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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1997

August, 1998

 

Table of Contents

 

  • FDA Monitoring Program

     

  • Results and Discussion

     

  • Summary

     

  • References
  • Appendix A. Analysis of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1997
  • Appendix B. Analysis of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity Group in 1997

     

     

    Figures
    1. Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity
    2. Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity
    3. Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

     

     

    Tables
    1. Domestic Surveillance Samples Collected and Analyzed, by State, in 1997
    2. Foreign Countries and Number of Samples Collected and Analyzed in 1997
    3. Compliance Samples by Commodity Group in 1997
    4. Pesticides Detectable and Found by Methods Used in 1997 Regulatory Monitoring
    5. Summary of 1997 Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples
    6. Residues Found in Feeds in 1997
    7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1997
    8. Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1997

     

    This is the eleventh annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue monitoring program. Eight of the ten previous reports were published in the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists/Journal of AOAC International; these presented results from Fiscal Years (FY) 1987 through 1994. Results from FY 1995 and FY 1996 were published on FDA's World Wide Web site. This current report includes findings obtained during FY 1997 (October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997) under regulatory and incidence/level monitoring. Selected Total Diet Study findings for 1997 are also presented. Results in this and earlier reports continue to demonstrate that levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are well below established safety standards.

    FDA Monitoring Program

    Three federal government agencies share responsibility for the regulation of pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers (i.e., approves) the use of pesticides and sets tolerances (the maximum amount of a residue that is permitted in or on a food) if use of that particular pesticide may result in residues in or on food (1). Except for meat, poultry, and certain egg products, for which the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible, FDA is charged with enforcing tolerances in imported foods and in domestically produced foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA also acquires incidence/level data on particular commodity/pesticide combinations and carries out its market basket survey, the Total Diet Study. Since 1991, USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), through contracts with participating states, has carried out a residue testing program directed at raw agricultural products and various processed foods. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently.

     

    Regulatory Monitoring

    Under this approach to pesticide residue monitoring, FDA samples individual lots of domestically produced and imported foods and analyzes them for pesticide residues to enforce the tolerances set by EPA. Domestic samples are collected as close as possible to the point of production in the distribution system; import samples are collected at the point of entry into U.S. commerce. Emphasis is on the raw agricultural product, which is analyzed as the unwashed, whole (unpeeled), raw commodity. Processed foods are also included. If illegal residues (above EPA tolerance or no tolerance for that particular food/pesticide combination) are found in domestic samples, FDA can invoke various sanctions, such as a seizure or injunction. For imports, shipments may be stopped at the port of entry when illegal residues are found. "Detention without physical examination" (previously called automatic detention) may be invoked for imports based on the finding of one violative shipment if there is reason to believe that the same situation will exist in future lots during the same shipping season for a specific shipper, grower, geographic area, or country.

    Domestic and import food samples collected are classified as either "surveillance" or "compliance". Most samples collected by FDA are the surveillance type; that is, there is no prior knowledge or evidence that a specific food shipment contains illegal pesticide residues. Compliance samples are taken as follow-up to the finding of an illegal residue or when other evidence indicates that a pesticide residue problem may exist.

    Factors considered by FDA in planning the types and numbers of samples to collect include review of recently generated state and FDA residue data, regional intelligence on pesticide use, dietary importance of the food, information on the amount of domestic food that enters interstate commerce and of imported food, chemical characteristics and toxicity of the pesticide, and production volume/pesticide usage patterns.

    Analytical Methods

    To analyze the large numbers of samples whose pesticide treatment history is usually unknown, FDA uses analytical methods capable of simultaneously determining a number of pesticide residues. These multiresidue methods (MRMs) can determine about half of the approximately 400 pesticides with EPA tolerances, and many others that have no tolerances. The most commonly used MRMs can also detect many metabolites, impurities, and alteration products of pesticides (2).

    Single residue methods (SRMs) or selective MRMs are used to determine some pesticide residues in foods (2). An SRM usually determines one pesticide; a selective MRM measures a relatively small number of chemically related pesticides. These types of methods are usually more resource-intensive per residue. Therefore, they are much less cost effective than MRMs.

    The lower limit of residue measurement in FDA's determination of a specific pesticide is usually well below tolerance levels, which generally range from 0.1 to 50 parts per million (ppm). Residues present at 0.01 ppm and above are usually measurable; however, for individual pesticides, this limit may range from 0.005 to 1 ppm. In this report, the term "trace" is used to indicate residues detected, but at levels below the limit of quantitation (LOQ).

    FDA/State Cooperation

    Personnel in FDA field offices interact with their counterparts in many states to increase FDA's effectiveness in pesticide residue monitoring. In many cases, Memoranda of Understanding or more formal Partnership Agreements have been established between FDA and various state agencies. These agreements provide for more efficient monitoring by broadening coverage and eliminating duplication of effort, thereby maximizing federal and state resources allocated for pesticide activities. These arrangements vary from data sharing, joint planning, and state collection of samples for FDA examination, to FDA/State division of collection, analytical, and enforcement follow-up responsibilities for individual commodities or products of particular origin (i.e., imported vs. domestic products).

    Animal Feeds

    In addition to monitoring foods for human consumption, FDA also samples and analyzes domestic and imported feeds for pesticide residues. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) directs this portion of the Agency's monitoring via its Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. Although animal feeds containing violative pesticide residues may present a potential hazard to a number of different categories of animals (e.g., laboratory animals, pets, wildlife, etc.), the major focus of CVM's monitoring is on feeds for livestock and poultry, animals that ultimately become, or produce, foods for human consumption.

    International Activities

    FDA participates in several international agreements in an effort to minimize incidents of violative residues and remove trade barriers. A standing request for information from foreign governments on pesticides used on their food exported to the U.S. exists, a provision of the Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act.

    Under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United States, Mexico, and Canada have established a NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides (TWG). The NAFTA Pesticide TWG now serves as the focal point for all pesticide issues that arise among the three NAFTA countries. The TWG reports directly to the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee.

    One of the major goals of the TWG is to ensure that pesticide registrations and tolerances/maximum residue limits in the three countries are harmonized to the extent practical, while strengthening protection of public health and the environment. A number of projects have been undertaken by the TWG to identify differing residue limits in the NAFTA countries and to determine what steps might be taken to harmonize the limits. While this is a difficult process, the TWG envisions eventual movement toward a "North America" pesticide registration and tolerance system so that citizens of all three countries can be assured of the safety and legality of foods produced in any one of the NAFTA countries. FDA's activities on the TWG complement its ongoing bilateral cooperation with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada.

