• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1998

Table of Contents

 

  • FDA Monitoring Program

     

  • Results and Discussion

     

  • Summary

     

  • References
  • Appendix A. Analysis of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1998
  • Appendix B. Analysis of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1998

     

     

    Figures
    1. Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity
    2. Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity
    3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

     

     

    Tables
    1. Domestic Surveillance Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in 1998
    2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 1998
    3. Compliance Samples by Commodity Group in 1998
    4. Pesticides Detectable and Found by Methods Used in 1998 Regulatory Monitoring
    5. Summary of 1998 Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples
    6. Residues Found in Feeds in 1998
    7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1998
    8. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1998

    This is the twelfth annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. Eight of the eleven previous reports were published in the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International; these presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994. Results from FY 1995 through FY 1997 were published on FDA's World Wide Web site. This current report includes findings obtained during FY 1998 (October 1, 1998-1 through September 30, 1998) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 1998 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

    FDA Monitoring Program

    Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e., approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amount of a residue that is permitted in or on a food) if use of that particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (1). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestically produced foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. Since 1991, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed at raw agricultural products and various processed foods. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

     

    Regulatory Monitoring

    Under this approach to pesticide residue monitoring, FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed as the unwashed, whole (unpeeled), raw commodity. Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for that particular food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination" (previously called automatic detention) may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

    Domestic and import food samples collected are classified as either "surveillance" or "compliance." Most samples collected by FDA are the surveillance type; that is, there is no prior knowledge or evidence that a specific food shipment contains illegal pesticide residues. Compliance samples are taken as follow-up to the finding of an illegal residue or when other evidence indicates that a pesticide residue problem may exist.

    Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

    Analytical Methods

    To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (2).

    Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods (2). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. These types of methods are usually more resource-intensive per residue. Therefore, they are much less cost effective than MRMs.

    The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace" is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LOQ).

    FDA/State Cooperation

    Personnel in FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. In many cases, Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e., imported vs. domestic products).

    Animal Feeds

    In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g., laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), the major focus of CVM's monitoring is on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become, or produce, foods for human consumption.

    International Activities

    FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act.

    Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United States, Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The NAFTA Pesticide TWG now serves as the focal point for all pesticide issues that arise among the three NAFTA countries. The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee.

    One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects have been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this is a difficult process, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries. FDA's activities on the TWG complement its ongoing bilateral cooperation with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada.

    Beyond the North American agreements, FDA continues to collaborate with New Zealand to implement a "residue compliance assurance program." New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing a plan whereby their government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the United States would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

    Total Diet Study

    The Total Diet Study is the other major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (3). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-1997 (4a, 4b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (5) and July 1986-April 1991 (6), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990 (7). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (8, 9).

    In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 261 foods that comprise each market basket represent over 3500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each collection is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, vitamin B6, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

     

    Results and Discussion

Regulatory Monitoring

In 1998, 8594 samples (7457 surveillance and 1137 compliance) were analyzed under regulatory monitoring. Of these, 3625 were domestic and 4969 were imports.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 3597 domestic surveillance samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 1998; those two commodity groups comprised 65.5% of the total number of domestic surveillance samples. In 1998, no violative residues were found in 99.2% of all domestic surveillance samples (99.1% in 1996, 98.8% in 1997).

Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic surveillance monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 3597 domestic surveillance samples, 64.9% had no detectable residues and 0.8% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 41.5% and 70.9% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected. 0.9% of the fruit samples and 1.4% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 97.0% of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. Eighty-eight samples of baby foods or formula were analyzed (see category Other) these included 34 vegetables, 32 fruits and juices, 18 cereals, and four samples of formula. None of the samples had violative residues.

Findings by commodity group for the 3860 import surveillance samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 84.6% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 97.0% of the import surveillance samples (97.4% in 1996, 98.4% in 1997).

Appendix B contains detailed data on the import surveillance samples. Of the 3860 samples analyzed, 68.1% had no residues detected, and 3.0% had violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 61.1 and 65.5%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had 2.9 and 3.6%, respectively, with violative residues. No residues were found in 96.3% of the dairy products/eggs group and 96.4% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups.

Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1998 are available to the public as a text file suitable for import into computer database or spreadsheet software. These data summarize FDA 1998 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. Monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled are also available. Information on how to obtain these files, as well as databases for 1992­1997 is provided at the end of this report.

