Food

Survey Data on Lead in Women's and Children's Vitamins

August 2008

In early 2007, FDA became aware of reports of elevated lead levels in certain vitamins, which became an issue of concern to FDA, Congress, and the public. This survey was conducted to determine the content of lead (Pb) in vitamins labeled for women and children. The Pb content of 324 multivitamin-mineral products purchased over the Internet was determined using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.1 Cryogenic grinding was used to composite soft samples such as oil filled capsules and candy-like products such as gummies and jelly beans. The median and maximum mass fractions were 0.160 and 2.40 mg/kg, respectively. Only four samples exceeded 1 mg/kg.

Estimates of Pb exposures from consumption of products were derived by multiplying the maximum recommended daily serving provided by the label instructions by the Pb mass fractions (i.e., concentrations) determined in this study. The overall median value for Pb exposure was 0.576 µg/day. Five samples would have provided exposures that exceeded 4 µg/day, the highest being 8.97 µg/day. The highest exposure estimate for children's vitamins was 2.88 µg/day. Estimates of exposures were assessed with respect to safe/tolerable exposure levels that have been developed for particular age and sex groups. These safe/tolerable exposure levels are referred to as the provisional total tolerable intake levels (PTTI)2.

Estimates of Pb exposures for all products were below the PTTI levels for the at-risk population groups of children, pregnant and lactating women and adult women. Table 1 lists the PTTI levels and summarizes results for mass fraction and estimated exposure by population group. Median and maximum values were used instead of mean and standard deviation due to the skewed distribution of results toward lower mass fraction and exposure as seen in Figures 1 and 2. Table 2 provides a complete listing of Pb mass fractions and estimated Pb exposure values for the samples.

Table 1. Summary of Pb Results
Population Group PTTI
(µg Pb/day)
Estimated Exposure
median (µg Pb/day)
Estimated Exposure
max (µg Pb/day)
Mass Fraction *
median (mg Pb/kg)
Mass Fraction *
max (mg Pb/kg)
n
Young children (0-6 years) 6 0.123 2.88 0.0352 0.395 101
Older children (7+ years) 15 0.356 1.78 0.146 0.623 23
Pregnant or lactating women 25 0.845 8.97 0.220 2.40 75
Adult women 75 0.842 4.92 0.221 1.20 125
* i.e., concentration

Figure 1. Frequency Distribution of Pb Mass Fractions bar graph of Pb Mass fraction in mg/kg

Figure 2. Frequency Distribution of Estimated Pb Exposures bar graph of Pb Exposure in micrograms/day

Table 2. Sample Results Sorted by Population Group and Decreasing Estimated Exposure
Product Form Avg. Pb Mass Fraction,
mg Pb/kg
Estimated Exposure
µg Pb/day
Population Assessment Group
Nature's Plus Animal Parade Shake Powder 0.0799 2.88 Young children (0-6 years)
Superior Multi Age Powder 0.235 2.24 Young children (0-6 years)
Nutraceutical Pedia Power Tablet/Capsule 0.152 0.895 Young children (0-6 years)
Physio Kids Multilogics Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.220 0.761 Young children (0-6 years)
Ola Loa Kids Powder 0.0511 0.700 Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Animal Parade Tablet/Capsule 0.191 0.623 Young children (0-6 years)
Vita-Big-Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.168 0.557 Young children (0-6 years)
Wonder Laboratories Formula Nineteen Tablet/Capsule 0.0708 0.535 Young children (0-6 years)
Clinicians Choice Chewable Daily Multivitamins Tablet/Capsule 0.174 0.525 Young children (0-6 years)
Dynamic Health Multi for Children Liquid 0.0453 0.525 Young children (0-6 years)
Super Nutrition Perfect Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.395 0.522 Young children (0-6 years)
All One Kids Powder 0.0627 0.470 Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.327 0.455 Young children (0-6 years)
MultiBite plus minerals Tablet/Capsule 0.0844 0.447 Young children (0-6 years)