    Beyond the North American agreements, FDA continues to collaborate with New Zealand to implement a "residue compliance assurance program." New Zealand, historically having excellent compliance with U.S. pesticide tolerances, is implementing a plan whereby their government would provide assurances that selected commodities exported to the United States would be in full compliance with U.S. tolerances.

    Total Diet Study

    The Total Diet Study is the other major element of FDA's pesticide residue monitoring program (3). In its previous annual pesticide reports, FDA provided Total Diet Study findings for 1987-1996 (4a, 4b). More detailed information, including estimated dietary intakes of pesticide residues covering June 1984-April 1986 (5) and July 1986-April 1991 (6), has been published. In September 1991, FDA implemented revisions to the Total Diet Study that were formulated in 1990 (7). These revisions primarily consisted of collection and analysis of an updated and expanded number of food items, addition of six age/sex groups (for a total of 14), and revised analytical coverage. Details of that revision are published (8, 9).

    In conducting the Total Diet Study, FDA personnel purchase foods from supermarkets or grocery stores four times per year, once from each of four geographic regions of the country. The 261 foods that comprise each market basket represent over 3500 different foods reported in USDA food consumption surveys; for example, apple pie represents all fruit pies and fruit pastries. Each collection is a composite of like foods purchased in three cities in a given region. The foods are prepared table-ready and then analyzed for pesticide residues (as well as radionuclides, industrial chemicals, toxic elements, trace and macro elements, vitamin B6, and folic acid). The levels of pesticides found are used in conjunction with USDA food consumption data to estimate the dietary intakes of the pesticide residues.

    Results and Discussion

    Regulatory Monitoring

    In 1997, 9,843 samples (9,652 surveillance and 191 compliance) were analyzed under regulatory monitoring. Of these, 4,501 were domestic and 5,342 were imports.

    Figure 1 shows the percentage of the 4,429 domestic surveillance samples by commodity group with no residues found, nonviolative residues found, and violative residues found. (A violative residue is defined in this report as a residue which exceeds a tolerance or a residue at a level of regulatory significance for which no tolerance has been established in the sampled food.)

    As in earlier years, fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed in 1997; those two commodity groups comprised 65% of the total number of domestic surveillance samples. In 1997, no violative residues were found in 98.8% of all domestic surveillance samples (98.7% in 1995 and 99.1% in 1996).

    Appendix A contains more detailed data on domestic surveillance monitoring findings by commodity, including the total number of samples analyzed, the percent samples with no residues found, and the percent violative samples. Of the 4,429 domestic surveillance samples, 66.0% had no detectable residues and 1.24% had violative residues. In the largest commodity groups, fruits and vegetables, 44.1% and 69.1% of the samples, respectively, had no residues detected. 1.2% of the fruit samples and 2.4% of the vegetable samples contained violative residues (Figure 1). In the milk/dairy products/eggs group, 97.0% of the samples had no residues detected, and no violative residues were found. Fifty-one samples of baby foods or formula were analyzed (see category Other). This included 17 vegetable, 12 cereal, 18 fruit juice, and 4 formula samples. None of the samples had violative residues.

    Findings by commodity group for the 5,223 import surveillance samples are shown in Figure 2. Fruits and vegetables accounted for 84.1% of these samples. Overall, no violative residues were found in 98.4% of the import surveillance samples (96.8% in 1995 and 97.4% in 1996).

    Appendix B contains detailed data on the import surveillance samples. Of the 5,223 samples analyzed, 66.1% had no residues detected, and less than 2% had violative residues. Fruits and vegetables had 60.6 and 63.0%, respectively, with no residues detected. The fruit group and the vegetable group had 1.2 and 2.1%, respectively, with violative residues. No residues were found in 89.4% of the dairy products/eggs group and 96.7% of the fish/shellfish group, and no violative residues were found in either of those groups.

    Pesticide monitoring data collected under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1997 are available to the public as a computer database. This database summarizes FDA 1997 regulatory monitoring coverage and findings by country/commodity/pesticide combination. The database also includes the monitoring data by individual sample from which the summary information was compiled. Information on how to obtain this database as well as those for 1992­1996 is provided at the end of this report.

    Geographic Coverage

    Domestic. In 1997, the 4,429 domestic surveillance samples were collected from all 50 states, Puerto Rico and American Samoa. The largest numbers of samples were collected from those states that are the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Table 1 lists numbers of domestic surveillance samples from each location, in order of descending numbers of samples.

    Import. Samples representing food shipments from 97 countries were collected. (Origin of some additional samples was unspecified.) Table 2 lists numbers of samples (surveillance and compliance) collected from each country. Mexico, as usual, was the source of the largest number of samples, reflecting the volume and diversity of commodities imported from that country, especially during the winter months.

    Surveillance/Compliance Violation Rate Comparison

    In 1997, 72 domestic and 119 import compliance samples were collected and analyzed (Table 3). Because compliance samples are collected when a pesticide residue problem is known or suspected, violation rates are expectedly higher than those for surveillance samples: 6.9% for domestic (7.8% in 1996) and 10.1% for imports (11.5% in 1996). The corresponding violation rates for surveillance samples were 1.2% for domestic and 1.6% for imports.

    Most of the 1997 compliance samples were collected as follow-up to violative surveillance samples. These included follow-up samples from the same shipment as the violative surveillance sample, follow-up samples of the same commodity from the same grower or shipper, and audit samples from shipments presented for entry into the United States with a certificate of analysis (i.e., shipments subject to detention without physical examination).

    Pesticide Coverage

    Table 4 lists the 366 pesticides that were detectable by the methods used; each of the 91 pesticides that were actually found is indicated by an asterisk.

    FDA conducts ongoing research to expand the pesticide coverage of its monitoring program. This research includes testing the behavior of new or previously untested pesticides through existing analytical methods, and development of new methods to cover pesticides that cannot be determined by methods currently used by FDA. The research encompasses both U.S.-registered pesticides and foreign-use pesticides that are not registered in the United States. The list of pesticides detectable for 1997 (Table 4) reflects the addition of a number of pesticides whose recovery through the analytical methods used was demonstrated as a result of ongoing research.