Geographic Coverage

Domestic. In 1998, the 3597 domestic surveillance samples were collected from 48 states (no samples were collected from New Hampshire or Vermont) and from Puerto Rico. The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic surveillance samples from each location, in order of descending numbers of samples.

Import. Samples representing food shipments from 94 countries were collected. (Origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 2 lists numbers of samples (surveillance and compliance) collected from 43 countries from which more than 10 samples were collected, as well as the names of 51 additional countries from which 10 or fewer samples were collected. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

Surveillance/Compliance Violation Rate Comparison

In 1998, 28 domestic compliance samples were collected and analyzed (Table 3). Typically, compliance samples are collected when a pesticide residue problem is known or suspected, and so violation rates are expectedly higher than those for surveillance samples: in 1998, a 3.6% violation rate for domestic compliance samples was noted, compared to 0.8% for domestic surveillance samples.

1109 import compliance samples were also collected and analyzed, a large increase from previous years (119 in 1997 and 391 in 1996). This unexpected jump in numbers has caused suspicion about the designation of import samples as "compliance". Several operational changes implemented in 1998 may have caused misidentification of compliance samples, and the subject will be scrutinized by the agency. In the meantime, comparisons of violations between import surveillance and compliance samples are of questionable value and are not included here.

Pesticide Coverage

Table 4 lists the 354 pesticides (some of which represent multiple components) that were detectable by the methods used; each of the 94 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk.

FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the United States. The list of pesticides detectable for 1998 (Table 4) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research.

Animal Feeds

In FY 1998, 482 domestic and 60 import feed samples were collected for surveillance purposes and analyzed for pesticides by FDA. Of the 482 domestic surveillance samples, 293 (60.8%) contained no detectable pesticide residues and 8 (1.7%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance (Table 5). Of the 60 import surveillance samples, 37 (61.7%) contained no detectable pesticide residues and 3 (5.0%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance.

In the 189 domestic surveillance samples of feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 295 residues (208 quantifiable and 87 trace). Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon were the most frequently found and accounted for 64.1% of all residues detected (Table 6).

Nine pesticide residues exceeded regulatory guidance in eight domestic samples. Four pesticide residues exceeded a tolerance established by EPA: 2.67 ppm methoxychlor on milo, 0.096 ppm chlorpyrifos on meat meal, 1.40 ppm chlorpropham on animal fat, and 0.157 ppm diazinon on soybeans. Five pesticide residues were found on commodities for which no tolerance or action level as been established by EPA or FDA; three of these were chlorpyrifos-methyl: 0.021 ppm on peas, 0.028 ppm on corn, and 0.074 ppm on rape seed screenings. In addition, 0.037 ppm pirimiphos-methyl was reported on oats and 0.293 ppm lindane on soybeans.

Four pesticide residues exceeded regulatory guidance in three import samples from Canada. One sample of fish feed contained 194.0 ppm ethoxyquin, which exceeds all EPA established pesticide tolerances for this compound as well as the 150 ppm tolerance established for it as an anti-oxidant feed additive in a finished article. Three residues on two commodities, for which no EPA tolerances have been established, were also found: 0.016 ppm chlorpyrifos on canola fines, and 0.064 ppm chlorpyrifos and 1.43 ppm malathion on canola meal.

Summary: Regulatory Monitoring

In summary, no residues were found in 64.9% of domestic surveillance and 68.1% of import surveillance samples (Figure 3 ), analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1998. Only 0.8% of domestic and 3.0% of import surveillance samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 1998 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (4a, 4b). Animal feed samples (482 domestic, 60 import) were analyzed. Over 60% of the domestic surveillance samples and 61.7% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

Total Diet Study

The Total Diet Study (TDS) is distinct from regulatory monitoring in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (3). Of the nearly 200 chemicals that are validated for the analytical methods used, 104 individual residues were found in the foods analyzed in the four collections reported here (Market Baskets 97-3, 97-4, 98-1 and 98-2). Among these were 54 pesticides, including 14 which represent more than one related compound counted as a "total", 16 volatile organic compounds for which 72 TDS foods (per basket) are examined, and 10 other organic compounds. To measure the low levels of pesticides found in the TDS foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured.

Table 7 lists the 18 most frequently found residues (those found in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in 1998 (1035 food items). The five most frequently observed chemicals, DDT, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, endosulfan, and dieldrin, are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these pesticides, as well as the others listed in Table 7 , were well below regulatory limits.

Information obtained through the TDS is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides; these intakes are then compared with established standards. Food consumption data to be used in estimating dietary intakes for the revised food list have only recently been finalized. Therefore, dietary intake information for the market baskets collected since 1991 will be reported separately.

