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Food

Ginseng Dietary Supplements Special Survey (CFSAN Assignments and Field Regulatory Monitoring for FY 2003 and FY 2004)

August 1, 2008


Background:

In FYs 2003 and 2004 FDA issued two field assignments covering pesticide residues in ginseng.

The first assignment, "Pesticides in Imported Bulk Ginseng and Domestic Ginseng Dietary Supplements, Division of Field Programs (DFP) Assignment # 03-01," was issued on October 4, 2002. The second assignment, "Sample Collection and Analysis of Dietary Supplement Ginseng for Pesticides, DFP # 04-25," was issued on June 8, 2004.

The FY 2004 assignment was a follow-up to the FY 2003 assignment, calling for visits to select firms to collect official samples of ginseng dietary supplements suspected of containing unlawful pesticide residues. The collection and analyses of the ginseng products for both assignments were concluded in FY 2004. In a few cases, it was difficult to determine if a particular ginseng sample was collected as part of the assignments or as part of field regulatory monitoring. Results for all import and domestic ginseng samples collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004 are contained in this report.

Ginseng is generally characterized by species. According to The American Herbal Products Association's Herbs of Commerce, 2nd Edition, the standardized common name for Panax ginseng is Asian ginseng; other common names are Chinese ginseng and Korean ginseng. The standardized common name for Panax quinquefolius is American ginseng. The standardized common name for Panax pseudoginseng Wall. var. notoginseng is Tienchi ginseng. The standardized common names and other common names refer to the species and variety and not (necessarily) to the locale where grown.

DFP Assignment 03-01 "Pesticides in Imported Bulk Ginseng and Domestic Ginseng Dietary Supplements" Issued October 4, 2002.

The stated objectives of the assignment were:

  • To obtain comprehensive data on levels of pesticide residues in imported bulk ginseng and ginseng dietary supplements sold in the U.S; and
  • To take appropriate regulatory action against those products that contain unlawful pesticide residues.

Import Component:

The assignment called for the collection of 60 samples of imported bulk ginseng for pesticide analysis. The samples of ginseng were to originate from Canada, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China (PROC), and the Republic of Korea. Samples were to consist of the Panax species of ginseng and to be in the following forms - dried root, ground or powdered root, liquid or powdered extracts or concentrates, or finished products shipped in bulk for re-packing in the U. S. in any form (liquid, capsules, or tablets). Imported products already packaged for retail sale were not to be collected.

Domestic Component:

The assignment also called for the collection of up to 83 products that CFSAN had previously identified as products available for purchase on the internet and marketed as dietary supplements containing a single ginseng source of Panax ginseng. The samples were requested to be purchased over the Internet, with the option of obtaining the samples at the manufacturer (if in the assigned district), or at a retail establishment.

DFP Assignment 04-25, "Sample Collection and Analysis of Dietary Supplement Ginseng for Pesticides, High Priority," Issued June 8, 2004.

The stated objectives of the assignment were:

  • To visit select firms, collect official samples of domestic ginseng supplements, and analyze for unlawful pesticide residues which cause the products to be adulterated.
  • To obtain documentary samples of Siberian ginseng, if the firm is marketing such products.
  • To take appropriate regulatory action against those products that contain unlawful pesticide residues or are misbranded as ginseng.

Domestic Component:

Nineteen firms were identified to be covered in the assignment by 9 FDA districts (CHI-DO, DEN-DO, LOS-DO, MIN-DO, NYK-DO, NWE-DO, NWJ-DO, SAN-DO, and SEA-DO). While at the firm the district was requested to: identify and document the origin of all bulk ginseng used in finished products; collect 1 sample for pesticide residue analysis of a ginseng supplement from the largest finished lot available; and determine and document if the firm markets Siberian ginseng.

Import Component:

None.

Analytical Guidance for Ginseng Analyses (both assignments):

All samples were to be analyzed for organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides using procedures in the Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM) or other appropriate methodology. All residues were requested to be identified. However, in cases where residues of a particular pesticide (e.g., quintozene) consist of multiple components, only those components that were estimated to contribute significantly to the total were to be quantitated, and a total of the combined residue was to be reported.