    Animal Feeds

    In FY'97, 460 domestic and 42 import feed samples were collected for surveillance purposes and analyzed for pesticides by the FDA. Of the 460 domestic surveillance samples, 286 (62.2%) contained no detectable pesticide residues and 1 (0.2%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance (Table 5). Of the 42 import surveillance samples, 24 (57.1%) contained no detectable pesticide residues and 1 (2.4%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance.

    A domestic sample of sudan hay contained 0.170 ppm of endosulfan sulfate and an imported sample of canola fines contained 0.033 ppm of malathion. These two samples were considered to have exceeded regulatory guidance because there are no tolerances established for these pesticide/commodity combinations.

    In the 174 domestic surveillance samples of feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 259 residues (193 quantifiable and 66 trace). Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon were the most frequently found and accounted for 71.4% of all residues detected (Table 6).

    Summary: Regulatory Monitoring

    In summary, no residues were found in 66% of both domestic and import surveillance samples (Figure 3) analyzed under FDA's regulatory monitoring approach in 1997. Only 1.2% of domestic and 1.6% of import surveillance samples had residue levels that were violative. The findings for 1997 demonstrate that pesticide residue levels in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances, corroborating results presented in earlier reports (4a, 4b). Animal feed samples (460 domestic, 42 import) were analyzed. Over 62% of the domestic surveillance samples and over 52% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

    Total Diet Study

    The Total Diet Study (TDS) is unique in that it determines pesticide residues in foods prepared for consumption (3). Of the nearly 200 chemicals that are validated for the analytical methods used, 104 individual residues were found in the foods analyzed in the four collections reported here (Market Baskets 96-3, 96-4, 97-1, and 97-2). Among these were 53 pesticides, including 13 which represent more than one related compound counted as a "total", 18 volatile organic compounds for which TDS foods are now being examined, and 10 other organic compounds. To measure the low levels of pesticides found in the TDS foods, the analytical methods used are modified to permit measurement at levels 5-10 times lower than those normally used in regulatory monitoring. In general, residues present at or above 1 part per billion can be measured.

    Table 7 lists the 23 most frequently found residues (those found in >2% of the samples), the total number of findings, and the percent occurrence in the four market baskets analyzed in 1997(1036 food items). The three most frequently observed chemicals, DDT, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and malathion, are the same as those observed for the past several years. The levels of these pesticides, as well as the others listed in Table 7, were well below regulatory limits.

    Information obtained through the TDS is used to estimate dietary intakes of pesticides; these intakes are then compared with established standards. Food consumption data to be used in estimating dietary intakes for the revised food list have only recently been finalized. Therefore, dietary intake information for the market baskets collected since 1991 will be reported separately.

    For several years, FDA has collected and analyzed a number of baby foods in addition to those covered under TDS. This adjunct to TDS now includes 22 different food items (13 fruit juices or fruits, 4 fruit desserts, 4 grain products, and 1 vegetable). Table 8 lists the 21 pesticide residues found in four collections of these foods (88 samples total) in 1997, the percentage occurrence, and ranges of levels found.

    Summary: Total Diet Study

    In 1997, the types of pesticide residues found and their frequency of occurrence in TDS were generally consistent with those given in previous FDA reports (4a, 4b). The pesticide residue levels found were well below regulatory standards. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1997 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

    Summary

    A total of 9,843 samples of domestically produced food and imported food from 97 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 1997. Of these, 9,652 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no evidence of a pesticide problem. No residues were found in 66% of both domestic surveillance and import surveillance samples. The higher violation rates in the 191 compliance samples reflect the fact that they are collected and analyzed when a pesticide problem is suspected.

    FDA collected and analyzed animal feed samples (460 domestic, 42 import) for pesticides. Over 62% of the domestic surveillance samples and over 52% of the import surveillance samples contained no residues.

    Most of the Total Diet Study findings for 1997 were generally similar to those found in earlier periods; details of findings will be published separately. An adjunct survey of baby foods in 1991-1997 also provided evidence of only small amounts of pesticide residues in those foods.

     

    This report was compiled through the efforts of the following FDA personnel: Bernadette M. McMahon, Mark S. Wirtz, and Charles H. Parfitt (Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals), Young H. Lee (Division of Programs and Enforcement Policy), Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages; Sharon A. Macuci (Division of Information Resources Management), Office of Management Systems, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC., Randall Lovell, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD, Sheila K. Egan and David Graham, Kansas City District, Lenexa, KS.

     

    The database containing the data from which this report was derived is also available from FDA's World Wide Web site. The 1996 report and database are available at the same site. FDA pesticide monitoring data collected under the regulatory monitoring approach in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are available for purchase on personal computer diskettes from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 703-487-4650); order numbers are: 1992, PB94-500899; 1993, PB94-501681; 1994, PB95-503132; and 1995, PB96-503156.

    References

    (1)  Code of Federal Regulations (1996) Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

    (2)  Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed., 1994 and subsequent revisions) and Volume II (1971 and subsequent revisions), Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161).

    (3)  Pennington, J.A.T., Capar, S.G., Parfitt, C.H., & Edwards, C.W. (1996) History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993. J. AOAC Int. 79, 163-170.

    (4a)  Food and Drug Administration (1995) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1994. J. AOAC Int. 78, 117A-143A (and earlier reports in the series).

    (4b)  Food and Drug Administration (1996) Food and Drug Administration pesticide program - residue monitoring - 1995, 1996. Available from FDA's World Wide Web site at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov.

    (5)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals: FDA Total Diet Study, June 1984-April 1986. J. AOAC Int. 78, 910-921.

    (6)  Gunderson, E.L. (1995) FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J. AOAC Int. 78, 1353- 1363.

    (7)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Total Diet Studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply. Food Addit. Contam. 9, 253-264.

    (8)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) The 1990 revision of the FDA Total Diet Study. J. Nutr. Educ. 24, 173-178.