Kiddievite Liquid 0.0261 0.445 Young children (0-6 years)
Disney Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.252 0.342 Young children (0-6 years)
Rhino Dippin' Pops Candy-like 0.0411 0.295 Young children (0-6 years)
Emer'gen-C Jr. for Kids Powder 0.0308 0.286 Young children (0-6 years)
Floradix Kinder Love Children's Multivitamin Liquid 0.0119 0.284 Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkman Children's Multivitamin/mineral Tablet/Capsule 0.279 0.272 Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light Nutri Stars Tablet/Capsule 0.0558 0.261 Young children (0-6 years)
Centrum Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.138 0.250 Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkman Children's Chewable Wafers Tablet/Capsule 0.0948 0.246 Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light Kid's One Multistars Tablet/Capsule 0.0955 0.244 Young children (0-6 years)
Rainbow Light NutriStart Powder 0.107 0.232 Young children (0-6 years)
Vaxa Buddies Tablet/Capsule 0.143 0.215 Young children (0-6 years)
Kirkland Signature Chewable Children's Tablet/Capsule 0.0999 0.214 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.147 0.212 Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Kids Scooby Doo Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.161 0.209 Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Kids Bugs Bunny Tablet/Capsule 0.159 0.208 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.137 0.198 Young children (0-6 years)
Chewy Sour Worms Candy-like 0.0211 0.196 Young children (0-6 years)
Kordial Nutrients Pedia-vit Liquid 0.0190 0.194 Young children (0-6 years)
Family Value Multivitamin/Multimineral for Kid Tablet/Capsule 0.189 0.191 Young children (0-6 years)
Emergen-C Kids Multi-Vitamin Powder 0.0187 0.170 Young children (0-6 years)
Chewy Bears Multi-vitamin Candy-like 0.0561 0.166 Young children (0-6 years)
Pure Encapsulations PediaNutrients Tablet/Capsule 0.115 0.161 Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Factors Children's Chewable Multivitamin Tablet/Capsule 0.0266 0.154 Young children (0-6 years)
Life Solutions Chidren's Super Multivitamins and Minerals Liquid 0.0091 0.154 Young children (0-6 years)
VegLife Vegan Kids Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.0594 0.153 Young children (0-6 years)
Carlson for Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.0773 0.150 Young children (0-6 years)
InVite For Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.0363 0.147 Young children (0-6 years)
Vita-Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.0399 0.145 Young children (0-6 years)
For Kids Only Tablet/Capsule 0.0612 0.139 Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Animal Parade Gummies Candy-like 0.0161 0.132 Young children (0-6 years)
Chewable Maxi Health Tablet/Capsule 0.0204 0.131 Young children (0-6 years)
Gummy Bear Essentials Candy-like 0.0137 0.130 Young children (0-6 years)
Liquid Health Children's Multi Liquid 0.0041 0.126 Young children (0-6 years)
Jarrow Formulas KidBear Kids Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.0310 0.124 Young children (0-6 years)
Greens Today Childrens Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.0493 0.124 Young children (0-6 years)
MotherNature.com Tiger Bites Tablet/Capsule 0.0352 0.123 Young children (0-6 years)
The Vitamin Shoppe Liquid Children's Multi Liquid 0.0069 0.119 Young children (0-6 years)
Vitamin World Animal Chews Tablet/Capsule 0.0518 0.118 Young children (0-6 years)
A to Z Naturals Kitties for Kids Tablet/Capsule 0.0356 0.116 Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man Gummies Candy-like 0.0215 0.113 Young children (0-6 years)
Country Life Tall Tree Tablet/Capsule 0.0549 0.109 Young children (0-6 years)
Hero Yummi Bears Candy-like 0.0146 0.109 Young children (0-6 years)
One A Day Scooby Doo Plus Calcium Tablet/Capsule 0.0859 0.107 Young children (0-6 years)
Solaray Children's Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.0391 0.105 Young children (0-6 years)
