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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Ginseng Dietary Supplements Special Survey (CFSAN Assignments and Field Regulatory Monitoring for FY 2003 and FY 2004)

 

August 1, 2008


 


 

Background:

In FYs 2003 and 2004 FDA issued two field assignments covering pesticide residues in ginseng.

The first assignment, "Pesticides in Imported Bulk Ginseng and Domestic Ginseng Dietary Supplements, Division of Field Programs (DFP) Assignment # 03-01," was issued on October 4, 2002. The second assignment, "Sample Collection and Analysis of Dietary Supplement Ginseng for Pesticides, DFP # 04-25," was issued on June 8, 2004.

The FY 2004 assignment was a follow-up to the FY 2003 assignment, calling for visits to select firms to collect official samples of ginseng dietary supplements suspected of containing unlawful pesticide residues. The collection and analyses of the ginseng products for both assignments were concluded in FY 2004. In a few cases, it was difficult to determine if a particular ginseng sample was collected as part of the assignments or as part of field regulatory monitoring. Results for all import and domestic ginseng samples collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004 are contained in this report.

Ginseng is generally characterized by species. According to The American Herbal Products Association's Herbs of Commerce, 2nd Edition, the standardized common name for Panax ginseng is Asian ginseng; other common names are Chinese ginseng and Korean ginseng. The standardized common name for Panax quinquefolius is American ginseng. The standardized common name for Panax pseudoginseng Wall. var. notoginseng is Tienchi ginseng. The standardized common names and other common names refer to the species and variety and not (necessarily) to the locale where grown.


 

DFP Assignment 03-01 "Pesticides in Imported Bulk Ginseng and Domestic Ginseng Dietary Supplements" Issued October 4, 2002.

The stated objectives of the assignment were:

  • To obtain comprehensive data on levels of pesticide residues in imported bulk ginseng and ginseng dietary supplements sold in the U.S; and
  • To take appropriate regulatory action against those products that contain unlawful pesticide residues.

Import Component:

The assignment called for the collection of 60 samples of imported bulk ginseng for pesticide analysis. The samples of ginseng were to originate from Canada, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China (PROC), and the Republic of Korea. Samples were to consist of the Panax species of ginseng and to be in the following forms - dried root, ground or powdered root, liquid or powdered extracts or concentrates, or finished products shipped in bulk for re-packing in the U. S. in any form (liquid, capsules, or tablets). Imported products already packaged for retail sale were not to be collected.

Domestic Component:

The assignment also called for the collection of up to 83 products that CFSAN had previously identified as products available for purchase on the internet and marketed as dietary supplements containing a single ginseng source of Panax ginseng. The samples were requested to be purchased over the Internet, with the option of obtaining the samples at the manufacturer (if in the assigned district), or at a retail establishment.


 

DFP Assignment 04-25, "Sample Collection and Analysis of Dietary Supplement Ginseng for Pesticides, High Priority," Issued June 8, 2004.

The stated objectives of the assignment were:

  • To visit select firms, collect official samples of domestic ginseng supplements, and analyze for unlawful pesticide residues which cause the products to be adulterated.
  • To obtain documentary samples of Siberian ginseng, if the firm is marketing such products.
  • To take appropriate regulatory action against those products that contain unlawful pesticide residues or are misbranded as ginseng.

Domestic Component:

Nineteen firms were identified to be covered in the assignment by 9 FDA districts (CHI-DO, DEN-DO, LOS-DO, MIN-DO, NYK-DO, NWE-DO, NWJ-DO, SAN-DO, and SEA-DO). While at the firm the district was requested to: identify and document the origin of all bulk ginseng used in finished products; collect 1 sample for pesticide residue analysis of a ginseng supplement from the largest finished lot available; and determine and document if the firm markets Siberian ginseng.

Import Component:

None.

 

Analytical Guidance for Ginseng Analyses (both assignments):

All samples were to be analyzed for organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides using procedures in the Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM) or other appropriate methodology. All residues were requested to be identified. However, in cases where residues of a particular pesticide (e.g., quintozene) consist of multiple components, only those components that were estimated to contribute significantly to the total were to be quantitated, and a total of the combined residue was to be reported.

Attachment 1 contains a listing of EPA tolerances and FDA enforcement levels for chlorinated and phosphorus pesticides in ginseng.

Note: For this report all residues recorded by the analyzing labs as having no established tolerance, or exceeding an existing tolerance, and meeting or exceeding the limits of quantitation of the method employed were recorded as violative residues.