    (9)  Pennington, J.A.T. (1992) Appendices for the 1990 revision of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. PB92-176239/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

     

     

     Figure 1.
    Summary of Results of Domestic Surveillance Samples by Commodity

    Figure 1: six pie charts - domestic surveillance samples

     

     

     Figure 2.
    Summary of Results of Import Surveillance Samples by Commodity

    Figure 2: six pie charts - import surveillance samples

     

     

     Figure 3.
    Summary of Results of Domestic vs. Import Surveillance Samples

    Figure 3: 2 pie charts - domestic versus import surveillance samplesFigure 3: 2 pie charts - domestic versus import surveillance samples

     

     

     Table 1.
    Domestic Surveillance Samples Collected
    and Analyzed, by Statea, in 1997

     

     

     

    CA

    632

     PA

    41

    FL

    514

     SD

    41

    WA

    388

     AR

    34

    NY

    273

     SC

    34

    VA

    203

     CO

    32

    LA

    198

     TN

    31

    AZ

    149

     IA

    28

    IL

    144

     UT

    27

    OR

    141

     AL

    26

    MO

    139

     DE

    25

    ID

    130

     NE

    25

    MA

    129

     KY

    21

    WI

    113

     NM

    21

    TX

    96

     OK

    20

    MN

    93

     WY

    17

    GA

    63

     WV

    13

    MI

    62

     IN

    11

    NJ

    62

     AK

    10

    MD

    59

     RI

    7

    OH

    57

     ME

    6

    MT

    56

     NH

    6

    KS

    46

     HI

    5

    ND

    45

     NV

    4

    NC

    44

     CT

    3

    MS

    42

     VT

    1

     

    Other domestic samples: Puerto Rico, 52 samples; American Samoa, 10 samples .

     

     

     Table 2.
    Foreign Countries and Number of Samplesa
    Collected and Analyzed in 1997

     

    Mexico

    2056

     Israel

    44

    Chile

    314

     Argentina

    43

    China, Peoples Rep.

    207

     Honduras

    40

    Guatemala

    190

     Belgium

    39

    Thailand

    185

     Unspecified

    39

    Canada

    164

     South Africa

    38

    Ecuador

    162

     Philippines

    35

    Italy

    143

     Greece

    34

    Netherlands (Holland

    142

     Jamaica

    34

    Spain (inc. Canary Islands)

    130

     Brazil

    28

    India

    117

     Indonesia

    26

    Colombia

    110

     Viet-Nam, Rep. Of

    25

    Costa Rica

    106

     United Kingdom

    24

    Dominican Republic

    92

     Japan

    18

    Turkey

    74

     El Salvador

    17

    Taiwan, Republic Of

    71

     Germany, Federal Rep

    16

    New Zealand

    66

     Pakistan

    16

    Korea, Rep. Of (South Korea)

    60

     Hong Kong

    14

    Panama

    60

     Egypt

    13

    Peru

    56

     Poland

    13

    France

    51

     Denmark

    11

    Australia

    48

      

    Ten or fewer samples collected from the following:

     


    Austria
    Bahamas
    Bangladesh
    Belize
    Bolivia
    Br. Virgin Is.
    Bulgaria
    Burma (Myanmar)
    Congo
    Croatia
    Cyprus
    Czech Republic
    Estonia
    Ethiopia
    Fiji
    Finland
    Ghana
    Greenland
    Grenada
    Guadeloupe
    Guyana
    Haiti
    Hungary
    Iceland
    Ireland
    Ivory Coast
    Kenya
    Korea, Dem. Peoples
      
    Lebanon
    Macedonia
    Malawi
    Malaysia
    Moldova (Moldavia)
    Morocco
    Mozambique
    Namibia
    Nicaragua
    Nigeria
    Norway
    Oman (Muscat)
    Portugal (inc. Azores)
    Russia
    Singapore
    Slovenia
    St. Lucia
    Sweden
    Switzerland
    Trinidad & Tobago
    Tunisia
    Ukraine
    Uruguay
    Uzbekistan
    Venezuela
    Yugoslavia
    Zambia
     
     
    Surveillance plus compliance samples.

     

     

     

     

     

    Table 3.
    Compliance Samples by Commodity Group in 1997

     

     
    Commodity Group
    Total No.
    of Samples
    Samples without
    Residues, %
    Samples
    Violative, %
     

    Domestic

       
       Grains and Grain Products

    3

    66.7

    0.0

       Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs

    7

    85.7

    0.0

       Fish/Shellfish

    3

    33.3

    0.0

       Fruits

    6

    0.0

    0.0

       Vegetables

    45

    31.1

    11.1

       Other

    8

    87.5

    0.0

    Total

    72

    41.7

    6.9

        

    Import

       
       Grains and Grain Products

    15

    66.7

    0.0

       Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs

    2

    100.0

    0.0

       Fish/Shellfish

    3

    100.0

    0.0

       Fruits

    18

    55.6

    11.1

       Vegetables

    64

    51.6

    15.6

       Other

    17

    76.5

    0.0

    Total

    119

    59.7

    10.1

     

     

     Table 4.
    Pesticides Detectable and Found (*)
    by Methods Used in 1997 Regulatory Monitoringa,b

     