For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under TDS. This adjunct to TDS included 20-21 different food items in the four baskets represented here (12 fruit juices or fruits, 4 fruit desserts, 4 grain products, and 1 vegetable). Table 8 lists the 22 pesticide residues found in four collections of these foods (83 total samples) in 1998, the percentage occurrence, and ranges of levels found.

Summary: Total Diet Study

In 1998, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports (4a, 4b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1998 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

 

Summary

A total of 8594 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 94 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 1998. Of these, 7457 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no evidence of a pesticide problem. No residues were found in 64.9% of domestic surveillance and 68.1% of import surveillance samples.

FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (482 domestic, 60 import) for pesticides. 60.8% of the domestic surveillance samples and 61.7% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

Most of the Total Diet Study findings for 1998 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1998 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

 

This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Bernadette M. McMahon, Mark S. Wirtz, and Marion Clower, Jr., (Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals), Young H. Lee (Division of Programs and Enforcement Policy), Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages; Sharon A. Macuci (Division of Information Resources Management), Office of Management Systems, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC., Randall Lovell, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD, Sheila K. Egan and David Graham, Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS.

 

Files containing the data from which this report was derived are also available from FDA's World Wide Web site, at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov. Databases for 1996 and 1997 are available at the same site, as are reports for 1995­1997. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 703-487-4650); order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

 

References

(1)  Code of Federal Regulations (1996) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

(2)  Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions) and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161).

(3)  Pennington, J.A.T., Capar, S.G., Parfitt, C.H., & Edwards, C.W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993. J. AOAC Int. 79, 163-170.

(4a)  Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994. J. AOAC Int. 78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

(4b)  Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995, 1996, 1997. Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.

(5)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986. J. AOAC Int. 78, 910-921.

(6)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J. AOAC Int. 78, 1353- 1363.

(7)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply. Food Addit. Contam. 9, 253-264.

(8)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study. J. Nutr. Educ. 24, 173-178.

(9)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

 

 

 

 Figure 1. Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity

Figure 1. Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity

 

 

 

 Figure 2. Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity

Figure 2. Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity

 

 

 

 

 Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

 Figure 3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

 

 

 

 Table 1.
Domestic Surveillance Samples Collected
and Analyzed, by Statea, in 1998

 

 

CA

516

 ND

29

WA

398

 UT

28

FL

352

 SD

27

LA

201

 NJ

26

ID

195

 MS

25

NY

152

 NM

24

MO

148

 KY

22

OR

145

 AR

20

WI

136

 TN

20

MN

115

 AL

17

MI

109

 WY

17

IL

108

 GA

16

VA

93

 NC

16

MT

88

 OK

14

TX

87

 DE

12

AZ

58

 SC

11

OH

47

 AK

10

PA

45

 HI

10

IA

44

 NE

5

MD

40

 CT

2

IN

39

 NV

2

CO

32

 WV

2

KS

31

 ME

1

MA

30

 RI

1


 

 

 

 
Other domestic samples: Puerto Rico, 31 samples.
Table 2.
Foreign Countries and Number of Samplesa
Collected and Analyzed in 1998

 

Mexico

1889

 Taiwan, Republic of

44

Chile

361

 Peru

40

Netherlands (Holland)

260

 New Zealand

35

Canada

224

 Philippines

34

Guatemala

175

 South Africa

34

China, Peoples Rep.

146

 Unspecified

33

Thailand

129

 Indonesia

28

Spain (inc. Canary Islands)

127

 Pakistan

26

India

107

 Egypt

25

Italy

97

 Korea, Rep. of (South Korea)

25

Dominican Republic

85

 Brazil

23

Ecuador

82

 Lebanon

23

Turkey

82

 Hong Kong

21

Colombia

79

 France

20

Argentina

62

 Greece

20

Costa Rica

61

 Japan

20

Jamaica

61

 Poland

20

Viet-Nam, Rep. Of

50

 Nicaragua

17

Australia

49

 Panama

14

Israel

49

 United Kingdom

12

Belgium

48

 Denmark

11

Honduras

48

 Germany, Federal Rep

11

Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:


Algeria
Austria
Bahamas
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bulgaria
Congo
Dominica
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
French Polynesia
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Hungary
Ivory Coast
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Peoples
Macedonia
Malawi
Malaysia
Morocco
  
Mozambique
Namibia (Southwest Africa)
Netherlands Antilles
Nigeria
Norway
Papua New Guinea
Portugal (inc. Azores, Madeiras)
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
Slovenia
Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
St. Lucia
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Tanzania
Tonga
Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
U.S. Virgin Is.
Venezuela
Western Samoa
Zambia
 

Surveillance plus compliance samples.