Attachment 1 contains a listing of EPA tolerances and FDA enforcement levels for chlorinated and phosphorus pesticides in ginseng.

Note: For this report all residues recorded by the analyzing labs as having no established tolerance, or exceeding an existing tolerance, and meeting or exceeding the limits of quantitation of the method employed were recorded as violative residues.

Regulatory Guidance:

Domestic Component (applies to both assignments):

For products containing illegal residues, FDA districts were to pursue seizures or issue Warning Letters depending on the circumstances of the lot samples (e.g., could manufacturer/distributor be located as many samples were internet purchases, were lots of seizeable size?). In several cases recalls of violative lots occurred.

Import Component (applies to DFP # 03-01):

Violative product entries were both to be detained and recommended for Detention Without Physical Examination (which would automatically detain future entries of the product unless an acceptable lab analysis for a particular entry was provided to FDA establishing entry compliance).

Results (includes all ginseng samples collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004):

Import Samples:

  • Sixty-two import samples were collected and analyzed during FY 2003 and FY 2004 from the following countries of origin (country of origin as recorded on Sample Collection Record in FACTS): People's Republic of China or PROC (32); Canada (15); Hong Kong (6); Republic of Korea (3); Italy (2); and one each from Indonesia, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
  • Of the 62 total import samples, 37 samples (60%) were classified as Lab Class 3 (Adverse Findings or "Violative"), from the following countries of origin: PROC (17), Canada (11), Hong Kong (6), and Republic of Korea (3).
  • The balance of the samples (25) had laboratory classifications that were non-violative.
  • Thirty-one of the samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of Panax, Asian, Chinese, or Korean Ginseng (i.e., "Panax ginseng"). Twenty of these samples (65%) were violative.
  • Five of the samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of American Ginseng (i.e., "Panax quinquefolius"). Three of these samples (60%) were violative.
  • Of the remaining 14 violative samples, one was documented in the collection records as consisting of "North American Ginseng;" a second as "Canadian Ginseng," and the remaining 12 did not record a species or type of ginseng.
  • Of the remaining 12 non-violative samples, one was documented as "Kirin" ginseng, one as "Oriental" ginseng, and 10 did not specifically record a species or type of ginseng.

Attachment 2 is a table of FY 2003 and 2004 import ginseng violative samples listing country of origin, sample number, product description (species of ginseng and form of product), and the violative residue(s) reported for each.

Attachment 3 is a table of the FY 2003 and 2004 non-violative import ginseng samples listing country of origin, sample number, and product description (species of ginseng and form of product).

Import Violative Residue Findings:

  • For the 37 violative samples, 23 different violative residues were reported (see below).
  • The three most common violative residues reported were Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, and Pentachlorobenzene.
  • Violative samples had up to 10 violative residues reported.
  • Twenty-eight samples had three or more violative residues reported.

The violative residues reported, the number of violative occurrences, and the range found (ppm) included:

Import Violative Residue Findings
Violative Residue # Occurrences
(of 37 Violative Samples)
Range (ppm)
Pentachloroaniline 27 0.03-5.15
Quintozene 27 0.03-16.84
Pentachlorobenzene 24 0.01-3.04
Tecnazene 17 0.01-1.05
Alpha BHC 15 0.17-1.76
Delta BHC 15 0.05-5.12
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 15 0.03-1.94
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide 11 0.02-1.47
DDE p,p' 8 0.02-0.67
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline 6 0.01- 0.14
DCPA 6 0.02-0.18
Difenoconazole 6 0.02-0.29
Beta BHC 5 0.34-0.59
DDT p,p' 5 0.03-0.09
Lindane 4 0.70-1.27
Procymidone 4 0.16-2.17
Heptachlor Epoxide 2 0.01-0.09
DDT o,p' 1 0.03
Dieldrin 1 0.14
Endosulfan I 1 0.16
Endosulfan II 1 0.08
Endosulfan Sulfate 1 0.02
Pentachlorobenzonitrile 1 0.03