    2,4-dichloro-6-nitrobenzenamine
    4(phenylamino)phenol*
    acephate*
    acetochlor
    acrinathrin
    alachlor
    aldicarb*
    aldrin
    allethrin
    allidochlor
    alpha-cypermethrin
    ametryn
    aminocarb
    amitraz
    anilazine
    Aramite
    atrazine*
    azinphos-ethyl
    azinphos-methyl*
    bendiocarb
    benfluralin
    benodanil
    benomyl/carbendazimc
    benoxacor
    bensulide
    benzoylprop-ethyl
    6-benzyladenine
    BHC*
    bifenox
    bifenthrin*
    binapacryl
    biphenyl*
    bitertanol
    bromacil
    bromophos
    bromophos-ethyl
    bromopropylate
    bromoxynil
    bromuconazole
    bufencarb
    Bulan
    bupirimate
    butachlor
    butralin
    butylate
    cadusafos
    captafol
    captan*
    carbaryl*
    carbofuran
    carbophenothion
    carbosulfan
    carboxin
    carfentrazone ethyl ester
    chlorbenside
    chlorbromuron
    chlorbufam
    chlordane*
    chlordecone
    chlordimeform*
    chlorethoxyfos
    chlorfenapyr
    chlorfenvinphos
    chlorflurecol methyl ester
    chlorimuron ethyl ester
    chlornitrofen
    chlorobenzilate
    3-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole
    chloroneb
    chloropicrin
    chloropropylate
    chlorothalonil*
    chloroxuron
    chlorpropham*
    chlorpyrifos*
    chlorpyrifos-methyl*
    chlorthiophos
    clomazone
    coumaphos
    crotoxyphos
    crufomate
    cyanazine
    cyanofenphos
    cyanophos
    cycloate
    cycluron
    cyfluthrin
    cymoxanil
    cypermethrin*
    cyprazine
    cyproconazole
    cyprodinil
    DCPA*
    DDT*
    deltamethrin
    deltamethrin, trans
    demeton*
    desmetryn
    dialifor
    di-allate
    N,N-diallyl-dichloroacetamide
    diazinon*
    dichlobenil
    dichlofenthion
    dichlofluanid*
    dichlone
    4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azapiro[4.5]decane
    2,6-dichlorobenzamide
    dichlorvos*
    diclobutrazol
    diclofop-methyl
    dicloran*
    dicofol*
    dicrotophos
    dieldrin*
    diethatyl-ethyl
    Dilan
    dimethachlor
    dimethametryn
    dimethipin
    dimethoate*
    dinitramine
    dinobuton
    dinocap
    dioxabenzofos
    dioxacarb
    dioxathion
    diphenamid
    diphenylamine*
    dipropetryn
    disulfoton*
    diuron
    edifenphos
    endosulfan*
    endrin*
    EPN
    esfenvalerate*
    etaconazole
    ethalfluralin
    ethephon
    ethiofencarb
    ethion*
    ethofumesate
    ethoprop
    ethoxyquin*
    ethylenebisdithiocarbamates*d
    etridiazole
    etrimfos*
    famphur
    fenamiphos
    fenarimol
    fenbuconazole
    fenfuram
    fenitrothion
    fenoxaprop ethyl ester
    fenoxycarb
    fenpropathrin*
    fenpropimorph
    fenson
    fensulfothion
    fenthion
    fenvalerate*
    fipronil
    flamprop-M-isopropyl
    flamprop-methyl
    fluazifop butyl ester
    fluchloralin
    flucythrinate
    fludioxinil
    flusilazole
    fluvalinate*
    folpet*
    fonofos
    formothion
    fosthiazate
    fuberidazole
    furilazole
    Gardona
    heptachlor*
    heptenophos
    hexachlorobenzene*
    hexaconazole
    hexazinone
    hexythiazox
    imazalil*
    imazamethabenz methyl ester
    iprobenfos
    iprodione*
    iprodione metabolite isomer*
    isazofos
    isocarbamid
    isofenphos
    isoprocarb
    isopropalin
    isoprothiolane
    isoxaben
    isoxaflutole
    lactofen
    lambda-cyhalothrin
    lenacil
    leptophos
    lindane*
    linuron*
    malathion*
    mecarbam*
    mephosfolan
    merphos
    metalaxyl*
    metaldehyde*
    metasystox thiol
    metazachlor
    methabenzthiazuron
    methamidophos*
    methidathion*
    methiocarb*
    methomyl*
    methoprotryne
    methoxychlor*
    2-methoxy-5,6-trichloropyridine
    methyl chloride*
    metobromuron
    metolachlor
    metolcarb
    metribuzin
    mevinphos*
    MGK 264
    mirex
    molinate
    monocrotophos*
    monolinuron
    monuron
    myclobutanil*
    naled*
    napropamide
    naptalam*
    neburon
    nitralin
    nitrapyrin
    nitrofen
    nitrofluorfen
    nitrothal-isopropyl
    norea
    norflurazon
    nuarimol
    octhilinone
    ofurace
    omethoate*
    ovex
    oxadiazon
    oxadixyl
    oxamyl*
    oxydemeton-methyl
    oxyfluorfen
    oxythioquinox
    paclobutrazol
    paraquat
    parathion*
    parathion-methyl*
    pebulate
    penconazole
    pendimethalin
    pentachlorobenzene*
    pentachlorobenzonitrile
    pentachlorophenyl methyl ether*
    permethrin*
    Perthane
    phenmedipham*
    phenothrin
    phenthoate
    phenylphenol, ortho-*
    phorate*
    phosalone*
    phosmet*
    phosphamidon*
    phoxim oxygen analog
    piperonyl butoxide
    piperophos
    pirimicarb
    pirimiphos-ethyl
    pirimiphos-methyl*
    pretilachlor
    probenazole
    prochloraz
    procyazine
    procymidone*
    prodiamine
    profenofos
    profluralin
    Prolan
    promecarb
    prometryn
    pronamide
    propachlor
    propanil
    propargite*
    propazine
    propetamphos
    propham
    propiconazole
    propoxur*
    prothiofos
    prothoate
    pyracarbolid
    pyrazon
    pyrazophos*
    pyrethrins
    pyridaphenthion
    pyrimethanil
    pyriproxyfen
    quinalphos*
    quintozene*
    quizalofop ethyl ester
    ronnel
    S-bioallethrin
    schradan
    secbumeton
    simazine*
    simetryn
    Strobane
    sulfallate
    sulfotep*
    Sulphenone
    sulprofos
    TCMTB
    tebuconazole
    tebupirimfos
    tecnazene
    tefluthrin
    TEPP
    terbacil
    terbufos
    terbumeton
    terbuthylazine
    terbutryn
    tetradifon
    tetraiodoethylene
    tetrasul
    thiabendazole*
    thiazopyr
    thiodicarb
    thiometon
    thionazin
    thiophanate-methyl
    THPI*
    tolylfluanid
    toxaphene
    tralomethrin
    traloxydim
    triadimefon*
    triadimenol*
    tri-allate
    triazamate
    triazophos
    tribufos*
    trichlorfon
    tricyclazole
    tridiphane
    trietazine
    triflumizole
    trifluralin*
    triflusulfuron methyl ester
    trimethacarb
    vamidothion sulfone
    vernolate
    vinclozolin*
    XMC

     a The list of pesticides detectable is expressed in terms of the parent pesticide. However, monitoring coverage and findings may have included metabolites, impurities, and alteration products.
     b Some of these pesticides are no longer manufactured or registered for use in the United States.
     c The analytical methodology determines carbendazim, which may result from use of benomyl or carbendazim.
     d Such as maneb.