 

Regulatory Guidance:

Domestic Component (applies to both assignments):

For products containing illegal residues, FDA districts were to pursue seizures or issue Warning Letters depending on the circumstances of the lot samples (e.g., could manufacturer/distributor be located as many samples were internet purchases, were lots of seizeable size?). In several cases recalls of violative lots occurred.

Import Component (applies to DFP # 03-01):

Violative product entries were both to be detained and recommended for Detention Without Physical Examination (which would automatically detain future entries of the product unless an acceptable lab analysis for a particular entry was provided to FDA establishing entry compliance).

 

Results (includes all ginseng samples collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004):

Import Samples:

  • Sixty-two import samples were collected and analyzed during FY 2003 and FY 2004 from the following countries of origin (country of origin as recorded on Sample Collection Record in FACTS): People's Republic of China or PROC (32); Canada (15); Hong Kong (6); Republic of Korea (3); Italy (2); and one each from Indonesia, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
  • Of the 62 total import samples, 37 samples (60%) were classified as Lab Class 3 (Adverse Findings or "Violative"), from the following countries of origin: PROC (17), Canada (11), Hong Kong (6), and Republic of Korea (3).
  • The balance of the samples (25) had laboratory classifications that were non-violative.
  • Thirty-one of the samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of Panax, Asian, Chinese, or Korean Ginseng (i.e., "Panax ginseng"). Twenty of these samples (65%) were violative.
  • Five of the samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of American Ginseng (i.e., "Panax quinquefolius"). Three of these samples (60%) were violative.
  • Of the remaining 14 violative samples, one was documented in the collection records as consisting of "North American Ginseng;" a second as "Canadian Ginseng," and the remaining 12 did not record a species or type of ginseng.
  • Of the remaining 12 non-violative samples, one was documented as "Kirin" ginseng, one as "Oriental" ginseng, and 10 did not specifically record a species or type of ginseng.

Attachment 2 is a table of FY 2003 and 2004 import ginseng violative samples listing country of origin, sample number, product description (species of ginseng and form of product), and the violative residue(s) reported for each.

Attachment 3 is a table of the FY 2003 and 2004 non-violative import ginseng samples listing country of origin, sample number, and product description (species of ginseng and form of product).

Import Violative Residue Findings:

  • For the 37 violative samples, 23 different violative residues were reported (see below).
  • The three most common violative residues reported were Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, and Pentachlorobenzene.
  • Violative samples had up to 10 violative residues reported.
  • Twenty-eight samples had three or more violative residues reported.

The violative residues reported, the number of violative occurrences, and the range found (ppm) included:

Import Violative Residue Findings
Violative Residue# Occurrences
(of 37 Violative Samples)
Range (ppm)
Pentachloroaniline270.03-5.15
Quintozene270.03-16.84
Pentachlorobenzene240.01-3.04
Tecnazene170.01-1.05
Alpha BHC150.17-1.76
Delta BHC150.05-5.12
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)150.03-1.94
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide110.02-1.47
DDE p,p'80.02-0.67
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline60.01- 0.14
DCPA60.02-0.18
Difenoconazole60.02-0.29
Beta BHC50.34-0.59
DDT p,p'50.03-0.09
Lindane40.70-1.27
Procymidone40.16-2.17
Heptachlor Epoxide20.01-0.09
DDT o,p'10.03
Dieldrin10.14
Endosulfan I10.16
Endosulfan II10.08
Endosulfan Sulfate10.02
Pentachlorobenzonitrile10.03

 

Domestic Samples:

  • Seventy-nine domestic ginseng samples were collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004. Forty-five of the samples (57%) were classified as Lab Class 3 (Adverse Findings or "Violative"). The balance of the samples (34) had laboratory classifications that were non-violative.
  • Sixty-seven of the samples were dietary supplement capsules, five were ginseng fluid extracts, four were raw material ginseng powder, and three were teas.
  • Forty-nine samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of Panax, Chinese, or Korean Ginseng (i.e., "Panax ginseng"). Twenty-six of these samples (53%) were violative.
  • Twenty-eight samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of American Ginseng (i.e., "Panax quinquefolius"). Eighteen of these were found "violative" (64%).
  • One violative sample was recorded as containing "Tienchi ginseng" (i.e., Panax pseudoginseng Wall. var. notoginseng), and one non-violative sample recorded as containing "Panax and Siberian Ginseng Root."

Attachment 4 is a table of FY 2003 and 2004 domestic ginseng violative samples listing sample number, product description (species of ginseng and form of product), and the violative residue(s) reported for each.