Source Naturals Mega-Kid Tablet/Capsule 0.0368 0.103 Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Groovy Gummy Vites Candy-like 0.0192 0.103 Young children (0-6 years)
Vitamin World Children's Multi Gummies Candy-like 0.0198 0.102 Young children (0-6 years)
ChildLife Nutrition For Kids Liquid 0.0059 0.100 Young children (0-6 years)
NutriBalance Children's Formula Powder 0.0197 0.0986 Young children (0-6 years)
Spider-man Multivitamin with Extra C Tablet/Capsule 0.0650 0.0850 Young children (0-6 years)
Sea Buddies Daily Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.0452 0.0796 Young children (0-6 years)
Now Kid Vits Berry Blast Tablet/Capsule 0.0220 0.0779 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Plus Bone Building Support Tablet/Capsule 0.0591 0.0733 Young children (0-6 years)
Puritan's Pride Children's Multi Gummies Candy-like 0.0126 0.0708 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Sour Gummies Candy-like 0.0181 0.0685 Young children (0-6 years)
Benny Bears Tablet/Capsule 0.0397 0.0683 Young children (0-6 years)
Schiff Children's Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.0298 0.0670 Young children (0-6 years)
Kid-Vite Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.0569 0.0668 Young children (0-6 years)
Disney Gummies Candy-like 0.0118 0.0564 Young children (0-6 years)
Complete Children's Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.0272 0.0552 Young children (0-6 years)
Wild Vites Children's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.0248 0.0494 Young children (0-6 years)
Doctor's Trust Daily One Children's Chewable Tablet/Capsule 0.0493 0.0488 Young children (0-6 years)
Rhino Gummy Bear Vitamins Candy-like 0.0093 0.0472 Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Vita Beans Candy-like 0.0070 0.0376 Young children (0-6 years)
Liquimins Kids Multi Liquid 0.0065 0.0373 Young children (0-6 years)
Astra-Vites Tablet/Capsule 0.0140 0.0334 Young children (0-6 years)
Kangaroo Kids Nutra Chews Candy-like 0.0045 0.0295 Young children (0-6 years)
Nutrition Now Rhino Beanie Vites Candy-like 0.0055 0.0273 Young children (0-6 years)
Lil Critters Gummy Vites Candy-like 0.0053 0.0265 Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable Multivitamins Plus Iron Tablet/Capsule 0.0266 0.0230 Young children (0-6 years)
Nature's Plus Chidren's Vita Gels Tablet/Capsule 0.0360 0.0229 Young children (0-6 years)
NatraBio Children's Multivitamin Liquid 0.0019 0.0216 Young children (0-6 years)
Puritan's Pride Pre-Vites Tablet/Capsule 0.0197 0.0201 Young children (0-6 years)
Schiff Children's Multivitamin Liquid Liquid 0.0016 0.0195 Young children (0-6 years)
Rite Aid Children Chewable Vitamins with Iron Tablet/Capsule 0.0188 0.0179 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Gummies Candy-like 0.0042 0.0167 Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable Multivitamins Tablet/Capsule 0.0192 0.0164 Young children (0-6 years)
Flintstones Plus Immunity Support Tablet/Capsule 0.0114 0.0119 Young children (0-6 years)
Uno Diario Ninos Tablet/Capsule 0.0130 0.0114 Young children (0-6 years)
Natural Wealth Children's Chewable Multivitamins Plus Extra C Tablet/Capsule 0.0097 0.0100 Young children (0-6 years)
My First Flintstones Tablet/Capsule 0.0104 0.0092 Young children (0-6 years)
Kids Liquid Dolphin Pals Liquid 0.0013 0.0079 Young children (0-6 years)
Windmill Bite-A-Mins Tablet/Capsule 0.0092 0.0079 Young children (0-6 years)
NF Formulas Liquid Pediatric Liquid ND --- Young children (0-6 years)
Natrol Liquid Kids Companion Liquid ND --- Young children (0-6 years)
Twinlab Infant Care Liquid ND --- Young children (0-6 years)
Kal Enhanced Energy Teen Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.513 1.78 Older children (7+ years)
Clinical Nutrients for Female Teens Tablet/Capsule 0.177 1.14 Older children (7+ years)
Clinical Nutrients For Male Teens Tablet/Capsule 0.179 1.07 Older children (7+ years)
