.0

      
    Peaches

    132

    21.2

    0.0

      
    Plums

    7

    42.9

    0.0

      
     
    Bananas, plantains

    5

    60.0

    0.0

      
    Mangoes

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Papaya

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Pineapple

    1

    0.0

    0.0

      
    Other sub-tropical fruit

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Cantaloupe

    41

    70.7

    0.0

      
    Honeydew

    7

    71.4

    0.0

      
    Watermelon

    31

    90.3

    0.0

      
    Other melons

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Apple juice

    92

    73.9

    0.0

      
    Citrus juice

    12

    91.7

    0.0

      
    Other fruit juices

    11

    45.5

    0.0

      
     
    Fruit jams/jellies/
    pastes/toppings

    13

    23.1

    0.0

      
     
    Total

    1,063

    38.8

    0.6

      
     
    E. Vegetables
    Corn

    100

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

    72

    84.7

    0.0

      
    String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

    104

    70.2

    1.9

    1

    1

    Other beans & peas & products

    71

    88.7

    0.0

      
     
    Cucumbers

    61

    57.4

    0.0

      
    Eggplant

    17

    94.1

    0.0

      
    Okra

    9

    77.8

    22.2

     

    2

    Peppers, hot

    9

    88.9

    0.0

      
    Peppers, sweet

    38

    76.3

    2.6

     

    1

    Squash/pumpkins

    67

    65.7

    3.0

    1b

    1

    Tomatoes

    147

    34.7

    0.7

     

    1

    Other fruiting vegetables

    2

    50.0

    0.0

      
     
    Artichokes

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Asparagus

    44

    97.7

    0.0

      
    Broccoli

    25

    88.0

    0.0

     

    1

    Cabbage

    61

    90.2

    1.6

     

    1

    Cauliflower

    30

    93.3

    0.0

      
    Celery

    18

    11.1

    0.0

      
    Collards

    15

    86.7

    0.0

      
    Endive

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Kale

    3

    66.7

    33.3

     

    1

    Lettuce, head

    47

    53.2

    0.0

      
    Lettuce, leaf

    35

    42.9

    0.0

      
    Mustard greens

    7

    57.1

    14.3

     

    1

    Spinach

    37

    43.2

    0.0

      
    Other leaf & stem vegetables

    26

    92.3

    0.0

      
     
    Mushrooms & Truffles

    9

    77.8

    0.0

      
     
    Carrots

    105

    54.3

    2.9

     

    3

    Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

    36

    88.9

    0.0

      
    Potatoes

    116

    57.8

    2.6

    1b

    2

    Radishes

    6

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Red beets

    6

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Sweet potatoes

    27

    74.1

    0.0

      
    Turnips

    4

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Other root & tuber vegetables

    13

    92.3

    0.0

      
     
    Vegetables, dried or paste

    16

    93.8

    0.0

      
    Other vegetables/vegetable products

    27

    81.5

    0.0

      
     
    Total

    1,414

    69.7

    1.2

      
     
    F. Other
    Peanuts & peanut products

    15

    93.3

    0.0

      
    Other nuts & nut products

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
     
    Vegetable oil, crude

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Vegetable oil, refined

    3

    66.7

    33.3

    1b

     
     
    Beverages & water

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Coffee/tea/wine

    33

    33.3

    0.0

      
    Honey & other sweeteners

    48

    85.4

    0.0

      
    Baby foods/formula

    38

    89.5

    0.0

      
    Other food products, incl. prepared foods

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Nonfood items

    1

    0.0

    100.0

     

    1

     
    Total

    147

    75.5

    1.4

      
     

    Total A-F

    3,426

    60.2

    0.8

      

    Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues
       with no tolerance.
    Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

     


     

     Appendix B.
    Analysis of Import Samples by
    Commodity Group in 1999

     

     

    Commodity Group

    Total
    Samples
    Samples
    without
    Residues, %

    Samples
    Violativea, %

    # over
    tolerance

    # no   
    tolerance
    A. Grains and Grain Products
    Corn & corn products666.70.0  
    Oats & oat products2100.00.0  
    Rice & rice products9992.91.0 

    1

    Soybeans & soybean products1100.00.0  
    Wheat & wheat products4250.00.0  
    Other grains & grain products1586.70.0  
    Breakfast cereals1275.08.3 

    1

    Bakery products, crackers, etc.1973.70.0  
    Pasta and noodles8065.00.0  
     
    Total27675.40.7  
     
    B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs
    Cheese & cheese products988.90.0  
    Eggs5100.00.0  
    Milk/cream & milk products8100.00.0  
     
    Total2295.50.0  
     
    C. Fish/Shellfish/ Other Aquatic Products
    Fish and Fish Products27896.40.0  
    Shellfish & Crustaceans1973.70.0  
    Other Aquatic Animals & Products1100.00.0  
     