 

 

 

<"> 

Table 3.
Domestic Compliance Samples by Commodity Group in 1998

 

 
Commodity Group
Total No.
of Samples
Samples without
Residues, %
Samples
Violative, %
Grains and Grain Products

3

66.7

0.0

Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs

5

100.0

0.0

Fish/Shellfish

4

25.0

0.0

Fruits

7

71.4

0.0

Vegetables

6

66.7

0.0

Other

3

66.7

33.3

 
Total

28

67.9

3.6

 

 

 

 Table 4.
Pesticides Detectable and Found (*) by Methods
Used in 1998 Regulatory Monitoringa,b

 

2,4-dichloro-6-nitrobenzenamine
2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine (triclopyr metabolite)
3-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole
4(phenylamino)phenol*
4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azapiro¬4.5|decane
6-benzyladenine
acephate*
acetochlor
acrinathrin
alachlor
aldicarb*
aldrin
allethrin
allidochlor
alpha-cypermethrin
ametryn
aminocarb
amitraz*
anilazine*
Aramite
atrazine
azinphos-ethyl
azinphos-methyl*
bendiocarb
benfluralin
benodanil
benomyl/carbendazimc
benoxacor
bensulide
benzoylprop-ethyl
BHC*
bifenox
bifenthrin*
binapacryl
bitertanol*
bromacil
bromophos
bromophos-ethyl
bromopropylate
bromuconazole
bufencarb*
Bulan
bupirimate*
butachlor
butocarboxim
butralin
butylate
cadusafos
captafol*
captan*
carbaryl*
carbofuran
carbophenothion
carbosulfan
carboxin
carfentrazone ethyl ester
CGA 150829 (triasulfuron metabolite)
CGA 171683 (primisulfuron-methyl metabolite)
chlorbenside
chlorbromuron
chlorbufam
chlordane*
chlordecone
chlordimeform
chlorethoxyfos
chlorfenapyr*
chlorfenvinphos*
chlorflurecol methyl ester
chlorimuron ethyl ester
chlornitrofen
chlorobenzilate
chloroneb
chloropropylate
chlorothalonil*
chloroxuron
chlorpropham*
chlorpyrifos*
chlorpyrifos-methyl*
chlorthiophos
clomazone
coumaphos
crotoxyphos
crufomate
cyanazine
cyanofenphos
cyanophos
cycloate
cycluron
cyfluthrin
cymoxanil
cypermethrin*
cyprazine
cyproconazole
cyprodinil
DCPA*
DDT*
deltamethrin*
demeton
di-allate
dialifor
diazinon*
dichlobenil
dichlofenthion
dichlofluanid
dichlone
dichlorvos
diclobutrazol
diclofop-methyl
dicloran*
dicofol*
dicrotophos
dieldrin*
diethatyl-ethyl
Dilan
dimethachlor
dimethametryn
dimethipin
dimethoate*
dinitramine
dinobuton
dinocap
dioxabenzofos
dioxacarb
dioxathion
diphenamid
diphenylamine*
disulfoton
diuron
edifenphos
endosulfan*
endrin
EPN*
esfenvalerate*
etaconazole
ethalfluralin
ethiofencarb
ethion*
ethofumesate
ethoprop
ethoxyquin*
ethylenebisdithiocarbamates*d
etridiazole
etrimfos
famphur
fenamiphos
fenarimol*
fenbuconazole
fenfuram
fenitrothion
fenobucarb
fenoxaprop ethyl ester
fenoxycarb
fenpropathrin*
fenpropimorph
fenson
fensulfothion
fenthion*
fenvalerate*
fipronil
flamprop-M-isopropyl
flamprop-methyl
fluazifop butyl ester
fluchloralin
flucythrinate
fludioxinil
flusilazole
fluvalinate
FOE 5043 (flufenacet)
folpet*
fonofos
formothion
fosthiazate
fuberidazole
furilazole
Gardona
heptachlor*
heptenophos
hexachlorobenzene*
hexaconazole
hexazinone
hexythiazox
imazalil*
imazamethabenz methyl ester
iprobenfos
iprodione*
iprodione metabolite isomer*
isazofos
isocarbamid
isofenphos
isoprocarb
isopropalin
isoprothiolane
isoxaben
isoxaflutole
lactofen
lambda-cyhalothrin
lenacil
leptophos
lindane*
linuron*
malathion*
mecarbam
mephosfolan
merphos
metalaxyl*
metaldehyde*
metasystox thiol
metazachlor
methabenzthiazuron
methamidophos*
methidathion*
methiocarb
methomyl*
methoprotryne
methoxychlor*
metobromuron
metolachlor
metolcarb
metribuzin
mevinphos*
MGK 264*
mirex*
molinate
monocrotophos*
monolinuron
myclobutanil*
N,N-diallyl-dichloroacetamide
naled
napropamide*
neburon
nitralin
nitrapyrin
nitrofen
nitrofluorfen
nitrothal-isopropyl
norea
norflurazon
nuarimol
octhilinone
ofurace
omethoate*
ovex
oxadiazon
oxadixyl*
oxamyl*
oxydemeton-methyl
oxyfluorfen
oxythioquinox
paclobutrazol
parathion*
parathion-methyl*
PB-9 (pyridaben metabolite)
penconazole
pendimethalin
permethrin*
Perthane
phenothrin
phenthoate
phenylphenol, ortho-*
phorate*
phosalone
phosmet*
phosphamidon
phosphine*
phoxim oxygen analog
piperonyl butoxide*
piperophos
pirimicarb
pirimiphos-ethyl
pirimiphos-methyl*
pretilachlor
probenazole
prochloraz
procymidone*
profenofos*
profluralin
Prolan
promecarb
prometryn
pronamide*
propachlor
propanil
propargite*
propazine
propetamphos
propham
propiconazole*
propoxur
prothiofos*
prothoate
pyracarbolid
pyrazon
pyrazophos
pyrethrins
pyridaphenthion
pyrimethanil
pyriproxyfen
quinalphos
quintozene*
quizalofop ethyl ester
ronnel
S-bioallethrin
schradan
simazine
simetryn
Strobane
sulfallate
sulfotep*
Sulphenone
sulprofos
TCMTB
tebuconazole
tebupirimfos
tecnazene
tefluthrin
TEPP
terbacil
terbufos
terbumeton
terbuthylazine
terbutryn
tetradifon
tetraiodoethylene
tetrasul
thiabendazole*
thiazopyr
thiobencarb
thiodicarb
thiometon
thionazin
thiram
THPI*
tolylfluanid
toxaphene
tralomethrin
traloxydim
tri-allate
triadimefon*
triadimenol*
triazamate
triazophos
tribufos*
trichlorfon
tricyclazole
tridiphane
trietazine
triflumizole
trifluralin*
triflusulfuron methyl ester
trimethacarb
vamidothion sulfone
vernolate
vinclozolin*
XMC
 