Doctor's Choice For Male Teens Tablet/Capsule 0.163 0.981 Older children (7+ years)
Maxi Teen Supreme Tablet/Capsule 0.623 0.942 Older children (7+ years)
Rainbow Light Active Health TEEN Tablet/Capsule 0.198 0.936 Older children (7+ years)
Nature's Plus Source of Life Power Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.313 0.931 Older children (7+ years)
FoodScience Teen's Superior Tablet/Capsule 0.117 0.928 Older children (7+ years)
Esteem Total Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.435 0.871 Older children (7+ years)
Vitanica Women's Symetry Tablet/Capsule 0.122 0.800 Older children (7+ years)
Thompson Teenplex Tablet/Capsule 0.146 0.500 Older children (7+ years)
Futurebiotics M. V. Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.235 0.356 Older children (7+ years)
Maxi Teen Supreme His Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.232 0.348 Older children (7+ years)
GNC Mega Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.168 0.339 Older children (7+ years)
Futurebiotics Derma Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.130 0.272 Older children (7+ years)
Good 'N Natural Ultra Teen Tablet/Capsule 0.137 0.265 Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Teen Girls Tablet/Capsule 0.129 0.262 Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Pre-Teen Girls Tablet/Capsule 0.123 0.248 Older children (7+ years)
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min For Teens Tablet/Capsule 0.122 0.240 Older children (7+ years)
Michael's Teen Boys Tablet/Capsule 0.0924 0.168 Older children (7+ years)
Michael's For Pre-Teen Boys Tablet/Capsule 0.115 0.104 Older children (7+ years)
Nutrition Now Zow for Teens Candy-like 0.0073 0.0371 Older children (7+ years)
Lil Critters Drop Zone for Teens Candy-like 0.0054 0.0276 Older children (7+ years)
After Baby Boost 1 Tablet/Capsule 2.40 8.97 Pregnant and lactating women
A to Z Naturals Wow! PreNatal Tablet/Capsule 0.622 5.52 Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin Source Prenatal Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.528 4.73 Pregnant and lactating women
Prenatal Superior Tablet/Capsule 0.453 3.93 Pregnant and lactating women
Rainbow Light Complete Prenatal System Tablet/Capsule 0.440 3.76 Pregnant and lactating women
Buried Treasure Prenatal Plus DHA Complete Liquid 0.112 3.76 Pregnant and lactating women
DaVinci Laboratories Ultimate Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.369 3.16 Pregnant and lactating women
Life Time Professional Pre-Natal Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.354 2.63 Pregnant and lactating women
Daily Foods Baby & Me Tablet/Capsule 0.248 2.37 Pregnant and lactating women
Carol Bond Women's Choice Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.392 2.24 Pregnant and lactating women
Karuna Maxxi-Natal Tablet/Capsule 0.263 2.16 Pregnant and lactating women
Solaray Pre-Natal Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.276 1.95 Pregnant and lactating women
Tyler Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.211 1.92 Pregnant and lactating women
KAL Vita Mom Advanced Tablet/Capsule 0.191 1.83 Pregnant and lactating women
Pre Natal mini's Essentials Tablet/Capsule 0.373 1.65 Pregnant and lactating women
GNC Women's Prenatal with Iron Tablet/Capsule 0.526 1.63 Pregnant and lactating women
Vita-vitamin Prenatal Formulation Tablet/Capsule 0.263 1.63 Pregnant and lactating women
Uno Diario Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.499 1.60 Pregnant and lactating women
Innate Prenatal Trimester I & II Tablet/Capsule 0.199 1.59 Pregnant and lactating women
Now Prenatal Caps Tablet/Capsule 0.278 1.50 Pregnant and lactating women
Vitanica Maternal Symmetry Tablet/Capsule 0.247 1.50 Pregnant and lactating women
Carlson Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.214 1.47 Pregnant and lactating women
After Baby Boost 3 Tablet/Capsule 0.448 1.42 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Source of Life Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.418 1.39 Pregnant and lactating women