Attachment 5 is a table of the FY 2003 and 2004 non-violative domestic ginseng samples listing sample number and product description (species of ginseng and form of product).

 

Domestic Violative Residue Findings:

  • For the 45 violative samples, 23 different violative residues were reported.
  • The three most common violative residues were Quintozene, Pentachloroaniline, and Pentachlorobenzene.
  • Samples had up to 11 different violative residues reported.
  • Thirty-two samples had three or more violative residues.

The violative residues reported, the number of violative occurrences, and the range found (ppm) included:

Domestic Violative Residue Findings
Violative Residue# of Occurrences
(of 45 Violative Samples)
Range (ppm)
Quintozene360.02-15.1
Pentachloroaniline330.03- 2.23
Pentachlorobenzene300.02-1.71
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)220.01-1.75
Tecnazene190.01-0.82
Alpha BHC180.02-1.59
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide160.02-0.75
Delta BHC150.03-3.06
Beta BHC120.03-1.80
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline90.04-0.20
DCPA80.02-0.21
Lindane60.54-1.42
DDE p,p'50.01-2.95
DDT p,p'30.04-1.21
Heptachlor Expoxide30.05-0.16
1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene20.02-0.03
DDT o,p'20.04-0.43
Procymidone20.39-1.69
Difenconazole10.08
Fluvalinate10.04
Oxidixyl10.93
Pentachlorobenzonitrile10.19
Piperonyl Butoxide12.62

 

Comparison of Results: Import vs. Domestic Samples:

  • Violation rates were similar, 60% for imports and 57% for domestic ginseng samples.
  • Of the violative samples, the percentage with three or more violative residues was similar, 76% for imports and 71% for domestic ginseng samples.
  • Residue profiles for the violative import and violative domestic ginseng samples were similar; import and domestic samples each collectively had 23 violative residues, 19 of which were common to both import and domestic samples.
  • The top three residue occurrences for violative import and domestic samples were the same (Quintozene, Pentachloroaniline, and Pentachlorobenzene).

Attachment 6 is a table listing the violative pesticides reported in the ginseng dietary supplement samples and the action, use, or chemical characterization of each.


 

Attachments 1-6

 

Attachment 1: EPA Tolerances and FDA Enforcement Levels for Chlorinated and Phosphorus Pesticides in Ginseng
(Includes Root Vegetable Group Tolerances Applicable to Ginseng)
PesticideEPA Tolerance/FDA Enforcement Level
2,4D1.0/0.1 ppm (diethylamine salt from water hyacinth control/Diethylamine Salt Negligible Residue Tolerance)
BHC (Benzene Hexachloride)0.05 ppm (FDA Enforcement Level 40 CFR 108.34, total of individual isomers alpha, beta, delta, gamma)
Boscalid0.70 ppm
Carfentrazone-ethyl0.10 ppm
Clethodim1.0 ppm
Chlorothalonil0.1 ppm
(Zeta-)Cypermethryn0.1 ppm
DCPA2.0, however tolerance established effective 8/20/04; no DCPA tolerance in effect for the samples reported
Diazinon0.75 ppm
Fenhexamid0.3 ppm
Imidacloprid0.40 ppm
Iprodione2.00 ppm (4.00 ppm dried ginseng)
Myclobutanil0.03 ppm
Lindane0.50 ppm (FDA Enforcement Level 40 CFR 108.34)
(S-)Metolachlor Acetamid (Metolachlor related compound)0.30 ppm
Pyraclostrobin0.40 ppm
Sulfosate0.15 ppm
Thiamrthoxam0.02 ppm
Zoximide0.06 ppm (Regional Tolerance)

 