Domestic Samples:

  • Seventy-nine domestic ginseng samples were collected and analyzed in FYs 2003 and 2004. Forty-five of the samples (57%) were classified as Lab Class 3 (Adverse Findings or "Violative"). The balance of the samples (34) had laboratory classifications that were non-violative.
  • Sixty-seven of the samples were dietary supplement capsules, five were ginseng fluid extracts, four were raw material ginseng powder, and three were teas.
  • Forty-nine samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of Panax, Chinese, or Korean Ginseng (i.e., "Panax ginseng"). Twenty-six of these samples (53%) were violative.
  • Twenty-eight samples were documented in the collection records as consisting of American Ginseng (i.e., "Panax quinquefolius"). Eighteen of these were found "violative" (64%).
  • One violative sample was recorded as containing "Tienchi ginseng" (i.e., Panax pseudoginseng< Wall. var. notoginseng), and one non-violative sample recorded as containing "Panax and Siberian Ginseng Root."

Attachment 4 is a table of FY 2003 and 2004 domestic ginseng violative samples listing sample number, product description (species of ginseng and form of product), and the violative residue(s) reported for each.

Attachment 5 is a table of the FY 2003 and 2004 non-violative domestic ginseng samples listing sample number and product description (species of ginseng and form of product).

Domestic Violative Residue Findings:

  • For the 45 violative samples, 23 different violative residues were reported.
  • The three most common violative residues were Quintozene, Pentachloroaniline, and Pentachlorobenzene.
  • Samples had up to 11 different violative residues reported.
  • Thirty-two samples had three or more violative residues.

The violative residues reported, the number of violative occurrences, and the range found (ppm) included:

Domestic Violative Residue Findings
Violative Residue # of Occurrences
(of 45 Violative Samples)
Range (ppm)
Quintozene 36 0.02-15.1
Pentachloroaniline 33 0.03- 2.23
Pentachlorobenzene 30 0.02-1.71
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 22 0.01-1.75
Tecnazene 19 0.01-0.82
Alpha BHC 18 0.02-1.59
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide 16 0.02-0.75
Delta BHC 15 0.03-3.06
Beta BHC 12 0.03-1.80
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline 9 0.04-0.20
DCPA 8 0.02-0.21
Lindane 6 0.54-1.42
DDE p,p' 5 0.01-2.95
DDT p,p' 3 0.04-1.21
Heptachlor Expoxide 3 0.05-0.16
1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 2 0.02-0.03
DDT o,p' 2 0.04-0.43
Procymidone 2 0.39-1.69
Difenconazole 1 0.08
Fluvalinate 1 0.04
Oxidixyl 1 0.93
Pentachlorobenzonitrile 1 0.19
Piperonyl Butoxide 1 2.62

Comparison of Results: Import vs. Domestic Samples:

  • Violation rates were similar, 60% for imports and 57% for domestic ginseng samples.
  • Of the violative samples, the percentage with three or more violative residues was similar, 76% for imports and 71% for domestic ginseng samples.
  • Residue profiles for the violative import and violative domestic ginseng samples were similar; import and domestic samples each collectively had 23 violative residues, 19 of which were common to both import and domestic samples.
  • The top three residue occurrences for violative import and domestic samples were the same (Quintozene, Pentachloroaniline, and Pentachlorobenzene).

Attachment 6 is a table listing the violative pesticides reported in the ginseng dietary supplement samples and the action, use, or chemical characterization of each.