Clinical Nutrients Prenatal Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.169 1.39 Pregnant and lactating women
Doctor's Choice Prenatal Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.165 1.37 Pregnant and lactating women
Super Nutrition Prenatal Blend Tablet/Capsule 0.152 1.34 Pregnant and lactating women
Rite Aid Prenatal Tablets Tablet/Capsule 1.13 1.31 Pregnant and lactating women
Herb Free Baby & Me Daily Foods Tablet/Capsule 0.151 1.22 Pregnant and lactating women
Feel Good Naturally Prenatal Plus Tablet/Capsule 0.216 1.19 Pregnant and lactating women
Clinicians Choice Prenatal Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.220 1.15 Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi Pre-Natal Tablet/Capsule 0.160 1.10 Pregnant and lactating women
Vegan Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.630 1.03 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Way Prenatal Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.215 1.02 Pregnant and lactating women
NutraOrigin Nutra Mother Tablet/Capsule 0.0932 0.950 Pregnant and lactating women
Source Naturals Mother's Choice Tablets Tablet/Capsule 0.130 0.924 Pregnant and lactating women
Daily Wellness Mother's Blend Tablet/Capsule 0.338 0.915 Pregnant and lactating women
Rainbow Light Prenatal One Tablet/Capsule 0.460 0.845 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Life Prenatal Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.132 0.844 Pregnant and lactating women
Solgar Prenatal Nutrients Tablet/Capsule 0.119 0.810 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Way Completia Prenatal Multivitamin Tablet/Capsule 0.128 0.792 Pregnant and lactating women
Early Promise Prenatal Multimineral Tablet/Capsule 0.143 0.776 Pregnant and lactating women
Nutri-west Pre/post Natal Minerals Tablet/Capsule 0.145 0.768 Pregnant and lactating women
Puritan's Pride Prenatal complex Tablet/Capsule 0.274 0.750 Pregnant and lactating women
Metagenics Fem Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.0999 0.720 Pregnant and lactating women
A to Z Naturals Prep For Baby Tablet/Capsule 0.103 0.682 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Basics Prenatal Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.101 0.673 Pregnant and lactating women
Perry Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.520 0.667 Pregnant and lactating women
Kordial Nutrients Prenatal Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.241 0.656 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Ultra Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.135 0.641 Pregnant and lactating women
Super Nutrition Simply One Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.306 0.638 Pregnant and lactating women
Thompson Prenatal formula Tablet/Capsule 0.363 0.633 Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.107 0.607 Pregnant and lactating women
Jarrow Formulas Tablet/Capsule 0.0697 0.599 Pregnant and lactating women
Spring Valley Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.485 0.591 Pregnant and lactating women
Twinlab Prenatal Care Tablet/Capsule 0.219 0.578 Pregnant and lactating women
Prenatal Complex Tablet/Capsule 0.189 0.546 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.274 0.509 Pregnant and lactating women
Progressive Woman Prenatal Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.190 0.505 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature Made Multi Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.348 0.499 Pregnant and lactating women
PureGels PreNatal Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.0804 0.469 Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin Power Pre-natal formula Tablet/Capsule 0.433 0.467 Pregnant and lactating women
Vitamin World Prenatal Vitamins Tablet/Capsule 0.282 0.406 Pregnant and lactating women
GNC Women's Prenatal Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.125 0.383 Pregnant and lactating women