Attachment 2: FY 2003 and 2004 Import Ginseng Violative Samples
Entry Country of OriginSample #Product DescriptionViolative Residue(s) Reported
PROC (Mainland China)101407Panax Ginseng 20% Extract (powder)Difenococazole, Pentachloroaniline
PROC201066Dried Ginseng RootAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, HCB, Quintozene, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide
PROC203768Chinese GinsengTotal BHCs (Alpha, Beta, Delta Lindane), HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Qunitozene, Tecnazene
PROC203770Chinese White GinsengDCPA
PROC206376Ginseng RootDCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', Heptachlor epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC209080Panax Ginseng Red Root PowderDelta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC211498Korean GinsengDDE p,p', Procymidone, Quntozene
PROC211740Panax Ginseng Powder Extract 80% (Tea Use)Difenoconazole
PROC215775Chinese GinsengAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
PROC217387White Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer)Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
PROC217388White Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer)Alpha BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene,Tecnazene
PROC226588Panax Ginseng White Powder2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlororaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC228598Ginsen ExtractDifenoconazole, Pentachloroaniline, Procymidone
PROC240400Panax Ginseng Berry Extract Powder PE 60%Difenoconazole, Pentachloroaniline
PROC244119GinsengAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
PROC292884Ginseng PowderPentachloroaniline
PROC295484Ginseng LeavesDifenoconazole
Canada205466Ginseng (North American cultivated ginseng)DDE, p,p', DDT p,p', Dieldrin, Heptachlor Epoxide, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Tecnazene
Canada209753Dried Cultivated American Ginseng RootPentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada220370Ginseng Capsules(Canadian ginseng)DCPA, DDE, p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
Canada220402Red Chinese Ginseng Tablets2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, HCB, Pentachlororaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
Canada220553Softgel Ginseng Capsules (Panax C.A. Meyer)2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada220789Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada224422Korean Red Ginseng CapsulesProcymidone
Canada224494Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada235553Korean Panax Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Quintozene
Canada243392Ginseng RootDCPA, DDE p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororbenzonitrile, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada288423Ginseng PowderDDE p'p', DDT p,p'
Hong Kong200583Panax Ginseng RootDCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong203774Sliced China Red GinsengAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong206978GinsengDCPA, DDE p,p', Pentachlroraniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
Hong Kong208283American GinsengAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Quintozene
Hong Kong208287American GinsengAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong246702Radix Ginseng2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Republic of Korea201359Panax GinsengAlpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
Republic of Korea207036Red GinsengDifenoconazole, Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan Sulfate, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Procymidone, Quintozene
Republic of Korea288107Ginseng PowderHCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene

 

Attachment 3: FY 2003 and 2004 Import Ginseng Samples - Non Violative
Entry Country of OriginSample #Product Description
PROC (Mainland China)155786Panax Ginseng Herb Tea Bags (Made in China, DI Sample)
PROC197912American Ginseng Seeds
PROC199633Panax Ginseng Extract
PROC202672Ginseng
PROC213436Kirin Ginseng Loose
PROC216176Ginseng Oriental Root
PROC217390Red Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC217396White Chinese Ginseng Root & Prong (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC217399Red Chinese Ginseng Root & Prong (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC220657Panax Ginseng Powder Extract
PROC244282Ginseng Extract
PROC247741Panax Ginseng
PROC266194Panax Ginseng
PROC275957Siberian Ginseng
PROC282923American Ginseng Root
Canada202565Ginseng Powder
Canada220618Korean Ginseng Tablets (Induced Sample1)
Canada220810Panax Korean Ginseng Capsules (Induced Sample1)
Canada224183Panex Ginseng Capsules (Induced Sample1)
Italy274302Ginseng
Italy296097Ginseng Dry Extract
Indonesia195797Powdered Ginseng (Domestic-Import sample; bulk product sampled @ Herbal Powers, Chicago IL)
Netherlands261602Ginseng Root
Switzerland233364Ginseng Powder
Taiwan (Republic of China)285187Ginseng Capsules
  1Induced sample - product viewed on Canadian dealer's website and ordered undercover for mail delivery.

 