     

     

     

    Table 5.
    Summary of 1997 Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples

     

     Total #Without residuesExceeding Guidance
    Type of FeedSamples

    #

    %

    #

    %

    Whole/Ground Grains

    167

    118

    70.7

    0

    0.0

    Mixed Feed Rations

    102

    40

    39.2

    0

    0.0

    Animal By-products

    91

    62

    68.1

    0

    0.0

    Plant By-products

    80

    50

    62.5

    0

    0.0

    Hay & Hay Products

    19

    15

    78.9

    1

    5.3

    Minerals/Supplements

    1

    1

    100.0

    0

    0.0

     
    Total

    460

    286

    62.2

    1

    0.2

     

     

     

    Table 6.
    Residues Found in Feeds in 1997

     

     

    No. of Samples with        

     

     
    Pesticide

    Trace
    Amounta

    Quantifiable
    Levels

    Rangeb
    (ppm)

    Medianb
    (ppm)

    malathion

    25

    81

    0.010-3.180

    0.060

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    8

    38

    0.010-2.420

    0.064

    diazinon

    6

    27

    0.010-0.160

    0.030

    DEF

    2

    13

    0.050-0.600

    0.115

    chlorpyrifos

    7

    4

    0.012-0.434

    0.064

    parathion

    1

    7

    0.020-0.440

    0.135

    methoxychlor

    3

    5

    0.017-0.145

    0.025

    ethion

    3

    3

    0.029-0.110

    0.080

    all othersc

    11

    15

    0.010-235.0d

    0.075

     

    a residue found is below that normally quantifiable, but its presence and identity are known.

    b in samples containing quantifiable levels.

    c DDE/DDT/TDE, n=4; pirimiphos-methyl, lindane, and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate, n=3 each; ethoxyquin and Gardona, n=2 each; chlordane, dieldrin, diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate, endosulfan sulfate, methamidophos, permethrin, phosmet, quintozene and tri-allate, n=1 each.

    d the 235.0 ppm value was ethoxyquin in brewerÂ’s grain. Ethoxyquin is approved as a pesticide (plant regulator) at levels up to 3 ppm (40 CFR 180.178). Ethoxyquin is also a feed additive (anti-oxidant) that is approved at levels up to 150 ppm in a finished article (21 CFR 573.380). Levels above 150 ppm are allowed in individual components of the diet provided the directions for use ensure the proper concentration in the finished article. The next highest value within the range for "all others" was 1.48 ppm.

     

     

     

     

    Table 7.
    Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues
    Found in Total Diet Study Foods in 1997a

     

    Pesticideb

    Total No. of Findings

    Occurrence, %

    DDT

    244

    24

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    165

    16

    malathion

    161

    16

    endosulfan

    147

    14

    dieldrin

    127

    12

    chlorpropham

    85

    8

    chlorpyrifos

    79

    8

    iprodione

    62

    6

    permethrin

    45

    4

    thiabendazolec

    36

    3

    dicloran

    35

    3

    methamidophos

    31

    3

    carbaryld

    30

    2.9

    dimethoate

    29

    2.8

    hexachlorobenzene

    27

    2.6

    methoxychlor

    26

    2.5

    BHC (alpha+beta+delta)

    24

    2.3

    pirimiphos-methyl

    24

    2.3

    lindane

    23

    2.2

    acephate

    21

    2.0

    azinphos-methyl

    21

    2.0

    omethoate

    21

    2.0

    toxaphene

    21

    2.0

     

    a Based on 4 market baskets analyzed in 1997 consisting of 259 items each (1036 total). Only those found in >2% of the samples are shown.

    b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.

    c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 66 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 264 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides thiabendazole and benomyl.

    d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 94 selected foods per market basket (i.e., 376 items total) were analyzed for N-methylcarbamates.

     

     

     

    Table 8.
    Frequency of Occurrence of Pesticide Residues
    Found in Selected Baby Foods in 1997a

    Pesticideb

    Total No. of Findings

    Occurrence, %

    Range, ppm

    iprodione

    19

    22

    0.0007-0.073

    permethrin

    12

    14

    0.0011-0.072

    chlorpyrifos

    11

    13

    0.0003-0.006

    endosulfan

    11

    13

    0.0004-0.0145

    malathion

    9

    10

    0.001-0.035

    carbarylc

    8

    9

    0.004-0.025

    chlorpyrifos-methyl

    7

    8

    0.001-0.032

    dimethoate

    7

    8

    0.0008-0.006

    thiabendazoled

    6

    7

    0.034-0.329

    ethylenethioureae

    4

    5

    0.005-0.010

    propargitef

    4

    5

    0.021-0.070

    benomyld

    3

    3

    0.035-0.055

    phosmet

    3

    3

    0.003-0.005

    propiconazole

    3

    3

    0.003-0.052

    dieldrin

    2

    2.3

    0.0004-0.001

    fenarimol

    2

    2.3

    0.0003-0.0008

    omethoate

    2

    2.3

    0.003-0.005

    dicloran

    1

    1.1

    0.001

    heptachlor

    1

    1.1

    0.0005

    methoxychlor

    1

    1.1

    0.0003

    parathion-methyl

    1

    1.1

    0.001

    a Based on 4 collections consisting of 88 total items.

    b Isomers, metabolites, and related compounds are not listed separately; they are covered under the "parent" pesticide from which they arise.
    c Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected foods per collection (i.e., 64 items total) were analyzed for N- methylcarbamates.
    d Reflects overall incidence; however, only 15 selected items (i.e., 60 items total) were analyzed for the benzimidazole fungicides (thiabendazole and benomyl).
    e Reflects overall incidence; however, only 13 selected items (i.e., 52 items total) were analyzed for ethylenethiourea.
    f Reflects overall incidence; however, only 16 selected foods per collection (i.e., 64 items total) were analyzed for this sulfur-containing compound.

     

     

     Appendix A.
    Analysis of Domestic Surveillance Samples
    by Commodity Group in 1997

     

     
    Commodity Group
    Total
    Samples
    Samples without
    Residues, %
    Samples
    Violativea, %
    # over
    tolerance
    # no
    tolerance
    A. Grains and Grain Products     
    Corn & corn products3250.00.0  
    Oats & oat products

    22

    77.3

    0.0

      
    Rice & rice products

    79

    92.4

    0.0

      
    Soybeans & soybean products

    18

    83.3

    0.0

      
    Wheat & wheat products

    198

    37.4

    0.0

      
    Other grains & grain products

    24

    79.2

    0.0

      
    Breakfast cereals

    18

    94.4

    0.0

      
    Bakery products, crackers, etc.