Attachments 1-6

Attachment 1: EPA Tolerances and FDA Enforcement Levels for Chlorinated and Phosphorus Pesticides in Ginseng
(Includes Root Vegetable Group Tolerances Applicable to Ginseng)
Pesticide EPA Tolerance/FDA Enforcement Level
2,4D 1.0/0.1 ppm (diethylamine salt from water hyacinth control/Diethylamine Salt Negligible Residue Tolerance)
BHC (Benzene Hexachloride) 0.05 ppm (FDA Enforcement Level 40 CFR 108.34, total of individual isomers alpha, beta, delta, gamma)
Boscalid 0.70 ppm
Carfentrazone-ethyl 0.10 ppm
Clethodim 1.0 ppm
Chlorothalonil 0.1 ppm
(Zeta-)Cypermethryn 0.1 ppm
DCPA 2.0, however tolerance established effective 8/20/04; no DCPA tolerance in effect for the samples reported
Diazinon 0.75 ppm
Fenhexamid 0.3 ppm
Imidacloprid 0.40 ppm
Iprodione 2.00 ppm (4.00 ppm dried ginseng)
Myclobutanil 0.03 ppm
Lindane 0.50 ppm (FDA Enforcement Level 40 CFR 108.34)
(S-)Metolachlor Acetamid (Metolachlor related compound) 0.30 ppm
Pyraclostrobin 0.40 ppm
Sulfosate 0.15 ppm
Thiamrthoxam 0.02 ppm
Zoximide 0.06 ppm (Regional Tolerance)

Attachment 2: FY 2003 and 2004 Import Ginseng Violative Samples
Entry Country of Origin Sample # Product Description Violative Residue(s) Reported
PROC (Mainland China) 101407 Panax Ginseng 20% Extract (powder) Difenococazole, Pentachloroaniline
PROC 201066 Dried Ginseng Root Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, HCB, Quintozene, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide
PROC 203768 Chinese Ginseng Total BHCs (Alpha, Beta, Delta Lindane), HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Qunitozene, Tecnazene
PROC 203770 Chinese White Ginseng DCPA
PROC 206376 Ginseng Root DCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', Heptachlor epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC 209080 Panax Ginseng Red Root Powder Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC 211498 Korean Ginseng DDE p,p', Procymidone, Quntozene
PROC 211740 Panax Ginseng Powder Extract 80% (Tea Use) Difenoconazole
PROC 215775 Chinese Ginseng Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
PROC 217387 White Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer) Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
PROC 217388 White Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer) Alpha BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene,Tecnazene
PROC 226588 Panax Ginseng White Powder 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlororaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
PROC 228598 Ginsen Extract Difenoconazole, Pentachloroaniline, Procymidone
PROC 240400 Panax Ginseng Berry Extract Powder PE 60% Difenoconazole, Pentachloroaniline
PROC 244119 Ginseng Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
PROC 292884 Ginseng Powder Pentachloroaniline
PROC 295484 Ginseng Leaves Difenoconazole
Canada 205466 Ginseng (North American cultivated ginseng) DDE, p,p', DDT p,p', Dieldrin, Heptachlor Epoxide, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Tecnazene
Canada 209753 Dried Cultivated American Ginseng Root Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada 220370 Ginseng Capsules(Canadian ginseng) DCPA, DDE, p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
Canada 220402 Red Chinese Ginseng Tablets 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, HCB, Pentachlororaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
Canada 220553 Softgel Ginseng Capsules (Panax C.A. Meyer) 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada 220789 Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada 224422 Korean Red Ginseng Capsules Procymidone
Canada 224494 Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada 235553 Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Quintozene
Canada 243392 Ginseng Root DCPA, DDE p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororbenzonitrile, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Canada 288423 Ginseng Powder DDE p'p', DDT p,p'
Hong Kong 200583 Panax Ginseng Root DCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong 203774 Sliced China Red Ginseng Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong 206978 Ginseng DCPA, DDE p,p', Pentachlroraniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
Hong Kong 208283 American Ginseng Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Quintozene
Hong Kong 208287 American Ginseng Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Hong Kong 246702 Radix Ginseng 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
Republic of Korea 201359 Panax Ginseng Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
Republic of Korea 207036 Red Ginseng Difenoconazole, Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan Sulfate, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Procymidone, Quintozene
Republic of Korea 288107 Ginseng Powder HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene

Attachment 3: FY 2003 and 2004 Import Ginseng Samples - Non Violative
Entry Country of Origin Sample # Product Description
PROC (Mainland China) 155786 Panax Ginseng Herb Tea Bags (Made in China, DI Sample)
PROC 197912 American Ginseng Seeds
PROC 199633 Panax Ginseng Extract
PROC 202672 Ginseng
PROC 213436 Kirin Ginseng Loose
PROC 216176 Ginseng Oriental Root
PROC 217390 Red Chinese Ginseng Fiber (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC 217396 White Chinese Ginseng Root & Prong (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC 217399 Red Chinese Ginseng Root & Prong (Panax C.A. Meyer)
PROC 220657 Panax Ginseng Powder Extract
PROC 244282 Ginseng Extract
PROC 247741 Panax Ginseng
PROC 266194 Panax Ginseng
PROC 275957 Siberian Ginseng
PROC 282923 American Ginseng Root
Canada 202565 Ginseng Powder
Canada 220618 Korean Ginseng Tablets (Induced Sample1)
Canada 220810 Panax Korean Ginseng Capsules (Induced Sample1)
Canada 224183 Panex Ginseng Capsules (Induced Sample1)
Italy 274302 Ginseng
Italy 296097 Ginseng Dry Extract
Indonesia 195797 Powdered Ginseng (Domestic-Import sample; bulk product sampled @ Herbal Powers, Chicago IL)
Netherlands 261602 Ginseng Root
Switzerland 233364 Ginseng Powder
Taiwan (Republic of China) 285187 Ginseng Capsules

1Induced sample - product viewed on Canadian dealer's website and ordered undercover for mail delivery.


Attachment 4: Domestic Ginseng Violations FY 2003 and FY 2004
Sample # Product Violative Residue(s) Reported
101406 Korean Ginseng Capsules Difenconazole, Pentachloroaniline
173969 Korean Red Ginseng Capsules Procymidone, Pentachloroaniline
173987 Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
173988 Panax Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene.
186354 Time Release Korean Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197112 American Ginseng Capsules Pentachlorobenzene
197113 Korean Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197115 Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorbenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Piperonyl Butoxide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
197120 American Ginseng Capsules DCPA, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlororbenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
200488 American Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
208993 Pure Korean Ginseng Capsules 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
208994 American Ginseng Capsules DCPA, Pentachloroaniline, Pentaclorobenzene, Quintozene
208995 American Ginseng Capsules DCPA, Heptachlor Epoxide, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlororphenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
293284 Panax Ginseng Powder Extract (Raw Material Imported from PROC) Pentachloroaniline, Procymidone
293285 White Ginseng Powder (Raw Material Imported from PROC) Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
214794 American Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, DCPA, DDE p,p', Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
217962 Korean White Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, HCB, Quintozene
218850 Panax Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
218978 American Ginseng Capsules DDE p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
220667 Panax Ginseng Softgel Capsules Fluvalinate
220946 Korean Panaz Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, DDE p'p', HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene, Tecnazene
220948 Korean White Ginseng Root Capsules Quintozene
220949 Korean ginseng Root Capsules Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene,
220951 Korean Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
226211 American Ginseng Root Capsules Quintozene, Pentachlorobenzene
227252 American Ginseng Capsules Pentachlorobenzene
227254 Korean Ginseng Root Capsules Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
240412 American Ginseng Capsules Oxadixyl, Pentachloroaniline, Quintozene
240613 Korean Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
240618 American Ginseng Root Capsules Alpha BHC, HCB, Lindane, Pentachlorobenzne, Quintozene, Tecnzene
248496 American Ginseng Capsules DCPA, HCB, Heptachlor Epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorobenzonitrile, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
256505 American Ginseng Capsules Pentachloroaniline
256506 Korean Panax Ginseng Capsules Quintozene
257853 Korean Ginseng Root Capsules Quintozene
257854 Korean Ginseng Root Capsules Quintozene
257857 Korean Ginseng Root (raw material ginseng and finished product capsules) HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene
287692 American Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, DCPA, DDE p,p', DDT p,p', HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene, Tecnazene
284192 American Ginseng Capsules DCPA, Heptachlor Epoxide, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnzene
290461 Korean ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
290462 Korean Ginseng Capsules 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline, Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene, Tecnazene
290703 American Ginseng Capsules Lindane, Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
292008 American Ginseng Powder DCPA, DDE p,p', DDT o,p', DDT p,p', Pentachloroaniline, Pentachlorobenzene
292079 American Ginseng Fluid Extract Herbal Supplement Pentachloroaniline
297875 Tienchi Ginseng Capsules HCB, Pentachlorobenzene, Quintozene
297876 Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules Alpha BHC, Beta BHC, Delta BHC, HCB, Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide, Quintozene