Attachment 4: Domestic Ginseng Violations FY 2003 and FY 2004
Sample #ProductViolative Residue(s) Reported
101406Korean Ginseng CapsulesDifenconazole, Pentachloroaniline
173969Korean Red Ginseng CapsulesProcymidone, Pentachloroaniline
173987Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
173988Panax Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
186354Time Release Korean Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197112American Ginseng CapsulesPentachlorobenzene
197113Korean Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197115Chinese Red Ginseng CapsulesHCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorbenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Piperonyl Butoxide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197120American Ginseng CapsulesDCPA, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
200488American Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
208993Pure Korean Ginseng Capsules1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
208994American Ginseng CapsulesDCPA, Pentachloroaniline, Pentaclorobenzene, Quintozene
208995American Ginseng CapsulesDCPA, Heptachlor Epoxide, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
293284Panax Ginseng Powder Extract (Raw Material Imported from PROC)Pentachloroaniline, Procymidone
293285White Ginseng Powder (Raw Material Imported from PROC)Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
214794American Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, DCPA, DDE p,p', Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
217962Korean White Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, HCB, Quintozene
218850Panax Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
218978American Ginseng CapsulesDDE p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
220667Panax Ginseng Softgel CapsulesFluvalinate
220946Korean Panaz Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, DDE p'p', HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
220948Korean White Ginseng Root CapsulesQuintozene
220949Korean ginseng Root CapsulesAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene,
220951Korean Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
226211American Ginseng Root CapsulesQuintozene, Pentachlorobenzene
227252American Ginseng CapsulesPentachlorobenzene
227254Korean Ginseng Root CapsulesPentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
240412American Ginseng CapsulesOxadixyl, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene
240613Korean Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
240618American Ginseng Root CapsulesAlpha BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachlorobenzne, Quintozene, Tecnzene
248496American Ginseng CapsulesDCPA, HCB, Heptachlor Epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorobenzonitrile, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
256505American Ginseng CapsulesPentachloroaniline
256506Korean Panax Ginseng CapsulesQuintozene
257853Korean Ginseng Root CapsulesQuintozene
257854Korean Ginseng Root CapsulesQuintozene
257857Korean Ginseng Root (raw material ginseng and finished product capsules)HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
287692American Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, DCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
284192American Ginseng CapsulesDCPA, Heptachlor Epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnzene
290461Korean ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
290462Korean Ginseng Capsules2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
290703American Ginseng CapsulesLindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
292008American Ginseng PowderDCPA, DDE p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene
292079American Ginseng Fluid Extract Herbal SupplementPentachloroaniline
297875Tienchi Ginseng CapsulesHCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
297876Chinese Red Ginseng CapsulesAlpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene

 

Attachment 5: FY 2003 and 2004 Domestic Ginseng Samples - Non Violative
Sample #Product Description
115145American ginseng Capsules
141627Korean Ginseng Capsules
155785American Ginseng Root (Glycerine Base, Fluid)
155787Ginseng Capsules (Oriental Ginseng Root (Panex Ginseng) 50 mg & Siberian Ginseng Root and active base 350 mg)
173727North American Ginseng Capsules
173986Panax Ginseng Tea Bags
173989Chinese Red Panax Root Ginseng Extractum (Fluid)
186355Korean ginseng Capsules
197114Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules
197116American Ginseng Instant Tea
197117Red Panax Ginseng Extractum (Fluid) (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of China")
197118Korean Ginseng Root Extract Tonic for Tea
197119American Ginseng Liquid Extract
214795Korean Ginseng Capsules
217960Red Chinese Ginseng Capsules
217961Korean Ginseng Capsules
220943Korean Ginseng Capsules
220947Korean Ginseng Extract Capsules
220950Korean Ginseng Root Capsules
220952American Ginseng Extract (Fluid)
226208Korean Ginseng Capsules
226209Korean Ginseng Capsules (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of England")
226210Korean Ginseng Capsules (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of England")
227253Korean Ginseng Root Capsules
227255Panax Ginseng Extract Capsules
227404American Ginseng Capsules
229276Chinese Red Panax Ginseng Softgels
240615American Ginseng Root Capsules
248498Asian Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules
254481American Ginseng Capsules
257852Korean Ginseng (Raw Material)
257855Korean Ginseng Capsules
287919American Ginseng Capsules
289415Korean Ginseng Capsules

 

Attachment 6: Violative Residues Detected - Action, Use, or Chemical Characterization
ResidueAction/Use/Characterization
1,2,3,5-TetrachlorobenzeneInsecticide/Chemical Intermediate for Herbicides and Defoiliants
2,3,5,6-TetrachloroanilineMetabolite of Tecnazene
Alpha BHCInsecticide
Beta BHCInsecticide
DCPAHerbicide
DDE p,p'Insecticide
DDT o,p'Insecticide
DDT p,p'Insecticide
Delta BHCInsecticide
DifenoconazoleFungicide
DieldrinInsecticide
Endosulfan IInsecticide
Endosulfan IIInsecticide
Endosulfan SulfateMetabolite of Endosulfan (Insecticide)
FluvalinanteInsecticide
Heptachlor EpoxideInsecticide
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)Impurity of Quintozene
LindaneInsecticide
OxidixylFungicide
PentachloroanilineMetabolite of Quintozene
PentachlorobenzeneImpurity of Quintozene
PentachlorobenzonitrileMetabolite of Chlorothalonil (Fungicide)
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl SulfideMetabolite of Quintozene
Piperonyl ButoxideInsecticide
ProcymidoneFungicide
Quintozene (PCNB)Fungicide
Tecnazene (TCNB)Plant Growth Regulator