NewChapter Organics Perfect Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.134 0.371 Pregnant and lactating women
Natural Wealth Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.323 0.366 Pregnant and lactating women
Stuart Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.331 0.353 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Bounty Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.284 0.324 Pregnant and lactating women
Maxi Health One Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.129 0.264 Pregnant and lactating women
Pure Encapsulations PreNatal Nutrients Tablet/Capsule 0.0995 0.224 Pregnant and lactating women
Pregnancy Plus Tablet/Capsule 0.223 0.189 Pregnant and lactating women
Natrol PreNatal Care Tablet/Capsule 0.0515 0.164 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Plus Prenatal Liquid Liquid 0.0033 0.116 Pregnant and lactating women
Nature's Sunshine Nature's Prenatal Tablet/Capsule 0.0835 0.0948 Pregnant and lactating women
After Baby Boost 2 Tablet/Capsule ND --- Pregnant and lactating women
NutriBiotic Ultimate Matrix Tablet/Capsule 1.20 4.92 Adult women
Super Nutrition Women's Blend Tablet/Capsule 0.453 4.58 Adult women
Esteem Total Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.861 3.61 Adult women
Garden of Life Living Multi Optimal Tablet/Capsule 0.367 3.53 Adult women
GenSpec VF-1 for African American Females Tablet/Capsule 0.562 3.40 Adult women
For Women Only Tablet/Capsule 0.171 3.27 Adult women
Garden of Life Living Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.391 3.24 Adult women
DaVinci Laboratories Spectra Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.319 2.91 Adult women
Women's Superior Tablet/Capsule 0.316 2.88 Adult women
GenSpec VF-3 para Mujeres Hispanas Tablet/Capsule 0.446 2.64 Adult women
Nature's Secret Morning MultiPLUS Tablet/Capsule 0.344 2.60 Adult women
Nature's Plus Woman's nutra Packs Tablet/Capsule 0.270 2.56 Adult women
NF Formulas Women's Forte Tablet/Capsule 0.213 2.44 Adult women
GenSpec VF-5 For Caucasian Females Tablet/Capsule 0.402 2.41 Adult women
Buried Treasure Women's Formula Liquid 0.0655 2.24 Adult women
Bronson Laboratories Performance Edge Tablet/Capsule 0.363 2.18 Adult women
Women's Plus MultiStart Tablet/Capsule 0.222 2.00 Adult women
More Than A Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.343 1.97 Adult women
Apex FIT Multivitamin Women's Tablet/Capsule 1.16 1.91 Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra Mega Active Tablet/Capsule 0.529 1.87 Adult women
Whole Source Complete formula For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.569 1.81 Adult women
Women's Maintenance AM Tablet/Capsule 0.241 1.78 Adult women
Rainbow Light Women's Answer Tablet/Capsule 0.188 1.75 Adult women
Pharm-Max Women's Extra Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.225 1.69 Adult women
Pioneer Chewable Vitamin Mineral Tablet/Capsule 0.130 1.69 Adult women
Women's Maintenance AM without Iron Tablet/Capsule 0.233 1.69 Adult women
Nature's Basics Women's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.316 1.56 Adult women
Longetivity Women's Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.214 1.50 Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra Mega Tablet/Capsule 0.355 1.49 Adult women
Nature's Plus Ultra Source of Life Tablet/Capsule 0.237 1.48 Adult women
GNC Women's Ultra Mega Time Release Tablet/Capsule 0.377 1.40 Adult women
HarmonicInnerprizes Lady's PQ Tablet/Capsule 0.465 1.40 Adult women
Preferred Plus Women's Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.749 1.31 Adult women
Women's DailyFoods Tablet/Capsule 0.261 1.30 Adult women
A to Z Naturals Wow! Women's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.262 1.29 Adult women
NewChapter Organics Every Woman II Tablet/Capsule 0.181 1.29 Adult women
Solgar Female Multiple Tablet/Capsule 0.185 1.24 Adult women
NutraOrigin Nutra Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.0822 1.21 Adult women