Attachment 5: FY 2003 and 2004 Domestic Ginseng Samples - Non Violative
Sample # Product Description
115145 American ginseng Capsules
141627 Korean Ginseng Capsules
155785 American Ginseng Root (Glycerine Base, Fluid)
155787 Ginseng Capsules (Oriental Ginseng Root (Panex Ginseng) 50 mg & Siberian Ginseng Root and active base 350 mg)
173727 North American Ginseng Capsules
173986 Panax Ginseng Tea Bags
173989 Chinese Red Panax Root Ginseng Extractum (Fluid)
186355 Korean ginseng Capsules
197114 Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules
197116 American Ginseng Instant Tea
197117 Red Panax Ginseng Extractum (Fluid) (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of China")
197118 Korean Ginseng Root Extract Tonic for Tea
197119 American Ginseng Liquid Extract
214795 Korean Ginseng Capsules
217960 Red Chinese Ginseng Capsules
217961 Korean Ginseng Capsules
220943 Korean Ginseng Capsules
220947 Korean Ginseng Extract Capsules
220950 Korean Ginseng Root Capsules
220952 American Ginseng Extract (Fluid)
226208 Korean Ginseng Capsules
226209 Korean Ginseng Capsules (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of England")
226210 Korean Ginseng Capsules (collected as a domestic sample but labeled "Product of England")
227253 Korean Ginseng Root Capsules
227255 Panax Ginseng Extract Capsules
227404 American Ginseng Capsules
229276 Chinese Red Panax Ginseng Softgels
240615 American Ginseng Root Capsules
248498 Asian Chinese Red Ginseng Capsules
254481 American Ginseng Capsules
257852 Korean Ginseng (Raw Material)
257855 Korean Ginseng Capsules
287919 American Ginseng Capsules
289415 Korean Ginseng Capsules

Attachment 6: Violative Residues Detected - Action, Use, or Chemical Characterization
Residue Action/Use/Characterization
1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene Insecticide/Chemical Intermediate for Herbicides and Defoiliants
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloroaniline Metabolite of Tecnazene
Alpha BHC Insecticide
Beta BHC Insecticide
DCPA Herbicide
DDE p,p' Insecticide
DDT o,p' Insecticide
DDT p,p' Insecticide
Delta BHC Insecticide
Difenoconazole Fungicide
Dieldrin Insecticide
Endosulfan I Insecticide
Endosulfan II Insecticide
Endosulfan Sulfate Metabolite of Endosulfan (Insecticide)
Fluvalinante Insecticide
Heptachlor Epoxide Insecticide
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) Impurity of Quintozene
Lindane Insecticide
Oxidixyl Fungicide
Pentachloroaniline Metabolite of Quintozene
Pentachlorobenzene Impurity of Quintozene
Pentachlorobenzonitrile Metabolite of Chlorothalonil (Fungicide)
Pentachlorophenyl Methyl Sulfide Metabolite of Quintozene
Piperonyl Butoxide Insecticide
Procymidone Fungicide
Quintozene (PCNB) Fungicide
Tecnazene (TCNB) Plant Growth Regulator

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