The list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However,
   monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
Some of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
The analytical methodology determines carbendazim, which may result from use of benomyl or carbendazim.
Such as maneb.

 

 

 

 Table 5.
Summary of 1998 Domestic
Surveillance Feed Samples

 

 Total #Without residuesExceeding Guidance
Type of FeedSamples

#

%

#

%

Whole/Ground Grains

196

130

66.3

5

2.6

Mixed Feed Rations

99

41

41.4

0

0.0

Animal By-products

72

42

58.3

2

2.8

Plant By-products

89

55

61.8

1

1.1

Hay & Hay Products

26

25

96.2

0

0.0

 
Total

482

293

60.8

8

1.7

 

 

 

 Table 6.
Residues Found in Domestic Feeds in 1998

 

No. of Samples with        

 

 
Pesticide

Trace
Amounta

Quantifiable
Levels

Rangeb
(ppm)

Medianb
(ppm)

malathion

18

78

0.010-3.180

0.095

chlorpyrifos-methyl

20

43

0.012-0.732

0.052

diazinon

6

24

0.009-0.309

0.033

tribufos (DEF)

2

14

0.010-0.115

0.051

DDE, p,p'-, and DDT, p,p'-

14

2

0.050-0.095

0.073

methoxychlor, p,p'-, and o,p'-

2

10

0.020-2.738

0.082

pirimiphos-methyl

2

9

0.013-3.666

0.490

chlorpyrifos

6

4

0.035-0.280

0.082

ethion

5

5

0.010-0.050

0.028

all othersc

12

19

0.015-98.60d

0.404

 

 

Residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.
In samples containing quantifiable levels.
Four reports each for iprodione and its metabolite, and lindane; two each for dicofol, p,p'-,
   dieldrin, imazalil, myclobutanil, and parathion; one each for Aroclor 1254, carbaryl,
   carbophenothion, chlorpropham, DCPA, endosulfan sulfate, ethoxyquin, Gardona,
   pentachlorophenyl methyl ester, terbufos, thiabendazole, tri-allate, and tributyl phosphate.
Residue of 98.6 ppm was ethoxyquin, which is approved as a plant growth regulator by EPA,
   with tolerances of up to 3 ppm (40 CFR 180.178). Ethoxyquin is also approved as an anti-oxidant
   feed additive at levels up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380).