    Total29895.00.0  
     
    D. Fruits
    Blackberries5062.02.0 

    1

    Blueberries2240.90.0  
    Cranberries3100.00.0  
    Grapes, raisins29334.81.0

    1

    2

    Raspberries6150.80.0  
    Strawberries8230.53.7 

    3

    Other berries1250.08.3 

    1

     
    Clementines1127.30.0  
    Grapefruit6100.00.0  
    Lemons837.50.0  
    Limes1291.70.0  
    Oranges8442.92.4 

    2

    Other citrus fruit683.30.0  
     
    Apples11534.80.0  
    Pears7630.30.0  
    Other pome fruit560.050.0  
     
    Apricots475.00.0  
    Avocadoes6493.80.0  
    Cherries540.00.0  
    Dates1560.00.0  
    Nectarines1233.30.0  
    Olives3984.60.0  
    Peaches2740.70.0  
    Plums2138.10.0  
    Other pit fruit4100.00.0  
     
    Bananas, plantains23343.80.0  
    Guavas10.00.0  
    Kiwi fruit5972.98.5 

    5

    Mangoes9692.70.0  
    Papaya10766.410.3 

    11

    Pineapple7277.81.4 

    1

    Other sub-tropical fruit9683.36.2

    2

    4

     
    Bitter melon1492.90.0  
    Cantaloupe9133.00.0  
    Honeydew8225.60.0  
    Watermelon3363.63.0 

    1

    Other melons11100.00.0  
     
    Other fruits1172.70.0  
     
    Apple juice3992.30.0  
    Citrus juice18100.00.0  
    Other fruit juices10288.20.0  
    Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings18884.03.2 

    6

     
    Total2,29057.51.8  
     
    E. Vegetables
    Corn3794.60.0  
     
    Mung beans and bean sprouts9100.00.0  
    Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)8457.114.3 

    12

    String beans (green/snap/pole/long)9749.511.3

    1

    10

    Other beans & peas & products10575.23.8

    1

    3

     
    Cucumbers11937.80.8

    1

     
    Eggplant3754.05.4 

    1

    Okra2892.90.0  
    Peppers, hot34238.04.4

    7

    8

    Peppers, sweet19659.22.5 

    5

    Squash/pumpkins19947.24.5 

    9

    Tomatoes24359.71.6

    2

    2

    Other fruiting vegetables6075.03.3 

    5

     
    Artichokes2487.50.0  
    Asparagus9194.52.2 

    2

    Bamboo shoots20100.00.0  
    Bok choy & Chinese cabbage2142.914.3 

    3

    Broccoli6371.43.2

    1

    1

    Cabbage2669.23.9 

    1

    Cauliflower23100.00.0  
    Celery2142.94.8 

    1

    Endive29100.00.0  
    Kale1947.410.5 

    2

    Lettuce, head2850.00.0  
    Lettuce, leaf4763.84.3 

    2

    Mustard greens666.733.3 

    2

    Radicchio1492.90.0  
    Spinach4042.510.0

    1

    3

    Other leaf & stem vegetables11171.24.5

    1

    4

     
    Mushrooms and Truffles5884.51.7 

    1

     
    Carrots3683.30.0  
    Cassava23100.00.0  
    Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots12390.22.4 

    3

    Potatoes3894.70.0  
    Radishes1973.70.0  
    Red beets933.30.0  
    Sweet potatoes3494.10.0  
    Turnips20.050.0 

    1

    Water chestnuts2391.34.3 

    1

    Other root & tuber vegetables5793.05.3 

    3

     
    Vegetables with sauce1566.70.0  
    Vegetables, dried or paste13475.46.0

    1b

    7

    Other vegetables/vegetable products5879.33.5 

    2

     
    Total2,76864.83.9  
     
    F. Other
    Cashews4780.80.0  
    Coconut & coconut products13100.00.0  
    Peanuts & peanut products3494.10.0  
    Other nuts & nut products15100.00.0  
     
    Edible seeds2673.17.7 

    2

    Vegetable oil, crude9100.00.0  
    Vegetable oil, refined7100.00.0  
     
    Spices & condiments & flavors4770.210.6 

    5

    Beverages & water366.70.0  
    Beverage bases2696.20.0  
    Coffee/tea/wine875.00.0  
     
    Cocoa beans & chocolate products6100.00.0  
    Honey & other sweeteners4197.60.0  
     
    Baby foods/formula1100.00.0  
    Other food products, incl. prepared foods1586.70.0  
    Nonfood items6038.351.7 

    31

     
    Total35878.810.6  
     

    Total A-F

    6,01265.03.1  

    Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues
       with no tolerance.
    Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.