    6

    83.3

    0.0

      
    Total

    397

    59.5

    0.0

      
          
    B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs     
    Cheese & cheese products

    91

    96.7

    0.0

      
    Eggs

    138

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Milk/cream & milk products

    399

    96.0

    0.0

      
    Total

    628

    97.0

    0.0

      
          
    C. Fish/Shellfish     
    Fish & Fish Products

    258

    58.1

    0.0

      
    Shellfish & Crustaceans

    109

    90.8

    0.0

      
    Other Aquatic Animals & Products

    2

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Total

    369

    68.0

    0.0

      
          
    D. Fruits     
    Blackberries

    6

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Blueberries

    35

    74.3

    0.0

      
    Cranberries

    5

    20.0

    0.0

      
    Grapes, raisins

    26

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Raspberries

    21

    23.8

    0.0

      
    Strawberries

    79

    15.2

    7.6

    2

    4

    Other berries

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Grapefruit

    18

    38.9

    0.0

      
    Lemons

    13

    69.2

    0.0

      
    Oranges

    147

    38.8

    0.7

     

    1

    Other citrus fruit

    9

    22.2

    0.0

      
          
    Apples

    193

    34.7

    0.5

    1

     
    Pears

    88

    42.0

    3.4

     

    3

          
    Apricots

    3

    0.0

    0.0

      
    Avocadoes

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Cherries

    62

    24.2

    0.0

      
    Nectarines

    13

    15.4

    0.0

      
    Peaches

    161

    29.2

    1.2

    1

    1

    Plums

    6

    66.7

    0.0

      
          
    Bananas, plantains

    7

    42.9

    0.0

      
    Kiwi fruit

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Mangoes

    4

    75.0

    0.0

      
          
    Cantaloupe

    64

    73.4

    1.6

     

    1

    Honeydew

    9

    55.6

    0.0

      
    Watermelon

    41

    85.4

    0.0

      
    Other melons

    4

    25.0

    0.0

      
          
    Apple juice

    95

    65.3

    0.0

      
    Citrus juice

    31

    93.5

    0.0

      
    Other fruit juices

    10

    90.0

    0.0

      
          
    Fruit jams/jellies/
    pastes/toppings

    16

    56.2

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    1171

    44.1

    1.2

      
          
    E. Vegetables     
    Corn

    89

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Mung beans and bean sprouts

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

    97

    81.4

    1.0

     

    1

    String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

    161

    64.6

    1.2

    1

    1

    Other beans & peas & products

    74

    93.2

    0.0

      
          
    Cucumbers

    66

    69.7

    3.0

    1b

    1

    Eggplant

    23

    73.9

    4.3

     

    1

    Okra

    2

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Peppers, hot

    12

    50.0

    8.3

     

    1

    Peppers, sweet

    85

    57.6

    0.0

      
    Squash/pumpkins

    112

    74.1

    1.8

     

    2

    Tomatoes

    143

    67.8

    0.0

      
    Other fruiting vegetables

    2

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Artichokes

    2

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Asparagus

    32

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Bok choy & Chinese cabbage

    19

    36.8

    21.1

     

    4

    Broccoli

    23

    78.3

    0.0

      
    Cabbage

    68

    83.8

    0.0

      
    Cauliflower

    12

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Celery

    21

    0.0

    4.8

     

    1

    Collards

    17

    58.8

    11.8

    1

    1

    Endive

    11

    27.3

    27.3

     

    3

    Kale

    8

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Lettuce, head

    60

    46.7

    5.0

    2

    1

    Lettuce, leaf

    66

    33.3

    4.5

    1

    2

    Mustard greens

    12

    50.0

    16.7

    1

    1

    Spinach

    34

    35.3

    11.8

    2

    2

    Other leaf & stem vegetables

    19

    84.2

    10.5

     

    2

          
    Mushrooms & Truffles

    8

    75.0

    0.0

      
          
    Carrots

    116

    64.7

    1.7

    1

    1

    Cassava

    1

    0.0

    0.0

      
    Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

    32

    87.5

    0.0

      
    Potatoes

    152

    61.2

    1.3

    2

     
    Radishes

    12

    91.7

    0.0

      
    Red beets

    18

    72.2

    11.1

     

    2

    Sweet potatoes

    33

    81.8

    3.0

    1

     
    Other root & tuber vegetables

    12

    83.3

    0.0

      
          
    Vegetables with sauce

    8

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Vegetables, dried or paste

    28

    96.4

    3.6

     

    1

    Other vegetables/vegetable products

    13

    69.2

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    1707

    69.1

    2.4

      
          
    F. Other     
    Peanuts & peanut products

    41

    78.0

    0.0

      
    Other nuts & nut products

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Edible seeds

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Vegetable oil, crude

    10

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Vegetable oil, refined

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Spices & condiments & flavors

    11

    90.9

    0.0

      
          
    Beverage bases

    23

    56.5

    0.0

      
          
    Honey & other sweeteners

    9

    88.9

    0.0

      
          
    Baby foods/formula

    51

    92.2

    0.0

      
          

    Other food products,

    incl. prepared foods

    6

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Nonfood items

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    157

    82.8

    0.0

      
     

    A-F Total

    4429

    66.0

    1.2

      
     
      a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
      b Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

     

     

     Appendix B
    Analysis of Import Surveillance Samples
    by Commodity Group in 1997

     

     
    Commodity Group
    Total
    Samples
    Samples without
    Residues, %
    Samples
    Violativea, %
    # over
    tolerance
    # no
    tolerance
    A. Grains and Grain Products     
    Corn & corn products

    5

    80.0

    0.0

      
    Oats & oat products

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Rice & rice products

    88

    88.6

    0.0

      
    Soybeans & soybean products

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Wheat & wheat products

    26

    73.1

    0.0

      
    Other grains & grain products

    24

    62.5

    12.5

     

    3

    Breakfast cereals

    9

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Bakery products, crackers, etc.