 

 

 

 Table 7.
Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues
Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1998a

Pesticideb

Total No. of Findings

Occurrence, %

 

DDT

217

21

 

chlorpyrifos-methyl

185

18

 

malathion

156

15

 

endosulfan

129

12

 

dieldrin

107

10

 

chlorpyrifos

89

9

 

iprodione

53

5

 

chlorpropham

49

5

 

permethrin

49

5

 

carbarylc

41

4

thiabendazoled

37

4

 

methamidophos

33

3

acephate

29

3

 

dicloran

26

3

 

BHC, alpha+beta+delta

24

2

 

dimethoate

23

2

 

pirimiphos-methyl

21

2

 

toxaphene

21

2

 

 
Based on 4 market baskets analyzed in FY 1998 consisting of 1035 items. Only
   those found in >2% of the samples are shown.
Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are
   covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
Reflects overall incidence; however only 94-96 selected foods per market basket
   (i.e., 378 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates
Reflects overall incidence; however only 65-67 selected foods per market basket
   (i.e., 263 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides
   thiabendazole and benomyl.

 

 

 

 Table 8.
Frequency of Occurrence and Range of Levels
of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1998a

Pesticideb

Total No. of Findings

Occurrence, %

      Range, ppm

chlorpyrifos

16

19

0.0004-0.005

endosulfan

14

17

0.0004-0.0046

chlorpyrifos-methyl

10

12

0.001-0.018

iprodione

9

11

0.001-0.038

malathion

8

10

0.003-0.023

dimethoate

5

6

0.001-0.005

permethrin

5

6

0.0017-0.023

carbarylc

3

4

0.004-0.008

propiconazole

3

4

0.023-0.048

thiabendazoled

3

4

0.078-0.338

dieldrin

2

2

0.0005-0.001

ethylenethioureae

2

2

0.003-0.007

azinphos-methyl

1

1

0.007

benomyld

1

1

0.035

DDT

1

1

0.0004

dicofol

1

1

0.007

fenvalerate

1

1

0.005

hexachlorobenzene

1

1

0.001

methoxychlor

1

1

0.001

parathion methyl

1

1

0.004

phosmet

1

1

0.012

toxaphene

1

1

0.013


Based on 4 collections analyzed in FY 1998 consisting of 83 items.
Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are
   covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
Reflects overall incidence; however only 14-15 selected foods per survey
   (i.e., 59 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.
Reflects overall incidence; however only 14 selected foods per survey
   (i.e., 56 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides
   (thiabendazole and benomyl).
Reflects overall incidence; however only 12-13 selected foods per survey
   (i.e., 51 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.

 

 

 

 Appendix A.
Analysis of Domestic Surveillance Samples
by Commodity Group in 1998

 

 

Commodity Group

Total
Samples
Samples
without
Residues, %

Samples
Violativea, %

# over
tolerance

# no   
tolerance
A. Grains and Grain Products
Corn & corn products4568.90.0  
Oats & oat products

28

92.9

0.0

  
Rice & rice products

74

90.5

0.0

  
Soybeans & soybean products

26

92.3

0.0

  
Wheat & wheat products

235

44.3

0.4

1b

 
Other grains & grain products

24

50.0

0.0

  
Breakfast cereals

30

90.0

0.0

  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.

11

54.5

0.0

  
Pasta and noodles

6

100.0

0.0

  
 
Total

479

63.3

0.2

  
 
B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products

59

94.9

0.0

  
Eggs

75

100.0

0.0

  
Milk/cream & milk products

201

96.5

0.0

  
 
Total

335

97.0

0.0

  
 
C. Fish/Shellfish
Fish & Fish Products

187

73.3

0.0

  
Shellfish & Crustaceans

71

91.5

0.0

  
Other Aquatic Animals & Products

2

100.0

0.0

  
 
Total

260

78.5

0.0

  
 
D. Fruits
Blackberries

4

25.0

75.0

 

3

Blueberries

36

72.2

5.6

 