Women's One Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.611 1.21 Adult women
Lady Max Tablet/Capsule 0.338 1.15 Adult women
Active Woman's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.217 1.13 Adult women
True Fit Women's Immune System Boost Tablet/Capsule 0.288 1.13 Adult women
Doctor's Trust Ideal Multi For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.340 1.12 Adult women
Women's Twice Daily Essential Packets Tablet/Capsule 0.0801 1.08 Adult women
Women's Fitness FTW Menstrual Pak Tablet/Capsule 0.0727 1.07 Adult women
Eve Tablet/Capsule 0.222 1.07 Adult women
Uno Diario Mujeres Tablet/Capsule 0.650 1.05 Adult women
Douglas Laboratories Ultra Fem Tablet/Capsule 0.134 1.04 Adult women
Nature's Purest Ultra Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.306 1.03 Adult women
MotherNature.com Women's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.204 1.01 Adult women
Nature's Plus Source of Life Women Tablet/Capsule 0.231 0.980 Adult women
Futurebiotics Multivitamin Energy Plus Tablet/Capsule 0.270 0.978 Adult women
NewMark Women's Synbiotic Nutrients Tablet/Capsule 0.213 0.975 Adult women
Irwin Naturals Women's Living Green Tablet/Capsule 0.165 0.933 Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita Min For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.225 0.918 Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's Health Basics Tablet/Capsule 0.174 0.908 Adult women
Optimal Nutrition Opti-Women Tablet/Capsule 0.424 0.902 Adult women
Clinical Nutrients For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.146 0.901 Adult women
Kal Vitality For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.288 0.899 Adult women
Only Natural For Women Only Tablet/Capsule 0.326 0.894 Adult women
Scitec Nutrition Vita X for Women Tablet/Capsule 0.262 0.885 Adult women
FertilAid for Women Tablet/Capsule 0.267 0.844 Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's AM Multivitamins Tablet/Capsule 0.420 0.842 Adult women
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min High Potency Tablet/Capsule 0.205 0.832 Adult women
VitaSpecifix Women's Complete Tablet/Capsule 0.242 0.830 Adult women
Twinlab Women's Ultra Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.180 0.830 Adult women
Country Life Maxine Daily Multiple for Women Tablet/Capsule 0.207 0.781 Adult women
Good 'N Natural Ultra Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.191 0.777 Adult women
Every Woman's Inner Beauty Tablet/Capsule 0.257 0.774 Adult women
One 'n' Only Women's Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.446 0.766 Adult women
Natrol My Favorite Multi For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.180 0.761 Adult women
Swanson Women's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.299 0.753 Adult women
Women's Fitness FTW Pak Tablet/Capsule 0.0652 0.728 Adult women
Health Xpress Women's Mega Tablet/Capsule 0.221 0.722 Adult women
Priority One Women's Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.112 0.703 Adult women
True Fit Women's Weight Management Tablet/Capsule 0.197 0.688 Adult women
Rainbow Light Food For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.163 0.688 Adult women
Nature's Plus Especially Yours Tablet/Capsule 0.141 0.687 Adult women
Solaray Provide Tablet/Capsule 0.149 0.683 Adult women
VitaminLab Active Woman's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.133 0.682 Adult women
True Fit Women's Joint Releif Tablet/Capsule 0.186 0.666 Adult women
Puritan's Pride Mega Vita Min Iron Free Tablet/Capsule 0.164 0.650 Adult women
A to Z Naturals Womenwise Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.124 0.646 Adult women
Vitomegawomen Tablet/Capsule 0.197 0.642 Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.156 0.640 Adult women
GNC Soloday Tablet/Capsule 0.414 0.615 Adult women
Good 'N Natural Ultra Woman Iron Free Tablet/Capsule 0.154 0.611 Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Liquid Multi Liquid 0.0183 0.604 Adult women