    25

    84.0

    0.0

      
    Pasta and noodles

    138

    89.9

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    322

    86.0

    0.9

      
          
    B. Milk/Dairy Products/Eggs     
    Butter

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Cheese & cheese products

    61

    93.4

    0.0

      
    Eggs

    20

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Milk/cream & milk products

    3

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    85

    89.4

    0.0

      
          
    C. Fish/Shellfish     
    Fish & Fish Products

    128

    93.0

    0.0

      
    Shellfish & Crustaceans

    26

    96.2

    0.0

      
    Other Aquatic Animals & Products

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    158

    93.7

    0.0

      
          
    D. Fruits     
    Blackberries

    59

    32.2

    3.4

     

    2

    Blueberries

    15

    60.0

    0.0

      
    Cranberries

    4

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Grapes, raisins

    139

    46.8

    0.7

     

    1

    Raspberries

    105

    26.7

    1.9

     

    2

    Strawberries

    38

    18.4

    0.0

      
    Other berries

    7

    71.4

    0.0

      
          
    Clementines

    5

    20.0

    0.0

      
    Grapefruit

    6

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Lemons

    12

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Limes

    61

    82.0

    0.0

      
    Oranges

    46

    84.8

    0.0

      
    Other citrus fruit

    8

    62.5

    12.5

     

    1

          
    Apples

    58

    24.1

    1.7

     

    1

    Pears

    88

    43.2

    0.0

      
    Other pome fruit

    12

    91.7

    0.0

      
          
    Apricots

    3

    33.3

    0.0

      
    Avocadoes

    21

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Cherries

    8

    37.5

    0.0

      
    Dates

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Nectarines

    10

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Olives

    56

    87.5

    0.0

      
    Peaches

    33

    57.6

    3.0

     

    1

    Plums

    15

    60.0

    0.0

      
    Other pit fruit

    7

    71.4

    14.3

     

    1

          
    Bananas, plantains

    359

    55.4

    0.0

      
    Guavas

    3

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Kiwi fruit

    25

    64.0

    4.0

     

    1

    Mangoes

    71

    91.5

    0.0

      
    Papaya

    65

    67.7

    3.1

     

    2

    Pineapple

    96

    78.1

    0.0

      
    Other sub-tropical fruit

    80

    87.5

    7.5

     

    6

          
    Cantaloupe

    80

    21.2

    1.2

     

    1

    Honeydew

    75

    28.0

    5.3

     

    4

    Watermelon

    45

    68.9

    0.0

      
    Other melons

    33

    36.4

    0.0

      
          
    Other fruits

    7

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Apple juice

    33

    87.9

    0.0

      
    Citrus juice

    15

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Other fruit juices

    93

    91.4

    1.1

     

    1

          
    Fruit jams/jellies/
    pastes/toppings

    134

    88.8

    0.8

     

    1

          
    Total

    2034

    60.6

    1.2

      
          
    E. Vegetables     
    Corn

    28

    92.9

    0.0

      
    Mung beans and bean sprouts

    14

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Peas (green/snow/sugar/sweet)

    74

    64.9

    8.1

    1

    5

    String beans (green/snap/pole/long)

    83

    31.3

    8.4

    1

    6

    Other beans & peas & products

    89

    83.2

    2.2

    1b

    1

          
    Cucumbers

    94

    35.1

    2.1

     

    2

    Eggplant

    25

    48.0

    0.0

      
    Okra

    32

    87.5

    0.0

      
    Peppers, hot

    216

    43.1

    5.1

    2

    9

    Peppers, sweet

    212

    59.4

    0.5

     

    1

    Squash/pumpkins

    148

    35.1

    0.7

     

    1

    Tomatoes

    325

    49.9

    0.3

     

    1

    Other fruiting vegetables

    65

    67.7

    4.6

     

    3

          
    Artichokes

    29

    93.1

    0.0

      
    Asparagus

    89

    92.1

    1.1

    1

     
    Bamboo shoots

    16

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Bok choy & Chinese cabbage

    16

    62.5

    0.0

      
    Broccoli

    43

    83.7

    0.0

      
    Cabbage

    15

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Cauliflower

    8

    75.0

    0.0

      
    Celery

    14

    28.6

    0.0

      
    Endive

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Kale

    15

    46.7

    6.7

     

    1

    Lettuce, head

    12

    41.7

    0.0

      
    Lettuce, leaf

    27

    55.6

    0.0

      
    Mustard greens

    2

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Radicchio

    9

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Spinach

    20

    50.0

    0.0

      
    Other leaf & stem vegetables

    66

    59.1

    1.5

     

    1

          
    Mushrooms & mushroom products

    68

    95.6

    0.0

      
          
    Carrots

    49

    75.5

    2.0

     

    1

    Cassava

    24

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Onions/leeks/scallions/shallots

    75

    73.3

    1.3

     

    1

    Potatoes

    20

    95.0

    0.0

      
    Radishes

    9

    44.4

    0.0

      
    Red beets

    9

    44.4

    0.0

      
    Sweet potatoes

    22

    95.5

    0.0

      
    Water chestnuts

    34

    97.1

    2.9

     

    1

    Other root & tuber vegetables

    43

    86.0

    4.7

     

    2

          
    Vegetables with sauce

    14

    85.7

    0.0

      
    Vegetables, dried or paste

    145

    77.2

    5.5

    3b

    5

    Other vegetables/vegetable products

    54

    79.6

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    2356

    63.0

    2.1

      
          
    F. Other     
    Almonds & almond products

    1

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Cashews

    25

    92.0

    0.0

      
    Coconut & coconut products

    15

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Peanuts & peanut products

    23

    65.2

    0.0

      
    Other nuts & nut products

    23

    95.7

    0.0

      
          
    Edible seeds

    17

    82.3

    17.6

     

    3

    Vegetable oil, crude

    5

    60.0

    0.0

      
    Vegetable oil, refined

    14

    100.0

    0.0

      
          
    Spices & condiments & flavors

    23

    69.6

    13.0

     

    3

    Beverages & water

    28

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Beverage bases

    25

    92.0

    4.0

     

    1

    Coffee/tea/wine

    3

    66.7

    0.0

      
    Cocoa beans & chocolate products

    4

    100.0

    0.0

      
    Honey & other sweeteners

    35

    88.6

    0.0

      
    Baby foods/formula

    1

    0.0

    0.0

      
          
    Other food products,
    incl. prepared foods

    17

    94.1

    0.0

      
    Nonfood items

    9

    55.6

    0.0

      
          
    Total

    268

    86.6

    2.6

      
          

    A-F Total

    5223

    66.0

    1.6

      
     
     a Includes samples with residues over tolerance or action level and samples with residues with no tolerance.
     b Residue in sample exceeded an action level rather than a tolerance.

     

    Hypertext updated by bwm/ear on 1998-AUG-28