2

Cranberries

10

20.0

0.0

  
Grapes, raisins

15

60.0

0.0

  
Raspberries

8

25.0

0.0

  
Strawberries

71

25.4

2.8

 

2

Other berries

5

80.0

0.0

  
 
Grapefruit

35

14.3

0.0

  
Lemons

7

42.9

0.0

  
Limes

1

0.0

0.0

  
Oranges

119

31.9

0.0

  
Other citrus fruit

20

25.0

0.0

  
 
Apples

219

31.1

0.5

 

1

Pears

49

44.9

2.0

 

1

 
Apricots

9

0.0

0.0

  
Avocadoes

1

100.0

0.0

  
Cherries

35

17.1

0.0

  
Nectarines

19

21.1

0.0

  
Olives

2

100.0

0.0

  
Peaches

148

33.1

0.0

  
Plums

7

42.9

0.0

  
 
Bananas, plantains

5

100.0

0.0

  
Kiwi fruit

4

75.0

25.0

 

1

 
Cantaloupe

26

65.4

0.0

  
Honeydew

1

0.0

0.0

  
Watermelon

31

90.3

0.0

  
Other melons

1

100.0

0.0

  
 
Apple juice

95

67.4

0.0

  
Citrus juice

42

83.3

0.0

  
Other fruit juices

13

76.9

0.0

  
 
Fruit jams/jellies/
pastes/toppings

28

39.3

0.0

  
 
Total

1066

41.5

0.9

  
 
E. Vegetables
Corn

107

97.2

0.0

  
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

45

93.3

0.0

  
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

92

67.4

1.1

 

1

Other beans & peas & products

58

82.8

0.0

  
 
Cucumbers

46

47.8

0.0

  
Eggplant

13

84.6

7.7

 

1

Okra

2

100.0

0.0

  
Peppers, hot

9

66.7

11.1

 

1

Peppers, sweet

34

64.7

0.0

  
Squash/pumpkins

71

59.1

0.0

  
Tomatoes

93

55.9

2.1

 

2

 
Asparagus

37

94.6

0.0

  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage

7

57.1

14.3

 

1

Broccoli

13

100.0

0.0

  
Cabbage

47

89.4

0.0

  
Cauliflower

16

87.5

0.0

  
Celery

22

31.8

4.5

 

1

Collards

7

42.9

14.3

 

1

Endive

2

50.0

0.0

  
Kale

3

100.0

0.0

  
Lettuce, head

39

53.9

0.0

  
Lettuce, leaf

31

41.9

0.0

  
Mustard greens

5

60.0

0.0

  
Spinach

22

50.0

4.5

 

1

Other leaf & stem vegetables

25

92.0

4.0

 

1

 
Mushrooms & Truffles

7

71.4

0.0

  
 
Carrots

133

51.9

1.5

1

1

Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

23

95.7

0.0

  
Potatoes

141

67.4

3.5

 

5

Radishes

4

100.0

0.0

  
Red beets

5

100.0

0.0

  
Sweet potatoes

33

93.9

0.0

  
Turnips

1

100.0

0.0

  
Other root & tuber vegetables

8

75.0

0.0

  
 
Vegetables with sauce

14

57.1

0.0

  
Vegetables, dried or paste

58

81.0

1.7

1b

 
Other vegetables/vegetable products

18

88.9

0.0

  
 
Total

1291

70.9

1.4

  
 
F. Other
Peanuts & peanut products

13

69.2

0.0

  
Other nuts & nut products

2

100.0

0.0

  
 
Edible seeds

2

50.0

0.0

  
Vegetable oil, crude

4

100.0

0.0

  
Vegetable oil, refined

1

100.0

0.0

  
 
Spices & condiments & flavors

2

50.0

0.0

  
Honey & other sweeteners

52

90.4

0.0

  
Baby foods/formula

88

88.6

0.0

  
Other food products, incl. prepared foods

2

100.0

0.0

  
 
Total

166

87.3

0.0

  
 

Total A-F

3597

64.9

0.8

  

Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

 

 

 

 Appendix B.
Analysis of Import Surveillance Samples
by Commodity Group in 1998

 

 

Commodity Group

Total
Samples
Samples
without
Residues, %

Samples
Violativea, %

# over
tolerance

# no   
tolerance
A. Grains and Grain Products
Corn & corn products785.70.0  
Oats & oat products1100.00.0  
Rice & rice products5086.00.0  
Soybeans & soybean products1100.00.0  
Wheat & wheat products540.00.0  
Other grains & grain products785.70.0  
Breakfast cereals475.00.0  
Bakery products, crackers, etc.18100.00.0  
Pasta and noodles5180.40.0  
 