Country Life Maxine A Daily Multiple for Women (Iron-Free) Tablet/Capsule 0.156 0.582 Adult women
21st Century Mega Multi For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.162 0.578 Adult women
Country Life Maxine Multi-Vitamin & Mineral Tablet/Capsule 0.151 0.574 Adult women
Olay daily energy pack Tablet/Capsule 0.171 0.574 Adult women
Good 'N Natural Women's Exclusive Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.160 0.554 Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita Min For Women Iron Free Tablet/Capsule 0.136 0.541 Adult women
One A Day Women's Tablet/Capsule 0.270 0.513 Adult women
Thompson Multi Formula for Women Tablet/Capsule 0.359 0.511 Adult women
Prevention Multivitamin & Mineral for Women Tablet/Capsule 0.213 0.491 Adult women
Solaray Twice Daily Multi Energy Tablet/Capsule 0.235 0.488 Adult women
The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate Woman No Iron Tablet/Capsule 0.121 0.483 Adult women
Greens Today Energy Boosters Tablet/Capsule 0.0967 0.480 Adult women
Rainbow Light Women's One Tablet/Capsule 0.257 0.466 Adult women
Puritan's Pride Women's Exclusive Formula Tablet/Capsule 0.134 0.464 Adult women
Biovaye Tablet/Capsule 0.337 0.449 Adult women
For Women Tablet/Capsule 0.113 0.443 Adult women
Nature's Bounty Multi-Day Women's Tablet/Capsule 0.246 0.427 Adult women
Innate Women's One Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.256 0.423 Adult women
Olay complete multivitamin Tablet/Capsule 0.243 0.416 Adult women
Daily Foods Women's One Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.249 0.411 Adult women
Sundown Women's One Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.223 0.391 Adult women
Clinicians Choice Women's PM Multivitamins Tablet/Capsule 0.257 0.372 Adult women
Super Nutrition Simply One Women Tablet/Capsule 0.167 0.344 Adult women
Jarrow Formulas Women's Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.135 0.338 Adult women
Nature Made Multi For Her Tablet/Capsule 0.183 0.305 Adult women
Vitamin World Mega Vita-Min Tablet/Capsule 0.156 0.286 Adult women
Liquid Health Women's Multi Liquid 0.0078 0.244 Adult women
NewChapter Organics Every Woman's One Daily Tablet/Capsule 0.132 0.239 Adult women
Viactiv Flavor Glides Tablet/Capsule 0.158 0.239 Adult women
21st Century One Daily Women's Tablet/Capsule 0.141 0.238 Adult women
Food Force Women's Force Tablet/Capsule 0.121 0.217 Adult women
Vitabase Woman's Multi Liquid 0.0066 0.209 Adult women
Kirkman EveryDay Tablet/Capsule 0.278 0.174 Adult women
MotherNature.com Women's Basic Multi Tablet/Capsule 0.155 0.158 Adult women
Family Value Multivitamin/Multimineral for Woman Tablet/Capsule 0.121 0.126 Adult women
Viactiv Multivitamin Milk Chocolate Candy-like 0.0149 0.0847 Adult women
FemOne Tablet/Capsule 0.0158 0.0146 Adult women

Notes:

  1. Average Pb mass fraction (concentration) based on replicate determinations (n = 2 to 7) of sample composite. ND: Not detected (below limit of detection of 0.0011 mg/kg and 0.0027 mg/kg assuming a 1 g and 0.4 g analytical portion for liquid and dry solid matrices, respectively).
  2. Estimated maximum daily Pb exposure from consumption of non-liquid product = [(average Pb mass fraction found, mg Pb/kg) x (unit weight of product in kg (powder = 1)) x (maximum recommended daily serving in quantity/day)]. Estimated maximum daily Pb exposure from consumption of liquid product = [(average Pb mass fraction found, mg Pb/kg) x (liquid density in kg/L) x (maximum recommended daily serving in L/day)].
  3. Assignment of population assessment group based on product description, label information and instructions for use.

References:

  1. 1Mindak, W. R., Cheng, J., Canas, B. J., Bolger, P. M. Lead in women's and children's vitamins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 6892-6896.
  2. 2Carrington, C. D., Bolger, P. M. An assessment of the hazards of lead in food. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1992, 16, 265-272.

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