Total14484.00.0  
 
B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs
Cheese & cheese products22100.00.0  
Eggs580.00.0  
 
Total2796.30.0  
 
C. Fish/Shellfish/ Other Aquatic Products
Fish and Fish Products16195.70.0  
Shellfish & Crustaceans32100.00.0  
Other Aquatic Animals & Products1100.00.0  
 
Total19496.40.0  
 
D. Fruits
Blackberries4555.62.2 1
Blueberries2161.90.0  
Cranberries475.00.0  
Grapes, raisins6719.41.5 1
Raspberries4233.32.4 1
Strawberries7526.75.3 4
Other berries3100.00.0  
 
Clementines812.512.5 1
Grapefruit5100.00.0  
Lemons1040.00.0  
Limes1275.00.0  
Oranges2692.33.9 1
Other citrus fruit650.00.0  
 
Apples4445.50.0  
Pears4045.00.0  
Other pome fruit250.050.0 1
 
Apricots1877.80.0  
Avocadoes3994.90.0  
Cherries988.90.0  
Dates3100.00.0  
Nectarines1540.00.0  
Olives3588.60.0  
Peaches3737.82.71 
Plums3423.50.0  
Other pit fruit3100.00.0  
 
Bananas, plantains11357.50.0  
Guavas2100.00.0  
Kiwi fruit850.012.5 1
Mangoes4591.10.0  
Papaya4676.16.5 3
Pineapple4682.62.21 
Other sub-tropical fruit3177.49.7 3
 
Cantaloupe5026.08.013
Honeydew3016.70.0  
Watermelon2070.00.0  
Other melons1741.247.1 8c
 
Other fruits683.316.7 1
 
Apple juice4893.82.1 1
Citrus juice13100.00.0  
Other fruit juices6589.20.0  
 
Fruit jams/jellies/pastes/toppings11486.83.5 4
 
Total125761.12.9  
 
E. Vegetables
Corn32100.00.0  
Mung beans and bean sprouts1080.010.01b 
Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)6776.19.0 6
String beans (green/snap/pole/long)10341.89.719
Other beans & peas & products5780.73.51b1
 
Cucumbers9442.52.1 2
Eggplant4266.70.0  
Okra1770.65.9 1
Peppers, hot21446.76.1211
Peppers, sweet17164.92.914
Squash/pumpkins14850.74.0 6
Tomatoes31068.11.0 3
Other fruiting vegetables3969.212.8 5
 
Artichokes2592.00.0  
Asparagus4290.52.41 
Bamboo shoots9100.00.0  
Bok choy & Chinese cabbage1741.25.9 1
Broccoli3661.10.0  
Cabbage1794.10.0  
Cauliflower9100.00.0  
Celery2020.00.0  
Endive1681.20.0  
Kale837.525.0 2
Lettuce, head1675.00.0  
Lettuce, leaf2352.20.0  
Mustard greens333.333.3 1
Radicchio1090.00.0  
Spinach3243.83.1 1
Other leaf & stem vegetables5563.69.1 5
 
Mushrooms and Truffles4697.80.0  
 
Carrots2982.80.0  
Cassava10100.00.0  
Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots5074.00.0  
Potatoes2181.019.1 4
Radishes933.30.0  
Red beets5100.00.0  
Sweet potatoes2290.90.0  
Turnips10.00.0  
Water chestnuts1291.70.0  
Other root & tuber vegetables5096.02.0 1
 
Vegetables with sauce875.00.0  
Vegetables, dried or paste5779.03.52b 
Other vegetables/vegetable products4872.92.1 1
 
Total201065.53.6  
 
F. Other
Cashews3485.30.0  
Coconut & coconut products5100.00.0  
Peanuts & peanut products4397.70.0  
Other nuts & nut products18100.00.0  
 
Edible seeds2080.020.0 4
Vegetable oil, refined7100.00.0  
 
Spices & condiments & flavors2580.08.0 2
Beverages & water10100.00.0  
Beverage bases683.30.0  
Coffee/tea/wine1090.00.0  
 
Cocoa beans & chocolate products2100.00.0  
Honey & other sweeteners33100.00.0  
 
Baby foods/formula3100.00.0  
Other food products, incl. prepared foods8100.00.0  
Nonfood items475.025.0 1
 
Total22892.13.1  
 

Total A-F

386068.13.0  

Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.
Samples were bittermelon, a type of squash rather than a fruit.